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Editor:
Jean Ait Belkhir

jbelkhir@uno.edu

Managing Editor
Christiane Charlemaine

Race, Gender & Class
Sociology Department
College of Liberal Arts
(COLA)

Milneburg Hall Room 170
2000 Lakeshore Drive
The University of New Orleans
New Orleans, LA 70148

Phone: (504) 280-1209
Fax:  (504) 280-6302


 

Published Issues: Volumes 1-9

Volume 9

Race, Gender and Class in Psychology: A Critical Approach
Volume 9, Number 4, 2002, ISSN 1082-8354

Editors: Christiane Charlemaine, Michael O'Loughlin, and Evangeline A. Wheeler

Jean Ait Belkhir and Lenus Jack, Jr. Introduction (p3-8)

Christiane Charlemaine What Might MZ Twin Research Teach us about RGC Issues (p9-29)

Since the publication of Francis Galton’s work, monozygotic (MZ) twins have been studied as a living experiment to try and to clarify the nature/nurture controversy, and have been used and abused to support genetic determinism. Indisputably the twin method has been the workhorse of genetic determinism. This article addresses the more intriguing relationships between twins research and race, gender and class issues. As a subject of research, twin studies from a race, gender and class perspective are a complex and multidisciplinary pursuit. Genetic determinism drawn from twin studies based on the assumption that genetics predominates our environment in the transmission of human intelligence (often indexed by intellectual quotient [IQ] scores) is particularly suspect because it has circuitously become the core of racism, sexism and classism. The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the mainstream twin studies and to show the relationship between twin studies and race, gender and class issues related to intelligence and IQ measures. Keywords: twin studies, monozygotic, monochorionic, dichorionic, race, gender, class, genetic determinism, intelligence, intellectual quotient

Evangeline A. Wheeler "And, does it matter if he was racist?":Deconstructing Conceptsin Psychology (p33-44)

In teaching about theoretical concepts in psychology, we often fail to first consider the sociohistorical background in which those concepts were developed. If we conduct analyzes of the origin of many of the concepts used frequently in the field of psychology, we often uncover the insidious influence of race, gender, class and culture biases. The author proposes a three-part model to be used as a tool of race, gender, class and culture analysis, and suggests it be used in psychology and other academic disciplines to deconstruct the concepts we take for granted. Keywords: racism, teaching, Sankofa

Judith K. Bernhard Toward a 21st Century Developmental Theory: Principles to Account for Diversity in Children's Lives (p45-60)

If ‘culture’ is not simply treated as an additional influence or variable, as in Developmentally Appropriate documents and DSM-IV, then cultural studies lead one to conclude there is essential diversity in human development. The cultural context establishes the objectives which define individual and social development. Based on our studies of Latino immigrants, we propose principles providing a basis for a deep revision of developmental theory: some deal with knowledge production; others specify fundamental assumptions of systems theory—hierarchical organization, multiple pathways of development. We supply illustrative cases, which suggest, besides theoretical plausibility, the usefulness of the principles in understanding such situations. Keywords: developmental theory, innovation and revision, psychology, cultural issues, knowledge production, diversity, theories and practice, Latino studies, education

Ronald E. Hall The Class Initiatives of Intelligence Rhetoric: Implications of Racism for Scientific Inquiry ;(p61-70)

In a society that is not totalitarian, class disparities are enabled institutionally by science. A capital driven nation that associates intelligence with class and race can determine overall quality of life. Thus, perception of intelligence is an extremely powerful tool for reinforcing class. Seldom have scientists been more controversial than in their attempts to quantify intelligence on the basis of race. Racial models of intelligence provide a paradigm for class and given the correlation reflects a vivid illustration of how classism pervades the scientific community. In order to be better informed, scientists who conduct intelligence research must resist bias. In the aftermath, science will remain subject to flaws but enabled in its attempt to gather an accurate set of facts. Keywords: race, racism, class, intelligence, science

Lisa J. Schulte Similarities and Differences in Homophobia Among African Americans versus Caucasians (p71-93)

Three studies were conducted to examine both similarities and differences in homophobia among African Americans versus Caucasians. Study 1 focused on replicating past findings with Caucasian subjects, among African American subjects. Study 2 examined whether African Americans, compared to Caucasians, express greater negativity toward homosexuals. Study 3 focused on an explanation of differences in the level of negativity among African Americans versus Caucasians. In general, results suggest that while there are similarities in homophobia among African Americans versus Caucasians, differences exist in the level of negativity expressed. African Americans, compared to Caucasians, express greater negativity. A social role theory explanation of this difference is presented and tested in Study 3. Keywords: African American, Caucasian, deviation, gender role, homophobia, sex role theory

James E. Smith Race, Emotions, and Socialization (p94-110)

The connection between emotions and behavior is well documented. Emotions are an integral and significant aspect of human nature and the motivation for behavior. Research suggest that when people understand their own emotions, they have a chance to act appropriately on that understanding, connect with other people emotionally, and effectively interact to meet their needs and life’s goals. Gender and race were also associated with emotional intelligence (EQ-i). Females reported higher mean interpersonal score while males reported higher intrapersonal score. African-American subjects reported lower interpersonal, intrapersonal scores and lower total EQ-i scores than Caucasians. The empirical data and research suggest that the dynamics of the socialization process with regards to emotion and their behavioral expression are different for men and women and that the same is true for race. Thus understanding that men and women, and people or color are socialized differently and how they are socialized with respect to emotions can provide insight and meaning into the of behavior people, for more effective interpersonal and intrapersonal interaction. The results of this research further indicate that emotion as measured by the Bar-On EQ-i is a complex construct that has differential implications for people based on gender and race; which may have significant influence on the development and effectiveness of social, emotional learning and thus social interaction within multiple social levels and systems and for the practice effectiveness of social work and psychology. Keywords: emotion, behavior, emotional, social emotional learning, justice, race

Shanette M. Harris Father Absence in the African American Community: Toward a New Paradigm (p111-133)

This paper provides a critical review of African American father absence research and calls for a paradigmatic shift that emphasizes the value of investigating the effects of father absence as part of a transactional process. Existing theories have not adequately examined personal, interpersonal and family factors and specified how such variables might interact with other environmental factors to shape the father absence experience. This article views father absence as a stressor that can potentially give rise to additional stressors that can each increase childhood risks for maladaptive psychosocial and developmental outcomes. Empirical studies are reviewed and research directions are recommended. Keywords: father absence, family structure, paternal absence, father-child relations, African Americans, Blacks, socioeconomic status, fathers, parental role, child socialization, father involvement, mother headed households, mother-child families

Karen L. Lombardi Eracing the Simple Certainty of Difference: A Psychoanalytic Contribution (p134-146)

Racism, classism, and sexism are fostered not only through material conditions, but also through the privileging of difference common to Western intellectual thought. This essay turns to the unconscious of psychoanalytic theory, and especially to the theories of Melanie Klein and Ignacio Matte Blanco, with the hope of providing an alternate discourse on race, gender, and class within psychology. Racism, sexism, and the objectifications of class can be seen as thriving through what Klein describes as the projective identifications of the paranoid-schizoid position. Parts of the self, when split off or splintered and seen to reside only in the other, take the form of paranoid identifications, and relationships are impoverished. In the bi-logic of Matte Blanco, to maintain rich relationships with other people requires the simultaneous experience of the symmetry of empathic identification and the asymmetry of individual, subjective experience. Likewise, in Klein, the capacity simultaneously to identify with others and maintain the negativity of difference moves the individual from paranoid-schizoid modes of relating into more integrative and empathic modes. Personal examples are provided as illustrations. Keywords: racism and psychoanalysis, gender and psychoanalysis, Matte Blanco, Melanie Klein, David Bohn, projective identification, introjective identification

Jerry Gold The Failed Social Legacy of Interpersonal Psychoanalysis (p147-157)

This article explores the work of the founders of Interpersonal Psychoanalysis (Sullivan and Fromm), who expanded the intra-psychic focus of classical psychoanalysis by identifying the ways that social injustice and inequality eventuated in psychopathology. The failure of this school of psychoanalytic thought to continue the pursuit of a socially conscious theory and therapeutic system is discussed. Some of the professional, theoretical, and political reasons for the failure of successive generations of analysts to carry out this socially conscious legacy are explored. Finally, a model of psychoanalysis is presented in which theory and clinical work are informed by an in-depth exploration of each patient’s unique social, ethnic, economic, and political background and experiences. Keywords: Interpersonal Psychoanalysis, racism, poverty, discrimination, Fromm, Sullivan

Theresa A. Martinez The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois and the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldúa (p158-176)

Within sociology, the role of African American thinker and activist, W.E.B. Du Bois, as theorist and activist is well known. The work of Gloria Anzaldúa, however, while widely discussed in other disciplines is only beginning to be recognized by sociologists as they begin to review and discuss her work. Moreover, while African Americans and Latinos/as are often linked by researchers discussions of major social problems including housing inequity, drug use, and imprisonment rates, sociological researchers have paid scant attention to the links between Black and Latino/a thinkers. This paper provides an analysis of 19th century African American thinker W.E.B. Du Bois’ concept of the" double-consciousness" in relation to 20th century Chicana feminist thinker Gloria Anzaldúa’s concept of the "mestiza consciousness," among other aspects of their work, and argues that their work is related and represents resonant forms of oppositional culture or consciousness within a matrix of domination (Mitchell & Feagin, 1995; Collins, 2000). It is suggested that common threads of racial/ethnic and class oppression bind the works of these two thinkers, while discussion of issues related to gender and sexuality, lacking for the most part in Du Bois’ work, are developed more thoroughly by Anzaldúa.  Keywords: African Americans, Latina/os, race and ethnic relations, matrix of dominations, race, class and gender, deviance, popular culture

Michael O'Loughlin Is a Socially Responsible and Critical Psychology of Difference Possible? (p177-192)

In this article the hegemony of psychology, embodied in its power to "name, identify, classify, domesticate and contain" the Others of our world is queried. Because of its embeddedness in universalist and colonial scientistic epistemologies, psychology has been burdened by a tendency to "obliterate, silence and negate" the subjectivities of the non-normative Others of our societies. The case is made here specifically for the exclusion of critical interrogation of race and ethnicity from the daily discourses of psychology, though an equally forceful case could be made for class- and gender-exclusions. The article concludes with a series of recommendations that might set psychology on a path toward social justice and inclusivity, thereby making some reparation for the role it has historically played in contributing to the codification of difference and the perpetuation of racial inequality. Keywords: critical psychology, psychology of difference, critical race theory, postcolonial theory, racial identity, psychoanalysis

2000 Race, Gender & Class Conference (Part II) Volume 9, Number 3, 2002, ISSN 1082-8354

Editors: Jean Ait Belkhir, Lenus Jack Jr. and Christiane Charlemaine

Jean Ait Belkhir, Lenus Jack Jr., and Christiane Charlemaine Introduction (p3-8)

Rodney L. Brod and Karen M. Foote Multinomial Logistic Regression of Race and Gender Biases in Clerical Worker Wages (p9-29)

This article applies multinomial logistic regression (MLR), a quantitative statistical method, to reveal significant biases in beginning and current wages among race and gender groups of bank clerical workers. These wage differences persist even when holding constant education, previous work experience, age, and job seniority. This research extends a series of studies that advocate and/or demonstrate this quantitative method (Brod 1999; Brod and Fenelon 1999) applied to race, gender, and class (RGC) research. Keywords: multinomial logistic regression, quantitative statistical methods, race, gender and class, wage biases, clerical workers

Pamela N. Waldron-Moore Toward a Model of Eco-Political Activism: Differentiating the Impact of Race and Class (p31-60)

Efforts to determine what motivates individuals to take political action on environmental issues have not been wholly instructive. The vast literature on environmental behavior has identified correlates of environmental concern and some explanations for why some modes of political action are engaged in. This study attempts to develop a holistic explanation of eco-political activism by identifying pathways to political action. The results show that individual values and beliefs determine environmental concern and help develop ecological consciousness in individuals. This consciousness may lead to a perception of threat, which in turn influences participation in environmental policy-making. To the extent that psychological factors such as fear for the sustainability of the community and the nation are present and individuals feel threatened by environmental conditions, they are likely to take political action. Multivariate analysis revealed that individual values and beliefs explain 45% of the variance in ecological concerns, which explain 34% of the variance in publics’ perception of threat. The latter then explains 14% of the variance in eco-political activism. Both race and class offered interesting insight into why some may take eco-political action and others may not, although class indicators seemed a bit more helpful. Keywords: race, class, political action, environmental policy, ecological concerns, psychological factors, sustainability, politics and society

Richard K. Caputo Race, Region, and the Intergenerational Transmission of Grandmother-Grandchild Co-Residency (p61-75)

This study extends recent research in the area of grandparent-grandchildren relations. It uses National Longitudinal Survey data and logistic regression analysis to determine the likelihood that grandmothers who resided with grandchildren were also likely to have daughters who resided with grandchildren. Of 1098 co-resident grandmothers in the present study, 105 (9%) comprised the sub-sample of grandmother-grandchild mother-daughter pairs. Intergenerational transmission of grandmother-grandchild co-residency was four times more common among Blacks than among Whites, and twice as likely to occur in the South. Age at the time of the birth of one’s first child was inversely related to intergeneration transmission of co-residency, while socioeconomic status was positively related to it. No statistically significant differences were found by grandmother-grandchild mother-daughter pair status in regard to physical or mental health among co-resident grandmothers. Nonetheless, about 60% of older co-resident grandmothers reported health limitations in 1997, while 11—18% depending on grandmother-grandchild mother-daughter pair status reported levels of depressive symptomatology that placed them at risk. Keywords: Grandmothers, grandchildren, grandparents, intergenerational families Race, Region, and the Intergenerational Transmission of Grandmother-Grandchild Co-Residency

R. Kirk Mauldin The Role of Humor in the Social Construction of Gendered and Ethnic Stereotypes (p76-95)

Using content analysis, this article examines the role of humor in the process of socialization. Close examination of homophobic humor reveals a pattern of denigration which teaches individuals the undesirability of the homosexual role. Jokes equating homosexuals with excrement further reinforce their status as social pariahs, while another type of humor graphically illustrates and reinforces both common stereotypes and the supposed ability to recognize "hidden" homosexuals. While numerous stereotypes are discussed, the article shifts focus to how humor shapes our conceptualization of contextual power and our desire for the ultimate destruction of the out-group. The article concludes by showing that humor reflects the same socialization process with other disempowered groups, such as African Americans. Keywords: Homosexuality, Humor, Socialization, Stereotypes, Race

Ruby C. Lipscomb How to Help African American Daughters Survive in the New Millennium: An Empowerment Perspective (p96-100)

Unlike tying her shoe, empowerment is not something one can easily teach a daughter. Empowerment means nurturing positive attributes so that individuals can control their destinies. It is a cumulative process wherein lots of little successes lead a girl to expect success. Empowerment is the strength African American daughters need to soar against the wind of the new challenges in the New Millennium. In what ways can African American parents be instrumental in inculcating their daughters with a sense of inner strength and sense of empowerment as ballast against a society that infrequently celebrates their beauty, intellect and talents?

Carolyn Whitson The Sexual Boundaries of Race and Class in Working-Class Novels. Marrying Up and Living it Down/Marrying Down and Living it Up (p101-120)

As with other novels that take class issues for their emphasis, working-class novels with strong attention to sexual politics are often categorized elsewhere. The novels to be discussed here are more commonly examined as women’s literature, immigrant literatures or as literature by people of color (or "ethnic" literature). Authors, editors, publishers, and professors, in seeking a niche audience for these texts, will usually opt for these labels, for the working-class as a topic of discussion or analysis has rarely been seen (being perceived as limited in financial and educational resources by definition) as of interest to its subject-members. But these minority audiences or subjects are usually, due to their marginal status, perceived as poor, so working class issues (specifically poverty, violence, illness, oppression, struggle) are considered a subject of the conditions of an African-American novel or a lesbian novel.

Norma Smith Oral History and Grounded Theory Procedures as Research Methodology for Studies in Race, Gender and Class (p121-138)

This article describes a research methodology, the combined use of oral history and grounded theory procedures, that should be useful for the study of race, gender and class, and which, in particular, supports the SUNO-RGC Project's approach to race, gender and class studies as a foundation for strategizing social change/social justice. The article draws attention to the coincidence of oral history and grounded theory with principles of community organizing. It emphasizes the importance of understanding history and ideology in any social research. Keywords: methodology, oral history, grounded theory, activist scholarship, community scholarship

Jacqueline De Hon Identifying Links-of-Discrimination Related to Race, Gender, and Class
(p139-158)

Identifying links-of-discrimination related to race, gender, and class is vital to understanding ways cultural stereotypes reinforce and perpetuate discrimination against certain groups. By uniting—and by refusing to be "divided" and "ruled"—so-called "minority" groups can take their proper places in society. As in the movie, Revenge of the Nerds, groups can learn to see that—together—oppressed groups are the majority. I discuss ways elite groups use the media, scare tactics, fear, and ignorance to create and maintain separation between groups. I suggest that bridges can be built through communication, education, community-group-membership, diversified-neighborhood-pride, and so forth. Through education, aware-people can build bridges that link groups and form a solid basis for strengthening the community as a whole. In particular, General Semantics principles can be used as a tool to assist people in learning to understand and to respect The Other. An application of what I call "sympathetic-communication" can aid in achieving quality intercultural communication. Keywords: race/sexism, gender/sexism, class/classism, discrimination, stereotypes, dominant group, oppressed groups divide-and-rule

Renny Christopher Springsteen, Diallo, and the NYC Police: An Intersection of Race, Gender, and Class (p159-174)

Bruce Springsteen’s song, "American Skin," was written in response to the killing of a black immigrant from Guinea, Amadou Diallo, by four New York City cops. The NYC police protested; Lt. George Mole published an op-ed piece in which he writes, "I didn’t expect that Bruce Springsteen, poet of the working class, would turn his back on the working men and women who wear the shield." Yet the song does represent the police as well as the shooting victim, and places blame on the system of white supremacy which victimizes both. The lines of controversy surrounding Springsteen’s song bring together race, class and gender. The protest by the cops is based in class; the defense of the song by critics of the cops is based in race. The song, the protest and defense of the song, and the incident on which the song is based are all about our "American Skin," our American wallets, our American guns.  Keywords:  rock music, working class, immigrants, police brutality, African American

Marta López-Garza   Convergence of the Public and Private Spheres:  Women in the Informal Economy  (p175-192)

In this paper, I present a critical finding of my research on the informal economy: the fluidity with which women created and negotiated "space," crossing borders between the public and private spheres. I provide the ways in which women in the study moved between these spheres, spheres which overlapped one another—where public and private responsibilities occurred in the same space, at the same time. In these spaces, women combined their household obligations with their economic responsibilities, brought children and work together and the private and public into one sphere of negotiated space.    Keywords: informal economy, women's studies, immigration studies, chicano/latino studies, theories of urban space

2000 Race, Gender and Class Conference and Others
Volume 9, Number 2, 2002, ISSN 1082-8354

Editors: Jean Ait Belkhir, Lenus Jack Jr. and Christiane Charlemaine

Jean Ait Belkhir, Lenus Jack, Jr. and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction (p3-7)

Clayton Dumont Jr.   Dead Family or Archaeological Collections?: On the Significance of Native Dead (p8-31)

The paper is an analysis of scientific claims on Indian dead. I make three central arguments. First, the scientific community must acknowledge the political, cultural, and historically-contingent character of its claims on native remains. Secondly, until scientists are willing to treat their epistemological desires as cultural phenomena, and therefore as not inherently superior to Indian understandings, the much-called-for cooperation with the tribes will not progress beyond its current, very immature stage. Thirdly, few scientists have yet to enunciate a desire for such equality of perspectives. The paper outlines the state of the debate over repatriation and reburial of remains, contains extensive excerpts of interviews with five Klamath Indians who share their perspectives on archaeologists and anthropological desires, and concludes with a deconstruction of recurring scientific arguments for resisting the return of ancestral dead to living Native Americans.  Keywords: Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, archaeological ethics, Klamath Tribe, history of science

Andrew Perchard   'Bonnie Fighters': Class Consciousness and Solidarity in the Scots Coalfield, c. 1947-1960  (p32-46)

"We have always been proud of our international connections, and the fact that we miners have always been at the very vanguard of the working class."  "Miners had a special place in the mythology of struggle which set them apart from others."   Both of these remarks reflect the special status which miners were viewed in and in which they viewed themselves. This paper will, drawing on both existing literature and recently researched empirical material, argue that Scots miners, sometimes in direct contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in the British coalfield were particularly class conscious and exhibited this through their solidaristic class actions on a local, national and international basis. It will further argue that there were specific reasons for a heightened sense of class consciousness in mining communities and additionally, factors in the Scots coalfield which gave it its distinct radical class hue. These in turn led to a highly developed set of community and union based structures which reflected the symbiotic relationship between pit and mining community and were so influential, also, in navigating the Scottish Trades Union Congress (STUC) and the major Marxist political party of the left in Scotland at the time; the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB).

Marta I. Cruz-Janzen   Lives on the Crossfire: The Struggle of Multiethnic and Multicultural Latinos for Identity in a Dichotomous and Racialized World   (p47-62)

We live with a "box mentality" (Cruz-Janzen, 1997). We have internalized a strong need to categorize, segregate, and oppress one another. Someone has to be the majority, superior, stronger, better; someone else has to be the minority, inferior, weaker, lesser. While this is common to most human societies, race has remains uniquely powerful in the United States—so powerful that terms such as race, ethnicity, and national origin have become interchangeable (Davis, 1998) and, concomitantly, highly misleading and volatile. While the U.S. does state that its racial categories include both racial and national origin groups (U.S. Census 2000), it fails to acknowledge and/or address the pervasive and augmenting popular association of race with ethnicity, persons of color, and particularly groups from certain countries and/or continents; this at a time when clarification is crucial for national unity and the well-being of its ascending diverse population.

Beverly Mason   Roads to Power: A case Study of How Egyptian Working-Class Women Realize Economic and Social Power  (p63-84)

This paper is an examination of how urban working-class Egyptian women engage in income-generating activities at the micro level within the dynamics of a global economy. More specifically, the study explores the work women engage in as they occupy and challenges spaces defined by powerful forces beyond their control. The broad question discussed, then, is how do gender relations impact the world system, and how does this system impact gender relations. The paper examines how women, as economic actors at the local level, interact with and influence the national and international arena, as they make their lives in both the public and private spheres in Africa. Divided into four sections, the paper presents: theoretical frameworks that address the dynamics of Third World women within the world system; a brief presentation of the historical forces that place women in their context; contemporary concerns and women’s everyday realities; and a discussion of the involvement of women in varied laboring activities.

Magalene Harris Taylor "Martha Stewart as a Sociological Phenomenon"   (p85-99)

This paper will explore individual economic success as sociological enterprise. Sociological discourse is utilized to analytically explore the historical and social impact of Martha Stewart on the institutions of family and work while simultaneously acknowledging a relationship to the dimensions of race, class and gender. In essence, this unique mix of history and sociology will highlight the contributions of one woman to two major socializing institutions, work and family—through yet a third medium of socialization, the media.

Ronald E. Hall   A New Perspective on Racism: Health Risk to African-Americans  (p100-111)

The sociological has dominated perspectives on racism in America. By virtue of skin color, African-Americans have become the focal point for various forms of racism as would be suggested by Affirmative Action. Exacerbated by racist media images, the prevailing social climate has compromised Affirmative Action and given rise to abuse by law enforcement. Based upon the constant prevalence of racism in public life African-Americans as a group suffer from abnormally high blood pressure. The result is a health risk manifested by correlation between skin color and hypertension. A new perspective on racism would necessitate same as health risk to African-Americans.  Keywords: racism, health risk, hypertension, African-Americans

Linda Kalof, Thomas Dietz, Gregory Guagnano and Paul C. Stern   Race, Gender and Environmentalism: The Atypical Values and Beliefs of White Men   (p112-130)

We explored the links between race, gender and environmentalism by examining differences in values (altruism, self-interest, traditionalism and openness to change) and proenvironmental beliefs (New Ecological Paradigm). Analysis of survey data from a random sample of U.S. residents revealed significant differences between Whites, Blacks and Hispanics in values and beliefs, but gender differences existed only for Whites. Of the ten observed significant differences in means, seven were differences between White men and other subgroups, with White men scoring lower than one or more other groups on the belief measure and all four value measures. These results suggest that the attitudes of White men in the U.S. are anomalous, perhaps because of their historically privileged position regarding risk and power in society.

Subdipta Das   Loss or Gain? A Saga of Asian Immigration and Experiences in America's Multi Ethnic Mosaic  (p131-155)

In recent years, the diversity within the Asian-American population and their varied, often contrasting patterns of immigration and experiences have been recognized and underscored in American multi-cultural studies. While an extensive amount of published works continue to concentrate on the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean experiences, the migrations of other significant racial and ethnic groups from across the Pacific have only begun to unfold. One of these newest and less examined immigrant groups is the arrivees from India, who had until recently been relegated to insignificance under the designation of "others" in American official documents. Their separate racial identity and demographic status was recognized only in the 1980 U.S. Census report, under the rubric of "Asian Indians." Being the most rapidly expanding immigrant group with the highest number (46%) of the total H-1B visa petitions filed (India Abroad, 1999:38), and with education and income levels higher than those of most of the 5.1 million Asian-Americans, this group deserves more attention and analysis than it has so far received.

Yitchak Haberfeld and Dafna N. Izraeli   Gender Inequality in Majority and Minority Groups in Israel  (p156-185)

This article is an empirical test of Almquist’s (1987) hypothesis that gender inequality is greater among groups with greater resources because men in the dominant group appropriate the surplus, whereas men in the most disadvantaged groups are forced to be more egalitarian. Using census data and multivariate logistic analyses, we examine gender differences in labor force participation, occupational status and income in eight ethnic- generational class groups in Israel: Israeli- born Jews, first- and second- generation Western Jews, first- and second- generation Eastern Jews, Moslems, Christians, and Druse. Almquist’s hypothesis is not supported by our data. We argue that gender inequalities are better explained by the structural advantage of men from the dominant group who control the allocation of resources for all groups. This advantage is augmented by economic development and differential opportunities for the accumulation of wealth. It is tempered by the protection provided by ethnic labor market enclaves.  Keywords: gender inequality, Israeli- born Jews, first- and second- generation Western Jews, first- and second- generation Eastern Jews, Moslems, Christians, and Druse

The intersection of Race, Gender, and
Class in Social Service and Social Welfare
Volume 9, Number 1, 2002, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editors: Eric Swank and Keith M. Kilty

Eric Swank and Keith M. Kilty  Introduction   (p4-7)

Elisabeth B. Erbaugh   Women's Community Organizing and Identity Transformation  (p8-32)

This paper addresses how women’s community organizing alters participants’ relationships to dominant social and political institutions. I conducted participant observation and interviews in a multi-ethnic, working-class organization which combines two community organizing models: a relational model and an institutionally-focused model. Members of the organization collectively critiqued dominant ideologies and public policies about welfare and engaged in dialogue with political authorities about economic issues. In these processes, experiences of collective identity formation and personal identity transformation increased members’ political motivation and sense of empowerment relative to the welfare system and other dominant institutions. I argue that the implications of identity formation and transformation are important in evaluating the success of community organizing efforts.  Keywords: community organizing, identity, welfare, gender, race and class

Augustine J. Kposowa, Glenn T. Tsunokai, & Edgard W. Butler   The Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Schizophrenia: Individual and Neighborhood Contexts  (p33-54)

The purpose of the study was to investigate racial/ethnic disparities in mental health diagnoses. In particular, it was anticipated that the effect of race/ethnicity on the risk of diagnosis for schizophrenia would remain even after controlling for neighborhood characteristics. Logistic regression models were fitted to individual data from the Riverside County (CA) Department of Mental Health and contextual data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census (N = 18,533). Substantial racial/ethnic diagnostic variations were found. African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (psychoses) than whites. Men were substantially more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than women. Neighborhood characteristics improved model fit, but they did not substantially reduce or eliminate the impact of race/ethnicity or gender. Clients from communities marked by high unemployment and poverty were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than those from low unemployment neighborhoods. Keywords: race/ethnicity, schizophrenia, community, diagnosis, clinicians

Rachel Lanzerotti, Michael Mayer, Wendy Ormiston & Laura Podwoski   Racism in Queer Communities: What Can White People Do? (p55-71)

This article describes a collective effort by four White queer Master of Social Work students to address racism in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQQ) communities in San Francisco. The authors combined commitment to take action for racial justice with their master project for the San Francisco State University School of Social Work (2000), by conducting a practice project entitled "Racism in Queer Communities: What Can White People Do?"  In consideration of a practical application of social work to social justice, this article specifically will focus on the workshop component of the project and will explore the theoretical development and methodology of the workshops, as well as their successes and challenges.  Keywords: racism, racial justice, white privilege, queer, LGBTQQ, popular education, workshop

Ellen Reese   Resisting the Workfare State: Mobilizing General Relief Recipients in Los Angeles  (p72-95)

This article is a case study of ACORN’s campaign to organize welfare-to-work participants ("workfare workers") in Los Angeles’ General Relief (GR) program, most of whom are African-American or Latino. Workfare participants had various grievances, including health and safety violations and lack of training and employment opportunities. In the 1990s, Los Angeles County supervisors also reduced GR grants and adopted a five-month time limit for welfare receipt. ACORN’s campaign to "end workfare as we know it" illustrates the potential for building an effective grassroots, gender-integrated, multi-racial organization of welfare recipients. By strategically framing welfare issues as "workers’ issues", using disruptive protest tactics, and working in alliance with other groups, ACORN won, or helped to win, important policy concessions for GR recipients at the state and local level.  Keywords: general relief, welfare reform, workfare, welfare rights, social movements, labor movement, community organizing

Cherise A. Harris   Who Supports Welfare Reform and Why?  (p96-121)

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 has dramatically changed the face of the welfare state. Many authors have argued that prejudiced attitudes toward minorities and the poor, and attitudes concerning the value of work shape public support for welfare reform. However, the impact demographic membership has on these variables and how this translates into support for welfare restrictions remains somewhat unclear. The findings of this study show that, in general, racial attitudes have a smaller impact on support for welfare restrictions, where attitudes toward the poor and attitudes toward work are more salient indicators of support. Additionally, respondents' race and gender are moderate indicators, while income is insignificant to support for welfare restrictions. Lastly, differences in attitudes by race and gender suggest that support for restrictions differs according to social location.  Keywords: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Temporary Assistance to Neddy Families (TANF), Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), welfare, welfare reform, attitudes toward welfare

Robert Carr Stigmas, Gender and Coping: A Study of HIV+ Jamaicans   (p122-144)

 This study investigated the nature of social stigmas poor urban and rural HIV+ Jamaicans contend with in their daily lives, and their coping strategies. Poor HIV+ Jamaicans (7 women and 8 men) from urban and rural settings were interviewed in depth. Stigmas found were related to fears of contamination in the general population. A gendered hierarchy was also present since men were less stigmatized than women and women less stigmatized than men who failed to meet community standards of masculine behavior. Women reported high levels of psychological and physical abuse. A strong link was found between the treatment of poor HIV+ Jamaicans and the abuse sanctioned for sex/gender transgressors. Dominant coping strategies were secrecy, family support, and religion.  Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Jamaica, stigma, homophobia, sexuality, gender, poverty, spirituality, abuse, discrimination

Donna Baines Radical Social Work, Race, Class, and Gender (p145-167)

This study of left-of-center social workers in Toronto, Canada found that workers employed in politically engaged, community settings tended to formulate race, class, gender in as a dynamic whereas workers employed in bureaucratic, depoliticized settings used more limited and segmented formulations. The article shows how single strand formulations limit our capacity to talk about any one of these social relations on its own conjunction with other axes of oppression. Concluding with a look at work place resistance, this article calls for the development of anti-racist, anti-sexist, and class conscious social work that resonates with the depoliticizing conditions that exist today.  Keywords: radical social work, race, class and gender

Chishamiso T. Towley   The Maternal Socialization of Black Adolescent Mothers  (p168-184)

This qualitative research study examines the meaning of motherhood for African American adolescent mothers. The research focused on the context and content of maternal messages received by young African American females in a social service program. It contributes to the burgeoning body of empirical literature, which attempts to look more critically, subjectively and holistically at their maternal socialization experiences. The study concludes that while some adolescent mothers are able to find positive and self-affirming ways to express maternal identity, they continue to negotiate with negative and stigmatizing messages about themselves, some of which are conveyed by institutions with which they engage. Implications for service delivery, policy and program development are considered.  Keywords: black, adolescent, socialization

Volume 8

Race, Gender & Class in Media
Volume 8, Number 4, 2001, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor: Cecelia Baldwin

Jean Ait Belkhir & Lenus Jack, Jr. Introduction  (p3-7)

Cecelia Baldwin   The Development of Rhetorical Privilege in the News Reporting of Violent Crime  (p8-19)

This study explores the linguistic presentation of violent crime in news reporting and reveals how rhetorical patterns created a distorted media.  This distortion subsequently created an extension of privilege granted to the dominant culture and/or to high economic status.  Specifically, this study examined the term boy and other child oriented linguistic attributes that projected rhetorical imagery that in turn alleviated responsibility for crimes committed.  Included in the study are several high profile cases of violent crimes that have had highly saturated media coverage where a rhetorical alleviation of responsibility was repeatedly given to the dominant culture and repeatedly denied to diverse cultures. Keywords: media, journalism, criminology, news reporting, linguistics, race, gender, and class

Meenaskshi Gigi Durham  Adolescents, the Internet, and the Politics of Gender: A Feminist Case Analysis  (p20-41)

This case study is based on field observation of the first hands-on Internet sessions experienced by a group of lower-income minority teenagers in a inner-city middle school.  Using feminist analysis to interrogate the social dynamic within which the Internet use took place, I explore how new technologies are appropriated by adolescents as a site of social bonding.  I conclude that the adolescents users' social locations in terms of gender, race, and class work to constrain Internet use to support dominant relations of power.  Keywords: adolescents, gender, Internet, new media, teenagers

Shahrzad Mojab  The Politics of "Cyberfeminism" in the Middle East: The Case of Kurdish Women  (p42-63)

Cyberspace has already emerged as an important site of political struggle, compelling various social forces to extend their 'real world' activism to the world of electronic 'virtuality.'  While the state and the market continue their scramble for the control of cyberspace and its 'netizens', some citizens resist the virtualization of life, which they see as a new, more aggressive, form of  domination and dehumanization.  Feminists have actively participated in this political struggle and are sharply divided over the question of 'empowering' women through activism in the virtual space.  This paper examines the politics of feminist struggle in cyberspace by focusing on the experience of using the Internet as a means of advancing feminist studies and activism among the women of the non-state Kurdish nation.  The paper begins with a brief review of the debate on new communication technologies and political struggle.  It will then sketch the lives of Kurdish women who are denied the right to national, cultural and linguistic identities, the right to self-rule, the right to organize, and are, consequently, engaged in a bitter nationalist conflict, which overshadows feminist activism.  Reflecting on the experience of the International Kurdish Women's Studies Network, the paper offers a critique of both the 'optimist' (technological determinist) and 'pessimist' (technophobic) approaches.  Keywords: Kurdish women, globalization, cyberactivism, cyberfeminism, women and technology

Bertram D. Ashe "Hair Drama" on the Cover of Vibe Magazine  (p64-77)

This study consists of a cultural reading of the cover photograph of the June-July 1999 issue of Vibe magazine. It explores the relationship between Mase, an African-American male rap star, and the three anonymous African-American female models that surround him. The study interprets the cover through the long, straightened hair of the models, locating the models’ hair in a historically-informed context of black hair theory and practice. The study argues that the models’ presence on the cover, particularly their "bone straight and long" hair, "enhances" Mase in much the same way breast-augmented "trophy women" "enhance" their mates. Ultimately, the study encourages and validates a wide variety of black hair styles—including straightening—even as it urges the acceptance of black hair as a site where the demonstration of the struggle for black consciousness (however one exhibits that consciousness on his or her head) can be observed. Keywords:  African-American hair, hip hop culture, African American music, beauty

Robin Hardin & Marcie Hinton  The Squelching of Free Speech in Memphis: The Life of a black Post-Reconstruction Newspaper  (p78-95)

Since the appearance of New Orleans’ L’Union, the first black newspaper in the South in 1862, two currents have flowed through the rhetoric of the black press. These currents of opposition to white racism and the assertion of self-determination created a watershed of nationality in the black community. While there were hundreds of short-lived black newspapers around the turn of the century, few offered a more popular and powerful voice than that of the Memphis Free Speech. And, few newspapers black or white, had such a prime playing field as it did. Firstly, Memphis was a prime location with a large African-American community, which dealt with widespread hostility among the races. Secondly, Ida B. Wells, who was the editor of the paper during its final years, was a bold and remarkably talented woman. The small black Memphis newspaper served as Wells’ springboard as an influential voice of black America in the early twentieth century. This paper examines the life and the subsequent demise of the Memphis Free SpeechKeywords:  Ida B. Wells, Memphis, Black Newspapers, Censorship, Memphis Free-Speech

Katherine N. Kinnick, Candace White & Kadesha Washington   Racial Representation of Computer Users in Prime-Time Advertising  (p96-115)

A content analysis of 437 prime-time television commercials depicting 938 people using computers revealed that commercials clearly represent the world from a white perspective. While people of color were well represented, men of color where under-represented. Women and children of color were depicted in the workplace or school, while white women and children were portrayed in both home and work/school roles. African-American men were significantly more likely to be portrayed as celebrity or athletes.  Keywords: racial representation in television commercials, computer advertising, race and technology, advertising stereotypes

Melinda M. Schwenck   "Negro Stars" and the USIA's Portrait of Democracy   (p116-139)

From 1952-1961, the U.S. Information Agency addressed the nation’s race problems with films about "Negro stars." This paper analyzes how the USIA’s films appropriated the lives of five internationally celebrated African Americans to provide visual evidence that American democracy fostered individual freedom. The author describes the political context that motivated the USIA to rely almost solely upon the Horatio Alger myth and celebratory discourse in its portrayals of African Americans.  Keywords: Government propaganda, race, civil rights, visual persuasion, cultural diplomacy, Marian Anderson, Ralph Bunche, Wilma Rudolph, Rafer Johnson. Althea Gibson, democracy

Jane L. Twomey   Newspaper Coverage of the 1992 Los Angeles Uprising   (p140-154)

Coverage of the 1992 Los Angeles uprising in The Korean Times and the Los Angeles Sentinel reveals that both minority newspapers symbolically constructed the event and their community’s role in it within the borders of a re-articulated, white-dominated racial hierarchy. This hierarchy, part of a larger racial ideology constructed and maintained for the benefit whites, is a powerful tool in the maintenance of white hegemony in the United States. The author argues that by constructing their news coverage in such a way, both groups symbolically sought white validation, thereby supporting the superior position of whites and reducing the possibility of any inter-ethnic alliance that might substantially challenge white hegemony.  Keywords: 1992 Los Angeles uprising, hegemony, minority media, racial hierarchy, racial ideology, white validation

Radharani Ray   Interrogating Race in Mississippi Masala  (p155-175)

This essay argues against race as a signifying claim and contends that Mississippi Masala supports that view. The critique demonstrates how the social meaning of race is constructed by the interaction between existing beliefs about racial differences and the exigencies of the particular situation. Informed by Hall, ideology is understood as a structure that constrains practice, yet meanings assigned to individual practices and events constantly produce and reproduce that structure. I contend that Mississippi Masala carries a resounding argument about the ambiguity, the concealing effect, and the oversimplification of racial categorization. This interpretation of Mississippi Masala reveals how race becomes primarily a socio-political discursive construction.  Keywords: race, class, ideology, Mississippi Masala

Joann Lee   Asian American Actors in Film, Television and Theater: An Ethnographic Case Study  (p176-184)

Images from Hollywood as well as television are a dominant part of American culture, often mirroring and even shaping our perceptions of society. With the push towards multiculturalism the myth of a white dominated Anglo America is undergoing redefinition from a multitude of ethnic voices. This study examines how Asian American actors deal with constraints within film, television, and theater in the context of being a minority in an industry where physical appearance—in particular racial features—play a key role to success. Narratives from veteran and aspiring Asian American actors provide insights into how this minority is coping with shifts in opportunities and attitudes in casting for films, television and theater.  Keywords: Asian American, media, images, film, theater, television, acting, race, gender, barrier

Amazigh Voices: The Berber Question
Volume 8, Number 3, 2001, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Co-editors: Ahcène Larbi and Mackie Blanton

Ahcène Larbi   Prologue  (p5-6)

Mackie Blanton   Foreword - Amazigh Light  (p7-11)

Ahcène Larbi and Rabah Seffal   Interview with an Amazigh Sociologist   (p12-24)

Rabah Kalhouche   Socio-Historical Determinations of Loan Words from Arabic to Kabyle (Berber)  (p25-32)

Rachid Aadnani   Resistance as a Linguistic Practice in Mohammed Khair-Eddine's.  Légende et Vie d'Agoun'chich  (p33-56)

This article considers the manner in which the Tamazight (Berber) language is deployed to undermine official cultural constructs that surpress crucial aspects of Moroccan and Maghrebian identities. It also examines how the Francophone text can be used both to give voice to a repressed culture and challenge the very medium in which it is written, even as it exposes the cruelties that the French inflicted on the Amazigh populations of the Atlas mountains during colonial military campaigns in North Africa.  Keywords: Tamazight (Berber) language, cultural constructs, Maghrebian identities, colonial military campaigns in North Africa.

Abderrahman El Aissati   Ethnic Identity, Language Shift and the Amazigh Voice in Morocco and Algeria  (p57-69)

Although Berber is known to be the indigenous language of the populations of North Africa for over thirty centuries, it has never been promoted to the status of a standard language, let alone that of an official language of any of the states where it is traditionally spoken as a mother tongue. Since the late 1960s, a revival movement has been striving for official recognition of Berber. Some recent events in Morocco and Algeria serve as proof of a limited success of this movement; but as a result of growing urbanization, education (mainly in Arabic and French), and emigration inside and outside Morocco, the threat of a massive language shift is greater than ever. This paper explores the paradoxical constructs of ethnic identity and linguistic identity in Morocco and Algeria, and highlights their role in the revival movement. In the light of these constructs, it deals with (i) the factors that energize the revival movement, (ii) the factors that impede the official recognition of Berber and its standardization, and finally (iii) the prospects for the survival of Berber.  Keywords: Berber, North Africa, ethnic identity, linguistic identity, Marocco, Algeria.

Daniela Merolla  Questioning Gender, Nationalism and Ethnicity in the Maghreb:  Voices of Women in the Kabyle Literacy Space   (p70-101)

My paper will focus on the interactions between gender and community in oral and written narratives from Kabylia. Since the eighties, the studies on multiethnic and multicultural societies have progressively been concerned with the intersections between gender, race, and ethnicity. Other researches have discussed the construction of gender in the colonial discourse and in the nationalist movements of the Middle East. It is not by chance that these two streams of research draw together when we look at the construction of gender and community in the Kabyle context both the women's question and the so-called Berber's question were central issues in the making of Algeria. Until this aspect, the field of Berber studies calls attention for the issue of gender and minorities that has scarcely been treated in the critical apprehension of Nationalism and Orientalism.. Looking at Kabyle oral narratives, we find a gendered (dominant) discourse constructed around the Kabyle community/Islamic Umma relationship. A counter discourse in female terms takes place in the delineation of Kabyle women's models, but it finds insuperable limit in the acceptation of the encompassing patrilineal system. Turning to novels by women's writers from Kabylia, we find a conflicting and dramatic relationship between Kabyle identity and women's identity. Yet, these texts reveal a preliminary 'female' project for the construction of a renewed Kabyle community, a construction that is inextricably linked to the problematic relationship between Kabylia and Algeria.Keywords: multiethnic, multicultural, intersections gender, race, ethnicity, Berber’s question, Algeria, Berber studies

Tassadit Yacine  Women, their Space and Creativity in Berber Society   (p102-113)

Women are naturally associated with cultural production, especially in traditional areas relegated historically to women in their own respective societies. We can therefore sketch out the broad outlines of a tight relationship between women and folk art. Pottery, weaving, home decoration, decoration of grain storage compartments, embroidery, etc., are all women's ways of doing in many cultures. Such is also the case with many regions of the Amazigh world, and, of course, with that of the Kabylia homelands of Algeria and the Shleuh homelands of Morocco. The division of labor between sexes, which includes the cultural production of both the physical and the material, entails the intellectual production as well. Overcoming historical obstacles that impinge upon them on the socio-political level as well, Amazigh women have learned to exist as producers. Some Amazigh women chronicle the psychology of such an existence in both poetry and song.Keywords: Amazigh women, Kabylia, Shleuh

Amar Almasude  Protest Music and Poetry in the Rif   (p114-134)

After independence, an elite of plutocrats and religious scholars monopolized the political and economic power in Morocco. As a consequence, vast masses of the population were marginalized, and resistance began to gain momentum in certain regions. The Riffians in the North of Morocco were leaders of this resistance. Given its strategic position bordering Algeria and the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, on the Mediterranean Sea, the Rif [The northern part of Morocco is usually called the Rif and is inhabited by a population speaking Riffian or Tarifit. Tarifit is a variant of the Tamazight language common to all Imazighen.] developed a solid economy based on smuggling and emigration. However, this economic system impacted Riffian society in ways that might be both negative and positive. These experiences are articulated in the works of Amazigh artists, who committed their lives to expressing concerns about the future of their people. This paper is intended to help understand various themes of their songs, which include modernity, emigration, education, capitalism, and democracy.  Keywords: Amazigh artists, songs, modernity, emigration, education, capitalism, democracy

Salem Chaker  Berber Challenge in Algeria: The State of the Question   (p135-156)

Even for the non-expert observer of the Maghreb, the Berber parameter has now become an essential element of the political, social, and cultural scene in both Algeria and Morocco. In Algeria, since 1989, a whole series of spectacular actions confirmed the significant adherence of the Kabyle population to the Berber claim. The latest demonstrations across the region by Kabyle youth in June-July 1998, following upon the assassination of Lounes Matoub, remind us that the embers of Berberism are ready to be fanned into flames at any time. In Morocco, the August 29, 1994 royal address in favor of the teaching of Berber took place in a quieter landscape, but it truly represents the rise of a Berber aspiration. Albeit admittedly lacking organization and political character, the Moroccan political power machine undoubtedly wanted to anticipate and neutralize it to avoid a possible evolution in "the Algerian way." This paper will be limited to a presentation of an update of the situation of the "Berber question" in Algeria, the forces involved, its actors, and the recent and current developments. Keywords: Magrheb, Berber, Algeria, Marocco, Kabyle, Berberism, Algerian way, Berber question

Jean Ait Belkhir and Bernice McNair Barnett   Race, Gender and Class Intersectionality  (p157-174)

This article has been published in a book on Race, Gender & Class Studies entitled: "Introduction to Sociology: A Race, Gender & Class Perspective," 1999, Race, Gender and Class Publications. The book is a collaborative RGC project in which many different sociologists, with expertise in their particular subfield areas, have written a chapter introducing the topic from a race, gender, and class perspective. There are 9 Units, composed of 24 chapters, covering major subfields in sociology. Each introduces basic theories, concepts, and research on the topic as well as provides thought questions, suggested readings, and extensive bibliographies useful to students and professors. Reprinting this article from the book will provide a better idea about trace, gender and class studies.

Marxism: Race, Gender & Class
Volume 8 Number 2, 2001, ISSN 1082-8354

Susan Archer Mann & Michael D. Grimes  Common and Contested Grounds: Marxism and Race, Gender and Class Analysis  (p3-22)

This special issue is devoted to a debate between Marxism and Race, Gender and Class analyses. In our view, the necessity for such a debate reflects seismic changes in social structures, both locally and globally. Therefore, we introduce this special issue by first grounding this debate in the social, economic and political conditions that have given rise to paradigmatic shifts in the understanding of social inequalities and to new and competing scholarships of liberation.

Martha E. Gimenez  Marxism, and Class, Gender, and Race: Rethinking the Trilogy  (p23-33)

This paper examines the soundness of critical assessments of Marxism which present, as an unassailable conclusion, the view that Marx and Marxism are of little use for the study of the connections between class, gender and race. Arguing that, contrary to the prevailing view, Marx and Marxism are indeed necessary for elucidating the relationship between class and identities, the author examines the limitations of the Race, Gender & Class perspective and suggests that the nameless power underlying all "raced, gendered, and classed" interactions is none other than class power and that, consequently, the RGC perspective needs Marxism to go beyond semantics (e.g., the endless proliferation of terms to name the connections between class, gender and race) and fulfill its avowed theoretical and emancipatory objectives. Keywords: Marxism, class, gender, race

Celine-Marie Pascale  All in a Day’s Work. A Feminist Analysis of Class Formation and Social Identity  (p34-60)

In this paper, I explore the mutual production of racialized, gendered, and classed identities in the United States. After a brief theoretical overview that includes Marxist theories of class, theories of racial inequality, and feminist Marxism, I turn to an historical account of proletarianization in the United States between 1860 and 1920. In concluding, I analyze the division of labor and the development of class consciousness in the United States by taking into account the legal and social restrictions that enforced racialized and gendered conceptions of citizenship. Keywords: gender, race, class consciousness, inequality, U.S.

Richard Hogan  Class, Race and Gender Inequality  (p61-93)

Class, race, and gender are theoretically distinct forms of "categorical inequality," rooted in "exploitation" and "opportunity hoarding," reproduced through "emulation," and institutionalized through "adaptation." These distinct forms of inequality are relatively autonomous, but their relative importance and autonomy varies socially and historically. They follow, in general, the dialectical relations of institutional political and economic development, on the one hand, and political opportunity and challenge, on the other. In the U.S., for example, class, race, and gender inequality develop and change in the course of capital accumulation and state making as these engender and respond to cycles of collective action by various class, race, and gender interests that challenge institutionalized inequality in the course of its development. The rise and fall of class, race, and gender inequality between 1776 and 1929 illustrates the potential of this perspective. This exploratory analysis suggests that race and gender were the predominant economic relations and political interests in the Antebellum political economy. After Reconstruction, however, class and gender economic relations and political interests became more prominent as white male capitalist privilege was challenged. Keywords: political economy, social theory, social history: U.S. 1776-1929

Derek V. Price  The Praxis of Critical Empiricism: Race, Class, Gender and Social Justice  (p94-116)

Marxist scholarship and research on the intersections of race, class, and gender are linked analytically through the concept of hegemony. Hegemony refers to the struggle between agents for and against the social transformation of dominant structures. While most scholars who utilize a race, class, and gender framework agree that social science and education should be used to challenge social inequities, the strategies of this struggle are often contentious. In this paper, I argue against the reification of statistical techniques as implicitly dominating, and for a critical empiricism as a form of counter-hegemonic praxis. In addition, I advocate for the connection of theory and practice in the classroom in terms of radical pedagogy. Race, class, and gender research provides empirical and narrative facts of ongoing social inequality, while also presenting educators with analytical tools to "meet students where they are at." This essay offers a constructive way to connect research on race, class, and gender with praxis for social justice. Keywords: inequality, social change, education, consciousness

John Foran  "Studying Revolutions through the Prism of Race, Gender and Class: Notes toward a Framework"  (p117-143)

The intersection – or perhaps, better put, interconnection – of race, class, and gender has become a cutting-edge issue in critical sociological work today. While the sociology of revolutions has finally begun to address issues of gender and, to a lesser degree, race, there is as yet no agreement on how to integrate these three principles of social stratification for the analysis of revolutions. This essay synthesizes some recent work on Latin American revolutions in an effort to draw out lessons for studying the role played by diversely situated actors in the making of revolutions in Latin America and what difference these actors have made in the outcomes of revolutions (and conversely, how revolutions have affected the lives of those who made them). It assesses such topics as the nature of revolutionary coalitions, the opportunities and constraints for participation, and the impact of race, class, and gender on the imperfect outcomes of Latin American revolutions. Keywords: revolutions, Latin America, race, class, and gender

Jean Ait Belkhir Marxism without Apologies Integrating Race, Gender, and Class: a Working Class Approach  (p142-171)

The Marxist analysis of capitalism has never been more necessary than under the world capitalist economy of today. Does capitalism have the capacity to end racism, sexism and classism, to abolish economic and cultural inequality, to eliminate exploitation and domination, to reconcile environment, technology and society? No way. The reality is that capitalism stops at nothing to maximize profits even if it means destroying our planet and exploiting its people. It always has been, and so long as capitalism dominates our economic and social system, it always must be. Anti-Marxism may have its moment, but the struggle for social justice against racism, sexism and classism will continue to haunt them; because, as Marx said, we believe that the full development of all should be the conditions of the full development of each.

Race, Gender & Class in Education (Part 2)
Volume 8 Number 1, 2001, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Co-Editors: Deborah B. Smith and Karen A. Johnson

Jean Ait Belkhir, Deborah B. Smith, Lenus Jack Jr. Introduction to Race, Gender and Class in Education (p3-7)

This is an appeal to the readers of this journal to more closely examine intersections of race, gender and power in your writing because such materials are needed to teach future teachers and educators in general (Carl Grant et al., 2000).

Valerie Maholmes Revisiting Stereotype Threat: Examining minority students’ attitudes toward learning mathematics and science (p8-21)

This paper invites the reader to examine the minority student achievement gap through a different conceptual lens. Drawing on the work of Claude Steele and his notion of "stereotype threat", the author explores whether elementary and secondary students’ attitudes toward learning mathematics and science reveal signs of stereotype threat. The author discusses the value of looking at student achievement through this conceptual framework and poses suggestions for the ways in which educators and parents can support students’ learning and school performance.  Keywords: mathematics, science, attitudes toward learning, parent involvement, minority student achievement

Barbara Signer & Deborah Saldana Educational and Career Aspirations of High School Students and Race, Gender, Class Differences  (p22-34)

The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between high school students’ aspirations (educational and career), their mathematics achievement levels, ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status with their parents’ education and occupations. One hundred secondary students (50 African American and 60 white) were interviewed from low-SES urban and high-SES suburban school communities. Chi-square analyses of relationships between the student variables and the parents’ education are reported. Differences in the relationships between the students' aspirations and their mothers’ and fathers’ education levels are presented. Significant relationships were detected for the interaction of mathematics achievement and ethnicity with student educational aspirations. Keywords: student aspirations, high school students, parental education, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mathematics achievement

Stacey J. Lee Exploring and Transforming the Landscape of Gender and Sexuality: Hmong American Teenaged Girls (p35-46)

Young Hmong American women and girls are in the process of transforming the landscape of gender and sexuality within their communities. This paper examines the inter-generational conflict over the transformation of gender and sexuality, and considers the impact of the conflict on students' schooling experiences. The inter-generational conflict between immigrant parents and their daughters is examined within the broader conflict between the Hmong culture and the dominant US culture. The paper concludes with suggestions for educational policy and practice. Keywords: Hmong, Immigrant, gender & education

Ming Fang He & JoAnn Phillion Trapped In-Between:  A Narrative Exploration of Race, Gender, and Class (p47-56)

Our purpose is to explore issues of race, gender, and class from a narrative point of view that focuses on personal experience. Two three-year narrative studies are used as the basis for this discussion. One study focused on three Chinese women teachers in-between cultural experiences in Canada and China. The other study focused on one Black teacher's experiences in a multicultural school in Canada. In both inquiries understandings of race, gender, and class and the impact on identity development, grew out of the personal and professional life experiences of participants. In this paper we discuss what we learned from the studies, the complexities of cross-cultural understandings of race, gender and class, and the potential contribution narrative methods of inquiry offer to developing new perspectives on these issues. Keywords: cultural experiences in Canada and China, cross-cultural understandings of race, gender and class

Pauline Lipman, Eric Gutstein  Undermining the Struggle for Equity: A Case Study of Chicago School Policy in a Latino/a School June 1, 2000 (p57-81)

This paper examines implications of Chicago school policies for educators and students in one Latino/a elementary school. We argue that although Chicago’s centrally regulated accountability measures may resonate with demands to improve the education of low-income children of color, current policies actually undermine the struggle for an empowering, equitable education for African Americans, Latinos, and other students of color. We develop this argument through three themes drawn from our qualitative data: 1) current Chicago Public Schools policies frustrate the efforts of some teachers at the school to promote critical literacy; 2) the policies counter curricula and pedagogies rooted in the language, culture, lived experiences, and identities of Latino/a students; and 3) the current policies reinforce ideologically the myth of individual achievement and meritocracy. Finally, we suggest some elements of a framework for a more liberatory education – one that is rooted in a sociocultural analysis of educational failure and that supports critical literacies that are grounded in students’ language, culture, and experiences. Keywords: Latino/a elementary school, literacies, Chicago school policies

María Elena ReyesTortured Victory or Joyful Accomplishment? Successful Eskimo and Latina College Students  (p82-106)

The data from this study indicated that the quality of education offered in the public high schools both in Texas and in Alaska often poses a serious barrier to minority students’ later achievement at college. Students reported showing up for college unable to perform college work. Academically unprepared students in Texas made use of campus labs during their first two years of college to build up their skills. Students in the Alaska study typically spent one or two years taking ‘developmental’ classes prior to taking regular college course work, a pattern that delayed degree completion by several years. In addition, evidence suggested that campus climate continues to be a challenge for students who cited instances of perceived bias, racism or discrimination. It is clear that these students continue to be negatively impacted educationally by the societal barriers of race, gender and class. Keywords: Latinas and Alaska Natives, University of Texas at Austin University of Alaska Fairbanks, societal barriers of race, gender and class

Dave Ramsaran Education in a Multi-Racial Society: Race Class and Patriarchy in Collusion
(p
107-126)

This paper examines the experience of a small multi-cultural developing society, Trinidad and Tobago, in its attempt to increase educational access to all in society. It is suggested that though significant strides have been made with respect to increasing overall access to education, other factors influence in which tier of a two-tiered system one gets into, namely race, gender and class. To understand Trinidad and Tobago society and to account for the interaction of the different races and cultures in both a historical and contemporary situation, the creole society thesis is utilized. To understand the unique position of women within the society the theory of multiple patriarchies which coincides with different ethnic groups is used. The data used are both country level data and data generated by a Standard of Living Survey conducted among a sample of households. A combination of binary, multinomial and ordered logistic regressions is used to analyze the data. Keywords: education, race, gender, class.

Alan Singer Wanted - Theories and Research that Explain Privilege and Oppression in Education and U.S. Society (p127-138)

Educators concerned with ways that United States institutions address issues related to race, gender, ethnicity and class, especially inequality and injustice, are participating in the development of postmodern explanations of education and society that emphasize the ways that subordinated groups describe their own experiences. These approaches contest the hegemony of received truth by demonstrating that the same institutions a society describes as democratic, pluralistic, open, and able to meet the material needs of its citizens, are experienced by many people as discriminatory and oppressive. But despite their challenge to hegemonic assumptions, postmodern approaches have limitations. While they expose examples of privilege and oppression, they are less successful at explaining the complex relationships within and between groups, the historical roots of privilege and oppression, their resiliency within societies, and their points of vulnerability. The concepts of privilege and oppression, as applied by postmodernist educational theorists, can be critical concepts for understanding race, gender, ethnicity and class in education and society, but only when they are applied in the context of a broader explanation of a class stratified society. Keywords: Postmodernism, privilege, oppression, race, class, gender, ethnicity

George J. Sefa Dei Rescuing Theory: Anti-Racism and Inclusive Education (p139-161)

In this paper I present anti-racist thought and practice as resistant responses to dominant structures and knowledges. The discussion is contextualized in some personal reflections on contemporary racist practices and the relevance of anti-racism for educational and social transformation. I utilize the response of student-teachers to classroom readings on anti-racism, with a particular gaze on education and its role in the learner’s pursuit of a politics of resistance, subversion and transformation. The paper argues that material, symbolic and ideological representation and practice help define our myriad of identities as students, learners, educators and political activists. A key question is: how can education help to address the problem of racializing subjects? The comments of student teachers to anti-racist discursive thought and practice point to the desires and perils of anti-racism and suggest ways for educators to take up the challenge of transformative politics. I argue that all learners can begin where they are at by striving for knowledge of their own intersecting and interlocking racial, gender, class and sexual identities. Keywords: race, anti-racism, difference, identity, student-teachers, education and change, Canada

Jeanne Weiler Alternative Visions: (Re)Fashioning Female Gender Identities Within an Urban Classroom (p162-183)

Using Bernstein"s theory of pedagogic practice, this paper explores how an invisible pedagogy (an integrated curriculum) benefits young adolescent female students attending a school for educationally disenfranchised students. Based on field work, the paper also focuses on those aspects of the curriculum-in-use which positively impact on the gender identities of young working class women emphasizing both skills and knowledge which may help them to more critically examine and negotiate unequal relations at home and in the workplace. Keywords: urban females, adolescents, working class, Latinas, curriculum, career education, gender identity, alternative schools

Volume 7

Race, Gender & Class in Social Work and Practice
Volume 7, Number 4, 2000 ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Co-Editors: Beverly Favre and Rose Wilson

Jean Ait Belkhir, Beverly Favre, Lenus Jack Jr.Introduction to RGC and Social Work Practice Special Issue (p3-6)

B.J. Bryson & Claudia Lawrence-Webb Social Work Practice and Profession: The Utility of Black Feminist Thought  (p7-17)

Black feminist thought is introduced, defined and examined as a theoretical perspective and model for professional social work practice. Developed by and for Black women, its utility may serve to alter the methods used with similar marginalized client populations. The significance of historical socio-economic context, the intersections of oppression and culturally specific survival tactics are discussed as omitted themes in practice. Mutuality of the client - worker experience is encouraged through prioritizing client self-definition and direction of problem resolution. Professional social work is discussed for greater inclusion of marginalized perspectives. Keywords: Black feminist thought, social work practice, survival tactics, inclusion of marginalized perspectives.

Colleen M. Galambos & Sherri Lind Hughess  Using Political and Community Activism to Develop Leadership Skills in Women   (p18-35)

A review of the literature suggests that there is gender variation in the use of leadership, power, and influence. This article discusses the results of an exploratory study that examined socialization influences and participation in political and community activism on the personal development of female social work students. From a qualitative perspective, the study explores the influence of these activities on women’s development in the areas of leadership, influence, use of power, and collaboration. Recommendations are offered on ways to enhance leadership skills and opportunities for women.  Keywords: leadership, power, influence, women’s development, political and community activism

Stan L. Bowie, Carol Dutton Stepick & Alex Stepick III  Voices From The Welfare Vortex A Descriptive Profile of Urban, Low-Income African American Women on the Eve of Devolution   (p36-59)

The preliminary study is a longitudinal, ethnographic profile of 20 welfare-reliant African American women in urban Miami who are experiencing the transition from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) to Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF). Data were collected through repeated, in-depth interviews over an 18-month period and respondents were assessed regarding family patterns and history, family health status, employment experiences, income sources, and expenditure patterns. Dominant themes from their welfare reform experience are isolated and respondent quotations are provided regarding life on welfare, employment prospects and the impact of immigrants, job training programs, the need to compromise self-respect and dignity for survival, and hope and family aspirations.  Keywords: African American women, welfare reform, PRWORA, ethnographic, Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF), Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)

Walter J. Pierce & Erlange Elisme  Suffering, Surviving, Succeeding: Understanding and Working with Haitian Women  (p60-76)

The oppressions of race gender and class intersect quite clearly in the lives of Haitian immigrant women. Coming from a society where color and class indicate privilege and access to resources, Haitian immigrant women who are black and poor find opportunities here. Social workers must learn to use empowerment models to overcome the effects of race, gender and class in services to this population.  Keywords: Haitian, ethnic-sensitive, race, class gender, immigrant, social work practice

Jorge Delva, Alma Trinidad & Brenda Jarmon  Characteristics of Welfare Recipients That Seek Drug Treatment in the U.S.   (p77-90)

Little is known about factors that facilitate seeking drug treatment, particularly among vulnerable populations and among members of racial and ethnic minorities. This paper compares the characteristics of welfare recipients who seek and do not seek drug treatment and tests the effects of mental health problems on help-seeking, using a national representative sample of 199 white, 371 black, and 138 Hispanic adults living in U.S. households.  Keywords:  race/ethnicity, drugs, welfare, treatment, mental health

William F. Stewart   Social Worker Empowerment: Race, Gender, and Class Factors   (p91-98)

The concept of empowerment comes out of social action ideology and the class struggle, and the minority civil rights and feminist movements of the 1960s and 1970s contributed to a growing concern about the powerlessness of specific groups in society. Social workers are concerned with empowerment of their clients and particularly those who have suffered victimization and oppression but social workers may experience problems with their own empowerment A survey of a purposive sample of 126 public and privately employed social workers using a self administered questionnaire was completed. The study examines the level of perceived empowerment of the respondents and relates perceived empowerment to race, gender, and social class variables. The analysis shows no significant difference by race or social class overall, but there are statistically significant differences by gender and education level.  Keywords: empowerment,
social workers

Delores Dungee-Anderson & Leavelle A.Cox   Conflicting Gender Role Perceptions Among Middle Class African American Males and Females   (p99-120)

This paper examines interpersonal violence between middle-class African American male college students and their female partners. Gender role perceptions have been found to be an important predictor of courtship violence. African American female college students in intimate partner relationships tended to view gender roles as more egalitarian while their male partners viewed males as dominant in the relationship. For effective social work intervention with African American couple victims of courtship violence, social work practitioners must respect and embrace these divergent views of gender roles. They must also incorporate empowerment, ethnic and gender-sensitive perspectives in social work practice to both recognize and address the male’s direct confrontation with negative societal stereotypes of himself as a "deficient" and aggressive member of society. A case study illustrates gender role perception differences and empowerment, ethnic and gender-sensitive social work practice interventions.  Keywords: interpersonal violence, middle-class African American, social work intervention.

Thanh V. Tran & Kathleen McInnis-Dittrich   Social Support, Stress, and Psychological Distress Among Single Mothers   (p121-138)

We conducted this study in a nationwide sample of 394 single mothers aged 24 and older to determine whether social support helps to reduce the negative impact of parental stress and financial stress. The major outcome variable was psychological distress. Three models of the stress process were analyzed empirically: the protective, moderator, and preventive models. The data provided support for the protective and preventive models. The findings from the protective model indicated that social support can protect single mothers from the negative impact of both parental stress and financial stress. The preventive model indicated single mothers with good social support could avoid the negative impact of both parental and financial stress. Implications for social work and policy are discussed.  Keywords: Stress process, stress modeling, parental stress, financial stress, single parent

Rich Vodde   De-centering privilege in social work education: Whose job is it anyway?  (p139-160)

Although social work has positioned itself as a champion of social justice within the helping professions, it appears that an adequate job is not being done in Social Work education in sensitizing students to issues of power and oppression. It is the author's contention that a major reason for this lapse is due to manifestations of privilege, particularly white male privilege, in social work education. As an active process, 'to privilege' can be defined as "to give special attention or attribute priority to an argument, an event or a text" In the following paper, the author offers evidence for this contention as well as an analysis of privilege and a framework for challenging manifestations of privilege in faculty and students.  Keywords: power, oppression, white male privilege, social work education, privilege

Richard K. Caputo   Multiculturalism and Social Justice in the United States:  An Attempt to Reconcile the Irreconcilable within a Pragmatic Liberal Framework  (p161-182)

This paper seeks to reconcile multiculturalism and traditional U.S. liberalism properly understood. The paper rests on the premises that fruitful discussion aimed at establishing truthful statements of fact about social reality is possible despite irreconcilable perspectives and that such discussion is essential for democracy. It rejects arguments positing that pragmatic approaches to solving seemingly irreconcilable problems lack a foundation to get the facts about social reality right or that liberalism lacks a moral basis on which to make judgments about the limits of tolerance. The paper discusses the multivalent nature of multiculturalism, the contested nature of social justice, the philosophical underpinnings of liberal democracy, and implications for social policy that take into account ethnicity/race, gender, and class.  Keywords: multiculturalism, liberalism, social justice, ethnicity/race, gender, and class

Race, Gender & Class in Education (Part 1)
Volume 7, Number 3, 2000, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Co-Editors: Deborah B. Smith and Karen A. Johnson 

Foreword: Deborah B. Smith & Karen A. Johnson   Race, Gender & Class in Education  (p4-5)

Jean Ait Belkhir, Lenus Jack Jr, Deborah B. Smith   Introduction to Race, Gender and Class in Education  (p6-10)

Carl A. Grant, Kim Wieczorek, & Maureen Gillette  Text Materials and the Intersections of Race, Class, Gender and Power  (p11-34)

This article is an appeal to the readers of this journal to reflect on and write with such intersections in mind, especially when writing materials for teacher education contexts. The obstacles that often prevent an intersection analysis in teacher education text materials include isolated and superficial public discussion of the separate markers as well as their intersections, fear of conflict in discussions, and the lack of availability of models for writing and reading to reflect on such materials. The case of writing an Introduction to Education textbook is used to examine the constraints and challenges when writing text materials for foundational teacher education classrooms. Challenges include lack of models of intersection analysis in writing, the need to be sensitive to the audiences of a foundational textbook, and lack of an acknowledgment of the need for intersection analysis in peer review and promotion hearings, especially for teacher educators who are also scholars.

Angela Louque and Helen M. Garcia   Hispanic American and African American Women Scholars  
(p
35-57)

The purposes of this study were to examine the factors that contribute to the attainment of the Ph.D. degree by Hispanic American and African American women, to provide insights about high achieving Hispanic American and African American women that reflect contemporary values about education, to compare Hispanic American and African American women’s educational experiences across both cultures, and to further our understanding of academic achievement by learning from the women who have attained this level of academic success. In order to address these purposes a theoretical framework composed of five strands of research was constructed. This research had previously identified factors that influenced the academic achievement of traditional college students, African American college students, and successful minority students.  Keywords: Hispanic American women, African American women, attainment of the Ph.D. degree.

Renée Smith-Maddox Educational Aspirations of African American Eighth Graders (p58-80)

This study uses cross-sectional data from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Study of Eighth Graders to explore the factors affecting the educational aspirations of African American eighth graders and the extent to which this goal-oriented variable varies by class and gender. The results indicate that a combination of family (i.e., parent’s expectations, parent involvement, poverty status, and parent’s education), community (i.e., discussing high school plans and careers with an adult outside of the family and participation in activities outside of school) and school measures (i.e., mathematics test scores and placement in low ability groups) have a direct effect on aspirations. These factors represent a combination of social and cultural resources that are embedded in a young adolescent’s social network. Within this network the young adolescent has a variety of experiences with individuals in their family, school, and community. It is in this domain where aspirations are developed.  Keywords: African American eighth graders, family, school, community

Lisa M. Frehill   Race, Class, Gender, and College Completion: The 1980 High School Senior Cohort  (p81-107)

This paper uses data from the national longitudinal study of the high school class of 1980 – known as High School and Beyond – to examine the educational fortunes of a cohort six years after high school graduation. Although the educational attainment gap between Blacks and Whites has narrowed in recent years, the continued presence of this gap has a profound impact on overall life chances. The intersection of race, gender, and several components of family class background are considered in understanding students’ persistence in college over a six-year period. A limited set of institutional effects – e.g., racial composition and perceived quality of high schools – are also examined, since the High School and Beyond data set includes information about students’ high schools and includes students’ postsecondary educational transcripts.  Keywords: high school and beyond, college completion, intersection of race, gender, and class.

George Ansalone   Keeping on Track: A Reassessment of Tracking in the Schools (p108-132)

Faith in American education has been supported not only by our historical belief that education is valuable in and of itself but also by our commitment since the nineteenth century to education as a tool of social engineering. In sum, an integral part of the American dream has been the belief in schooling as the surest path to economic and social equality. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of tracking and attempts to explore the impact of this educational structure on student academic achievement and affective development. Our intention is to develop some broad-based generalizations that may be used as the basis for new educational policy and to provide a sociological and pedagogical reassessment of this educational practice. Additionally, we seek to determine if this educational structure works against the concept of schooling as the "Great American Equalizer" and empowers the existing structures of dominance in society.  Keywords: schooling, tracking, economic and social equality

Judy M. Iseke-Barnes  Ethnomathematics and Language in Decolonizing Mathematics  (p133-149)

This paper examines mathematics and mathematics education, drawing upon anti-racist and critical race theorizing, in discussing ethnomathematics, languages, and mathematics. It focuses our attention on mathematics as dominant and privileged discourses which are entwined with colonialism. We are encouraged to reconsider our definitions of mathematics and mathematics education and to reconsider goals in these areas towards decolonizing mathematics. It is asserted that mathematics and mathematics education are produced in culture. D’Ambrosio (1985:45) defined ethnomathematics as "the mathematics which is practiced among identifiable cultural groups, such as national-tribal societies, labor groups, children of a certain age bracket, professional classes, and so on."  Keywords: mathematics, ethnomathematics, decolonizing mathematics.

Alicia P. Rodriguez   Adjusting the Multicultural Lens  (p150-177)

Multicultural education or multiculturalism, of whatever form, has been ripe for attack, demonization, exaltation, and dismissal ever since it became popular in the 1980s. While the response to multicultural education from activists, educators, critical radical theorists, conservative critics, liberal critics, and others has ranged the spectrum of opinion, rarely have the respondents engaged in serious analysis of the premises behind multicultural education and the validity or weaknesses of the premises. Rather, quick, visceral responses have been more the norm. Some important writers and thinkers have developed many provocative ideas about the meaning of "culture," the nature of multiculturalism and its implications, and the tension between "difference" and "sameness" that enable us to interrogate the conceptual nuances of multiculturalism. Although their ideas have been at the center of major discussions in the humanities and social sciences, their ideas have not significantly influenced educational practices in schools. This paper is an attempt to merge the concept of multicultural education with these compelling approaches to identity and hybridity.  Keywords: multicultural education, identity, feminism, hybridity

Christine E. Sleeter  Creating an Empowering Multicultural Curriculum   (p178-196)

Learning to construct a good multicultural curriculum is an on-going process. One is never finished learning to do this, because in the process of grappling with the questions about what is most worth teaching in a pluralistic society, one is constantly learning. And, curriculum is something a teacher never does quite "right." Every time I teach, the students are different, the context is different, and I bring to the enterprise a deeper understanding of the central issues than I had last time I taught similar concepts. Since a multicultural curriculum delves into issues that touch the core of our own personal and community-based identities, doing it well brings a personal, as well as an intellectual response. The curriculum we teach is as good as our own understanding of what we are teaching (Howard, 1999). The beliefs we bring about what is worth teaching, and about diverse people, the society in which we live, the students we are teaching, and the various academic disciplines have a good deal to do with the substance of the curriculum we create and teach.

Race, Gender & Class Issues in Canada, Malaysia and United States
Volume 7, Number 2, 2000, ISSN 1082-8354

Jean Ait Belkhir, Johnnella E. Butler, Lenus Jack Jr.   Race, Gender & Class in Volume 7, Number 2, 2000  (p4-6)

Qun Wang  Race, Gender and Class: Lyrics of American Ethnic Literature and Cultures  (p7-38)

 "Race, Gender and Class: Lyrics of American Ethnic Literature and Cultures" examines some of the topical issues in the study of African American, Asian American, Native American, Latino/a American and cultures. Horizontally, the article deals with inter- and intra-cultural conflicts, the use of two toned language, and the fight for social justification as they are portrayed in American ethnic literatures. Vertically, the connection of these ethnic literatures is built on thematic preoccupations of race, gender and class. Keywords: African American, Asian American, Native American, Latino/a American, working class, literature, cultures.

George J. Sefa Dei  Recasting Anti-Racism and the Axis of Difference: Beyond the Question of Theory  (p39-56)

This paper examines the axis of difference as a focal point in anti-racist work. To transform society, anti-racism must ground academic theory and political practice in particular identities while recognizing the intersectionality of difference. In discussing the axis of difference, we interrogate the meanings of ‘oppression’ and ‘community’ for anti-racism politics. This paper also explores the implications of theorizing the ‘particularities’ and the representations of experience, and investigates the possibilities of spiritual knowing and emotions as a basis of creating a ‘new epistemology’ of anti-racism. It is argued that praxical understandings of multiple oppressions must create the possibilities for transforming society.
Keywords: anti-racism, community, oppression, identity, difference, experience, spirituality and emotions.

Theresa A. Martinez   Race, Class, and Gender in the Lifestory of Chicanas: A Critique of Nathan Glazer  (p57-75)

 In his new book, We are All Multiculturalists Now (1997), Nathan Glazer acknowledges shortcomings in the earlier work and now argues that African Americans do not have the chance of life success he had once thought possible due to longstanding institutional discrimination. At the same time, in the new book, Glazer argues that Latinas/os, unlike African Americans, have "made it" like white immigrant groups before them, harkening back to his arguments in Beyond the Melting Pot (1970). The present study questions Glazer’s contentions with regard to Latinas/os. Using current statistics on Latinas/os in the United States and responses gleaned from sixty in-depth interviews with Chicanas--Chicanas/os or Mexican Americans represent the largest portion of the Latina/o population in America--this study seeks to refute Glazer’s comments on the life experience of Latinas/os and his claims that Latinas/os now enjoy the same life chances as whites in America.
Keywords: Chicanas--Chicanas/os, Mexican Americans, life experience.

Tom Meisenhelder   Toward A Field Theory of Class, Gender, and Race   (p76-95)

I want to suggest that the growing work of Pierre Bourdieu provides a very useful way to specify the interrelationships of class, gender, and race in industrial capitalist society. I want to offer a more or less free and interpretive use of Bourdieu's theoretical ideas to envision how class, gender, and race "work" as definers of social positions in a society like the United States. Society is a "multidimensional space" organized around common "factors of differentiation" that guide the distribution of various types and amounts of capital to various positions within a particular social field. Each of these social fields is structured according to certain principles of differentiation, "di-vision," and hierarchy that constitute the social dimensions of the field and its interrelated positions. All these various social fields are in turn arranged together according to historically generated and generally taken-for-granted principles of hierarchial structure that most often stem from the influence of certain core fields. It follows that each separate field has an relatively autonomous internal "logic" of organization or "di-vision" and that relations between fields follows a more generalized logic that characterizes the whole society. Keywords: multidimensional space, factors of differentiation, interrelationships of class, gender, and race.

Vincent Serravallo  Class and Gender in Recreational Marathon Running   (p96-121)

Recreational marathon running appears as an expression of individual qualities, like initiative, discipline and sacrifice. But an examination of the data provided by the New York City Marathon clearly supports the view that social class and gender, alone and in combination, better explain the long-term, uneven pattern of participation in this 26.2 mile race. When men and women compete on the athletics field socioeconomic status disappears. Black or white, Christian or Jew, rich or poor...all that matters is that you’re out there on the field giving your all. [In the stands,] corporate presidents sit next to janitors...and they high-five each other when their team scores...which makes me wonder if [status] should matter at all. (Eitzen and Sage, 1997:244) Keywords: occupation, work, social class, gender, professional-manager class, marathon

Katherine Hutchings  Cultural Norms and Gender Inequality in Malaysia   (p122-148)

This paper presents the findings of research conducted in Malaysia which examines the equity practices of Australian and Japanese Multinational Corporations (MNCs).These organizations make human resource management (HRM) policy decisions that are influenced by a combination of the cultural and social environments in which they operate and their own company policies (and associated corporate citizenship responsibilities). Against a background of social closure/inequality and corporate citizenship theories, this paper discusses cultural and social factors and their influence on current equity responses in the workplaces of selected MNCs in Malaysia. Importantly, it also draws attention to the underlying dynamic between ethnicity, class and gender in this country and how it may be used by MNCs as justification for not utilizing the practices observed in the developed world. It concludes that the companies are "taking the line of least resistance" in their decisions with national cultural and social inequality on gender (and racial and class) lines being upheld and reinforced at the workplace level.
Keywords: Australian and Japanese Multinational Corporations, national cultural and social inequality on gender (and racial and class)

James V. Fenelon, Rodney L. Brod  Ideologies of Reverse Discrimination: Race, Gender, Class, Age Analysis  (p149-178)

This article employs a quantitative statistical method, fully-saturated analysis of covariance, to model the main and interactive effects of race, gender, class and age on factor analyzed, surveyed perceptions of dependent measures of institutional unfairness, ideologies of "reverse discrimination" and support of affirmative action. Viewed together as a recursive (one-way causal) system, and holding constant education level, the three ANCOVA models reveal a number of important interactive and main effects of gender, class, age, and particularly racial group membership on these three major ideologies surrounding reverse discrimination. Conclusions and implications are discussed with respect to RGC and affirmative action theory, research, and social policy. Keywords: reverse discrimination, affirmative action, race, gender, class, age, education, quantitative methods, analysis of covariance.

Sexuality: Toward A Race, Gender, Class Perspective
Volume 7 Number 1, 2000, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Co-editors: Doris Ewing and Steven P. Schacht

Jean Ait Belkhir, Johnnella E. Butler, Lenus Jack Jr.   Sexuality Special Issue Foreword  (p4-6)

Doris Ewing and Steven P. Schacht   Sexuality: Toward a Race, Gender and Class Perspective 
 (p
7-9)

Doris Ewing   The Fall of Eve: Racism and Classism as a Function of Sexual Repression  (p10-22)

This paper discusses the relationship between sexually repressive norms and the racism and classism found in Western society. Using examples from paganism, early Christianity, the witchcraft hysteria and colonialism, the author explores the close parallels between the increase in sexual repression and the distinction between inferior and subordinate subgroups. It is suggested that as sexually repressive norms decrease in society today, that other forms of prejudice will also decreases. Keywords: sexually repressive norms, racism, classism, paganism, Christianity.

Lisa Orr  "Cotton Patch Strumpets" and Masculine Women: Performing Classed Genders  (p23-42)

Comparing Edith Summers Kelley's Weeds, Paule Marshall's Brown Girl, Brownstones and works by Meridel Le Sueur to selected works of William Faulkner and Erskine Caldwell reveals how working-class women's sexuality is represented and suggests that gender performance differs by class.

Traise Yamamoto  In/Visible Difference: Asian American Women and the Politics of Spectacle
(p
43-56)

This article discusses the positioning of Asian American women in the socialized landscape of the United States. Through an examination of popular culture venues such as fashion spreads and film, I argue that the Asian American woman's body is encoded as a site of spectularized differences that marks the boundaries of normative whiteness and uphold the promises of liberal multiculturalism.
Keywords: Japanese American, Asian American women, orientalism, racism.

Marian Sciachitano  "MOBS" on the Net: Critiquing the Gaze of the "Cyber" Bride Industry   (p57-90)

For "Third World" women who become positioned in the "Fourth" or even "Fifth World" of the "cyber" bride industry, what possibilities of female agency are out there? Can there be any possibility for an oppositional gaze in cyberspace for those who don't even own computer, let alone a modem or access to the WWW? And that what about the possibilities for a critical cyberliteracy here in the U.S./"First World"? Unless we become global critical cybercitizens who see our tasks as questioning the representation and commodification of Asian Pacific women's bodies in these new MOB sites as well as the colonizing relations of power being reinforced and perpetuated through the "Western, White, heterosexual, metropolitan male gaze" of the "cyber" bride industry, we are bound to "simply re-create the imperial gaze -- the look that seeks to dominate, subjugate, and colonize" (Hooks, 1992).
Keywords: "cyber" bride industry, female agency, critical cybercitizens.

Edna Levy  Fresh Mattresses: Sexuality, Fertility and Soldiering in Israeli Public Culture  (p71-90)

Sexuality and fertility are interconnected with the meaning attached to soldiering in complex and powerful ways. Not only is soldiering tied up with notions of heterosexual masculine sexuality, but it also depends upon the distancing from and objectification of women's sexuality. Even though the nature of the materiel reviewed here prevents me from answering questions of intent and individual interpretation of experience, this analysis of media portrayals reflects the dominant shared public meaning of soldiering. The images and comments about sexuality and soldiering that appear in the daily media thus reflect and influence the common-sense understanding of the connection between masculinity, femininity, and soldiering. Keywords: soldiering, daily media, sexuality and fertility, heterosexual masculine sexuality, women's sexuality.

Patti Capel Swartz  Sexual Morality, Cultural/Morality: One in the Same  (p91-110)

Current political and social rhetoric that calls for a return to the "family values" of the 1950's and that visualizes those times as halcyon days obscures the actual social structure and imperatives of the times which included extreme homophobia, sexism, racism, classism, and gender bias. A personal exploration of this era exposes the "isms" and the political and social attitudes that allowed McCarthysm and the cold war to flourish, and the created invisibility of population different from those discussed in the white American myth demonstrates that a return to this much mythological time is also a return to increased racism, sexism, classism, and homophobia. Keywords: McCarthism, "nuclear" family, racism, sexism,
classism, homophobia.

Dan J. Pence and Eleanor A. Hubbard   Everyday Ideology: A case Study of Sexual Activity
(p
111-132)

This case study compares college students raised in Utah with those attending college in Utah but raised outside the state. College students raised in Utah engage in more risky sexual behaviors, even though there is an unpresedented public discussion about potentially deadly consequences of human sexuality. Also college students raised in Utah appear to be largely ignorant of their own dangerous behavior or assume that their residence in Utah will protect them from STDs. The authors of this article postulate that the reason these college students behave this way is that they believe in the dominant ideology: that Utah is a special religious locale that protects them from the influences, dangers, and diseases of the outside world. Although there must be multi-causes for this finding, our evidence demonstrates that being raised in Utah can influence how one behaves sexually.

Bob Pease  Reconstructing Heterosexual Subjectivities and Practices with White Middle-Class Men   (p133-146)

This article explores the construction of male heterosexual desire as it is manifested in sexual objectification by white-middle class men. It is argued that through the analysis of memories of objectification, men can heighten their awareness of the ways in which heterosexual desire is socially constructed and that from this understanding they can strengthen the alternative construction of non-patriachal heterosexualities. Participants in the study reported here were asked to recall a situation where they were conscious of objectifying a woman's body as a basis for sexual arousal. Reporting these memories, the men disclosed moments in their lives when they accommodated to the reproduction of sexual dominance. It is argued that when men share and analyze the memories of their part in the reproduction of hierarchic heterosexuality, they are subverting the construction of dominant masculinities. Keywords: heterosexuality, objectification, desire, sexual dominance, memory-work.

Steven P. Schacht   Paris is Burning: How Society's Stratification Systems Make Drag Queens of Us All   (p147-166)

Recognizing the importance of taking a multicultural approach in one's teaching, this article explores using the movie Paris is Burning in one's classes to illuminate the performative, relational, and situational basis of social statuses.  Student's responses to viewing and discussing the movie are examined in terms how each of them performs inequality - race, class, gender and sexual orientation. The author ends the piece with some personal considerations about envisioning and realizing a non-appressive future. Keywords: identity, performing (in) equality, social stratification, oppression.

Volume 6

Race, Gender & Class: American Jewish Perspectives
Volume 6 Number 4, 1999, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editors: Marla Brettschneider   

Introduction: Jean Ait  Belkhir, Johnnella E. Butler, Lenus Jack Jr. (p5-10) 

This special issue begins to develop grounding to the discussion of the intersectionality of race, gender, and class in the Jewish American context. Jews are an interesting example to explore because generally they are among those seen as outside the race, gender and class discourse and analysis. In the face of the absence of Jewish perspective in race, gender and class studies, focusing on Jews, on the particulars of a named diverse community, can be very specific and therefore helpful in pointing out the limitation of the current debate on race, gender and class intersectionality.

Rachel Rosembloom   A Brief Introduction to Jews for Racial and Economic Justice  (p11-12)

In may 1990, a group of Jewish activists, educators, rabbis, writers and communal leaders came together to address the increasing level of racial and ethnic tension and economic disparity in New York City and the absence of a progressive response from the Jewish community. Out of that meeting came Jews for Racial and Economic Justice (JFREJ). Today, JFREJ has hundreds of members - in New York City and beyond - and a mailing list over 3,000. We are an active participant in struggles for racial and economic justice in our city. Over the past eight years, working with African-American, Latino, Asian-American, immigrant rights and labor groups, JFREJ has brought Jewish participation to a broad range of local economic justice and civil rights struggles.

Marla Brettschneider  Theorizing Diversity from a Jewish Perspective  (p13-23)

The mission of this journal is to critically examine the intersectionality of race, gender and class. This special issue puts a new spin on the discussion, holding the mission in tact and further asking "The Jewish Question." Race/ethnicity, gender, class, and -- I will also add at least -- sexual orientation are not merely a random grouping of identity signifiers. They are important in current political and sociological terms due to the way that they fundamentally constitute power dynamics and thus affect human relations. To ground this discussion within a sphere of American Jewish consciousness is no easy task; although Jews, as a minority, have much to offer that is similar in nature to the perspectives of other minorities, as with each individual group, Jews have particular experiences and history which affect our understanding of these issues. The following essay will develop one sort of Jewish grounding to the discussion of the identity politics of race/ethnicity, gender, class and sexual orientation in philosophical terms. After presenting some theoretical background, this paper examines a Jewish perspective on contemporary identity politics in relation first to Marxism and then to post-modernism in the context of a post-Marxist debate between modernists and post-modernists. Keywords: Jewish, theory, diversity

Susan Novak  "Dark Illuminations: Race, Gender, and Class During the Shoah"  (p24-40)

In a post-Holocaust world, action on behalf of justice, diversity, and solidarity is nothing less than a moral imperative. Embracing compassionate action in solidarity with the dispossessed becomes an act of resistance which seeks a tikkun of the intolerance, domination, and brutality that fueled the Nazi machine. Unmasking the antisemitism, racism, sexism, classism, and homophobia which legitimated discriminatory social programs, bigoted legal practices, and oppressive economic practices, these acts of resistance are crucial to the development of a credible post-Holocaust ethic. They challenge us to transform every dimension of our relationships - the economic and political as well as the sexual and religious - in light of the fundamental moral and ethical issues raised after Auschwitz. Moreover, as the nexus for compassion, justice, and solidarity, they rekindle the hope that faith, identity, and morality may yet be revitalized. Keywords: Holocaust, feminism.

Jessica Greenebaum  Placing Jewish Women into the Intersectionality of Race, Class and Gender  (p41-60)

This paper places Jewish women into the feminist and sociological conversation of identity, oppression, and the intersectionality of "gender, race, and class." More specifically, it reveals the resistance to include Jewish women in this discourse. Why is this oppression different from all others (or not)?  Why have Jewish women been marginalized from the sociological discourse on inequality and oppression? Why has the feminist community denied Jewish women the voice to express their specific concerns as Jews and as women? Why is this occurring when much of the ‘difference of Jews’ is similar to that of other marginalized groups? And what is the sociological, theoretical, and political significance of this ‘othering’ process? Keywords: Jewish women, antisemitism, intersectionality of gender, race, and class.

Jeraldine R. Kraver  Restocking the Melting Pot: Americanization as Cultural Imperialism  (p61-75)

Americanization, at the beginning of this century, was motivated by the fear that diversity and pluralism posed a threat to narrowly defined "American values." As Americans continue to address the perplexing issues of immigration and identity it is increasingly apparent that, after nearly 100 years, the issues that inspired and defined immigration education and reform remain unresolved. The suggestion by the Yiddish-language newspaper Daily Jewish Courier that "it is not at all necessary for the liberty, security, and prosperity of America to fuse all nationalities here to a point where they will lose their identity completely" neatly summarizes the contemporary crisis in immigration. The date of the edition is June 5, 1918 (Clymer 1982:111). Keywords:Americanization, education, Clara de Hirsch Home, immigrant, immigration, women’s education, Yezierska.

Debra Renee Kaufman  Embedded Categories: Identity Among Jewish Young Adults in the US  (p76-87)

In this article I explore the ways in which gender, race, class and ethnicity intersect in the lives of the seventy, twenty to thirty year olds I interviewed throughout the Northeastern United States as part of a larger study on post-Modern Jewish Identity among that age group in the U.S., England, and Israel. Keywords: gender, race, class, ethnicity, post-Modern Jewish Identity, U.S., England, Israel

Hinda Seif   A "Most Amazing Borsht:" Multiple Identities in a Jewish Bisexual Community (p88-109)

The author explores the ways that race, gender, class, sexuality, and other identifications interact in a Jewish bisexual community in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes sociolinguistic analysis of 31 interviews and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of various theoretical models of intersectionality. The meanings of race, gender, class, sexuality and Jewishness broaden and transform in interaction. Studying the interaction of these categories offers an important way to challenge out assumptions of their definitions, constructions, and boundaries. Keywords: Jewish, bisexuality, intersectionality, sexuality, race, class, gender,
San Francisco

Liona Moriel  Dana International: A Self-Made Jewish Diva (p110-124)

Clearly, the Zionists of a century ago did not think of race, class and gender as we do today. To their credit, some of them, the idealistic few, sought to include Jews in the human race, and women among men, and to eliminate class distinctions with the idea of the kibbutz collective. But for the majority, the new land of the forefathers was to be basically Jewish, bourgeois, and male. And now the new global reality of interlocked economies and political alliances is kicking in an all-too-new realization that time does not flow ever forward; sediments rise to the surface and old issues must be revisited and rethought. This paper will deal with these fundamental issues of race, class and gender in Israel through the lens of the remarkable 29-year-old Disco Diva, Dana International, who challenges all three categories by merely being herself: an ethnic working-class female.Keywords: Dana International, race,
gender, class.

Dawn Robinson Rose Class as Problematic in Jewish Feminist Theology  (p125-135)

While other liberation/minority theologies often find class analysis and subsequent political action to be integral to theological praxis, this paper shows that Jewish feminist theology to date exhibits an almost startling lack of internal class consciousness and/or agenda. Upon examination the author finds this lacunae to be linked to two primary class-related phenomena. One, shared by other minorities, is the general invisibility of working-class and poor Jews, which for the Jewish community is only intensified by the myth of overall Jewish wealth and power. A second phenomenon, perhaps more specific to the Jewish community, is the inadequacy of standard class distinctions in describing the actual access to community power and resources by Jewish women whose education may suggest a higher rate of middle-class enfranchisement than actual income or social status allow. In such, the paper links advancement in areas "theological" (ritual, educational, etc.) To actual community power knowledge which, without attention to questions of class, will remain unattended and unattainable.Keywords: Jewish feminist theology, Jewish feminism, feminist theology, Jews, class, gender.

Kerri Steinberg The Ties That Bind: Americans, Ethiopians, and the Extended Jewish Family (p136-151)

In this article, I wish to explore how mainstream American Jewish philanthropies such as the United Jewish Appeal (UJA) construct an extended Jewish family through their Press Service photographs. In particular, I am interested in how the mythology of an extended Jewish family joins together disparate Jewish identities such as American and Ethiopian Jews within the cycle of Jewish continuity. Do these photographs really function more as a barometer of likeness or difference? What might be gained and what is lost through the paradigm of the extended Jewish family, as it is expressed photographically? Most significantly, what do these photographs tell us about the basic assumptions of the family paradigm?

Tobin Belzer A Jewish Identity at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Class: Dorothy Feiner Rodgers  (p152-173)

Examined through the lenses of class, gender, and race, the life of Dorothy Feiner Rodgers (1906-1993) illuminates the complexity of twentieth-century American Jewish womanhood. Her accomplishments were many: she was the author of four books, inventor of household products, mother of two daughters, and the inspiration and benefactor of the core exhibit at the Jewish Museum in New York. She was married to the famous composer Richard Rodgers, who collaborated with Lorenz Hart and later, Oscar Hammerstein. Dorothy’s career, her philanthropy and her marriage to a famous figure made her a unique and complicated woman. Neither her accomplishments nor her tenuous connection to Judaism, however, protected her from anti-Semitic discrimination, An examination of her life provides a compelling example of the construction of Jewish identity at the intersection of class, gender and race. Keywords: Jewish women, race, gender, and class intersectionality, Jewish identity, biography Dorothy Freiner Rodgers.

Book Review: Amanda Myriam Chaya Seigel   Cornestones of Peace: Jewish Identity Politics, by Marla Brettschneider , Rutgers University Press, 1996;   Narrow Bridge: Jewish Views on Multiculturalism, by Marla Brettschneider, Rutgers University Press, 1996  (p167-173)

In the introduction to Narrow Bridge, Marla Brettschneider writes: Multiculturalism is developing democratic praxis which, rather than squelching diversity, seeks to welcome difference in the creation of a vibrant and inclusive public sphere (or spheres) [p.6]. True to her vision, Brettschneider's book contains specifically Jewish perspectives on multiculturalism, without assuming a unified Jewish view.  In fact, much of the writing by Brettschneider and others in Narrow Bridge and Cornestones of Peace confronts the idea that all Jews have, or should have, the same opinion or perspectives.  First, many Jews would respond to this idea with, "What?  That's ridiculous!  Three Jews, five opinions!'

Interdisciplinary Issues On Race, Gender, Class
Volume 6, Number 3, 1999, ISSN 1082-8354

Chuck Barone   Bringing Classism into the Race & Gender Picture  (p5-32)

What’s missing from our understanding of class oppression is an understanding of class oppression as "classism," as a system of social oppression that operates on multiple social levels and that embraces both structures and human agency. This paper seeks to expand our understanding by sketching out a multilevel analysis of class oppression as a social system that includes macro, meso, and micro levels, and includes both structures and human agency. It will examine how people come to occupy their class roles; how they learn their particular class outlook, mannerisms, behavior, and culture; and how the personal and social dynamics of class oppression are related to the larger macrostructures of class oppression and exploitation. Keywords: class, classism, oppression, reproduction, schooling

Theresa A. Martinez Storytelling as Oppositional Culture: Race, Class, and Gender in the Borderland (p33-51)

Bonnie Mitchell and Joe Feagin, influenced by the work of Robert Blauner (1972) and Michael Hechter (1975, 1978), build on the theory of oppositional culture, arguing that African Americans, American Indians, and Mexican Americans draw on their own cultural resources to resist domination under internal colonialism. Patricia Hill Collins (1991) expands the politics of domination to include interlocking systems of race, class, and gender oppression among others and also discusses cultures of resistance to oppression. One of the cultural resources these theorists stress is storytelling. This paper suggests that Gloria Anzaldúa’s prose and poetry is a conscious form of oppositional culture, in that Anzaldúa’s storytelling serves as a social critique of domination as well as a cultural tool for empowerment of oppressed groups. A brief analysis of Anzaldúa’s Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza is provided. Keywords: oppositional culture, storytelling, Gloria Anzaldua, social critique of domination, rage, gender, class

Algernon Austin   Theorizing Difference within Black Feminist Thought: The Dilemma of Sexism in Black Communities  (p52-66)

How have black feminists dealt with the issue of sexism in black communities? My analysis reveals that there is no strong consensus on how to respond to the issue of black sexism in black feminism thought. Some black feminist works suggest that gender equality has existed among blacks throughout African-American history, while others argue that sexism has been a persistent problem in African-American life. The ideological orientation of the black feminist author explains her response to the issue of black sexism. Black feminist utilizing a black nationalist or a black Marxist analysis of black sexism fail to develop a serious critique. Keywords: black feminism, black nationalist, black Marxist, black sexism

Abby L. Ferber  The Construction of Race, Gender, and Class in White Supremacist Discourse  (p67-89)

This article explores the intertwined construction of race, gender, and class in contemporary white supremacist ideology. Exploring the publications of a wide variety of white supremacist organizations, this research utilizes a theoretical approach which argues that race, gender, and class are intertwined social constructs. I argue that race and gender are constructed as essential and inherent identities, while class is constructed very differently. Class is depicted as a Jewish tool used to divide and conquer the white race. These particular constructions serve to maintain white male privilege and power. Keywords: class, gender, Jews, race, white supremacy.

Jacquelyn Litt   Managing the Street, Isolating the Household: African American Mothers Respond to Neighborhood Deterioration  (p90-108)

This article undertakes a case-study analysis of three poor African American mothers and their strategies for raising children in a declining and dangerous neighborhood. Viewing local resources as insufficient, the women expend much of their energy confining their children at home and monitoring their movements in the public sphere. The article examines these efforts as an alternative form of mothering, drawing upon their reflections about the needs they experienced to keep their neighborhood at bay, and their views of their own and their children’s well-being. Keywords: poor African American mothers, dangerous neighborhood.

Shang-Luan Yann  The Status of Asian American Women Scientists and Engineers in the Labor Force  (p109-124)

 This paper analyzes national data — the 1982 Survey of Scientists and Engineers (SSE) — which was conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the National Science Foundation to examine the status of scientists and engineers by gender and race, particularly primary work activities and earning inequalities of Asian and white women scientists and engineers in the labor force. Findings from the 1982 SSE data present us a rather mixed picture. First, Asian women scientists and engineers tend to be employed in industrial sectors rather than in educational institutions. However, Asian women scientists and engineers earn less than White women within the core sector, especially at the doctoral level, who worked in the core had an annual earnings disadvantage of $2,179.06 compared to white women. Second, in comparison with Black women scientists and engineers, Asian women scientists and engineers, like White women scientists and engineers, tend to have the lower full-time employment rates. This phenomenon may explain that both Asian and White women are economically better off than Black women. Third, Asian women scientists and engineers are less likely to be employed in managerial positions. Keywords: gender, race, scientists, engineers, Asian American women, labor force

Ivy Kennelly, Joya Misra, and Marina Karides The Historical Context of Gender, Race, & Class in the Academic Labor Market  (p125-155)

 In this paper we explore the ways that race, gender, and class have historically affected and are currently affecting the rates of hiring, degree attainment, promotion, segregation, and pay in academia. Throughout the paper we highlight the experiences of minority women, minority men, European-American women, and members of the working class in academia and demonstrate that although these groups have variably made progress in their representation in jobs in colleges and universities, they remain less likely than members of privileged gender, racial, and class groups to be promoted, more likely to be segregated in certain positions by discipline, subfield, university prestige, and lower academic ranking, and less likely to be paid as well.

Gloria Holguin Cuádraz  and Lynet Uttal  Intersectionality and In-Depth Interviews: Methodological Strategies for Analyzing Race, Class, and Gender  (p156-186)

In this essay, we address several common dilemmas that arise when using in-depth interviews to conduct race, class and gender analyses. Utilizing our own in-depth interview studies, we illustrate three methodological dilemmas we confronted. First, what claims about race, class, and gender can be made if the sample does not include comparative subsamples? Second, to what extent can researchers overlay the social categories of race, class, and gender on the individual accounts articulated by interviewees? Finally, how does one explicate the intersections between structures and biography, while honoring the simultaneous intersectionality of multiple structures of race, class, and gender? Keywords: in-depth interview, race, class, and gender, intersectionality.

Book Review:  Filomina C. Steady   Women, Population and Global Crisis: A Political-Economic Analysis, by Asoka Bandarage, London, Zed Books, 1997 (p187-189)

This book is a contribution to the mounting criticism of the oppression of poor women in the South by global economic policies and practices which exploit the resources, labor and markets of countries of the South. For the most part of the voices, experiences and aspirations of these women have been largely invisible except for the writing of female scholars who are mostly from the South themselves.

Edward Johnson   The Racial Contract, by Charles W. Mills, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997  (p189-192)

Just as feminist theorists have pointed to the blind spots a predominantly male viewpoint has introduced into traditional philosophy, so Mills indicates ways in which familiar talk about the "social contract" has typically presupposed (and in part obscured) a more fundamental racial contract.

Race, Gender & Class: African-American Perspectives
Volume 6, Number 2, 1999, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editors: Bernice McNair Barnett, Rose M. Brewer, & M. Bahati Kuumba   

Preface: Johnnella E. Butler & Jean Ait Belkhir  (p5-6)

For the majority of black women, liberation from sexual oppression has always been fused with liberation from other forms of oppression, namely slavery, colonialism, neocolonialism, racism, poverty, illiteracy and disease. Consequently, her feminism has relevance in human terms rather than narrow sexist terms. The manifold nature of her oppression not only heightens her consciousness about the economic basis of oppression but also indicates its roots. For the black women, the enemy is not black men but history (Filomina Chioma Steady, The Black Woman Cross-Culturally, 1991:34-35).

Bernice McNair Bernett, Rose M, Brewer, and M. Bahati Kuumba   News Directions in Race, Class, and Gender: The African American Experience  (p7-26)

It strikes us that any discussion in a special issue on African Americans, race, gender, and class invokes the multiplicity of inequality and the social context of racism in the academy. Racism involves the simultaneity and interaction with sexism and classism and, bluntly speaking, African Americans have been invisible or pathologized in the disciplines as traditionally conceived because of race-based exclusionary practices. This has everything to do with the racism, sexism, and classism in the academy and in society. Significantly, Black people’s invisibility, or in some instances the hypervisibility of a select few (which is a different face of the same coin), is still too readily apparent. Although critiques of this situation were articulated in arguments found in Black Studies and Women’s Studies, neither field in its inception precisely located or even began to satisfactorily address the omission of all people of African descent, especially African American women, in traditional academic disciplines. Essentially, it was conceded that racism and racist practices left out Black men and that sexism and sexist practices left out White women. But, we still too often have to ask the question, as asked by Hull, Bell Scott, and Smith (1982): Where are the Black women? Indeed, the deep embeddedness of race/gender has not been fully theorized in the very fields that ideally should have embraced and interrogated their simultaneity. Only in the last few years, and heavily through the writings of Black feminist thinkers, has the intersectionality of race, class, and gender gotten focused attention in sociology and other fields (see especially the work of Dill 1979; Davis 1983; Brewer 1989; Collins 1990).

Rose M. Brewer   Theorizing Race, Class, and Gender: The New Scholarship of Black Feminist Intellectuals and Black Women's Labor  (p29-47)

The purpose in this article is to explicate some of the recent theorizing on race, class and gender by Black feminist thinkers in the academy. This theorizing is further explored in an analysis of Black women's labor and African-American class formation. The labor transformation of Black women is explicated in terms of economic restructuring and capital mobility, racial formation and gender inequality. It is a process linking Black women in the Northeast and Midwest to the South and Southwest, Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. It is not the tie of poverty to prosperity, but the tie of subordinate status to subordinate status crosscut by internal class differences in all these regions. Most important, only in theorizing the complexity of the intersections of race, class and gender can we adequately prepare to struggle for social change in the African-American community.
Keywords: black feminist intellectuals, black women’s labor, race, gender, class.

Kerry Ann Rockquemore   Rethinking Race as a "Metalanguage:" The Intersections of Race and Gender in Locating Black Women's Voices  (p48-72)

Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham proposed in her seminal essay "African-American Women’s History and the Metalanguage of Race" (1992) that race should be viewed as a "metalanguage" in analyzing the historical experiences of Black women. This paper calls the race-as-metalanguage hypothesis into question due to its explicit ranking of racial stratification above all other forms of oppression. I propose an alternative theoretical conceptualization for understanding Black women’s experiences that has, as its most unlikely starting point, the Hegelian dialectic. For analytical purposes I force the dialectic it to be conversant with Black feminist theory and contextualize it along the interlocking axes of race, class and gender. This results in three alternative models which suggest varying possibilities for locating the multiplicity of our voices. In a fourth model, I provide an alternative theoretical perspective which is both sensitive to the contextual complexity of gendered, racialized, and economic power relations and redirect the discourse away from unidimensional lenses of analysis and toward a more multifaceted view of Black women’s experience. Keywords: race, metalanguage, gender, class, black women.

Sue Hammons-Bryner   The Women's Obstacle Course: Southern African-American and Rural Women's Barriers to Academic Achievement  (p73-98)

Academic achievement has long been a goal for American youth. However, many Americans, especially women, members of the working class and racial/ethnic minority groups, confront obstacles that middle-class White males generally do not. The widespread use of White, urban, upper-middle-class Christian males as research subjects in postwar achievement studies for major research universities has reinforced the view in the psychology of achievement literature that these dominant subjects’ traits are the standard for achievement and for achievement motivation. Many program developers have assumed that those who do not conform to the dominant type of the American Dream, especially rural, Black, and/or working-class women, do not value achievement. Their motivation, however, may be different rather than absent. Based upon content analysis of published works, ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, this multi-year study analyzes the intersections of gender, race, and class on motivations for and barriers to the educational achievement of southern rural African American and White European American women. Keywords: education, motivation, achievement, African American women, white and black rural working class women.

Assata Zerai and Rae Banks   Maternal Cocaine Use and Infant Survival: Interrogating the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender  (p99-129)

Analyzing the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, we find that access to prenatal care, as a component of a hostile environment, is the strongest determinant of prenatal care use when controlling for background characteristics, maternal fertility variables, and polydrug use. We believe this conceptualization is illuminated by theoretical discussion of the ways that race, class and gender intersect to affect and differentiate experiences of individuals and groups and that our use of hostile environment as a construct provides an example of a way to operationalize the intersection of race, class and gender in quantitative research. Findings lay the foundation for future research that will examine inadequate prenatal care as an endogenous variable in the hostile environment-birth outcome relationship, particularly for women of color and those who have used drugs during their pregnancy. Keywords: logistic regression, maternal cocaine use, hostile environment, race, gender, class intersectionality, prenatal care, African American and U.S. women

Juan Battle   How the Boyz really Made it Out of the Hood: Educational Outcomes for African-American Boys in Father-Only versus Mother-Only Households  (p130-146)

Using a nationally representative sample of eighth grade students (N=495) from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), this research examines the relative effects of being in a single parent mother-only versus father-only family on the educational achievement of African-American middle-grade males. Findings are that: (1) only in the presence of socioeconomic class status is there a statistically significant difference between students from these two types of households; (2) African-American male students in mother-only households outperform their counterparts in father-only households; and (3) race, gender, and class are simultaneously intersecting categories/relations in the family experiences and educational achievement processes of African American boys. Keywords: education, African American male, father versus mother households, race, gender, class.

Townsand Price-Spratlen   Flowin' All at Once: Gender, Race, and Class in Depression Era U.S. Urbanization  (p147-170)

During the Great Migration, millions of African American women and men left the rural Southern U.S. in search of a better quality of life in urban areas of the South and the North. This paper evaluates whether urban ethnogenesis varies by gender and by class among African Americans. No prior research has provided a simultaneous historical and empirically comparative analysis of race, gender and class dynamics across multiple destinations of the Great Migration. While a down period in the Great Migration, the Depression was still marked by sizeable movement in which nearly ten percent of the total African American population moved interregionally. Ethnogenic measures such as NAACP activism, number of community newspapers directed at African Americans, and the level of church participation were each found to significantly influence the migration flows. There appears to have been a "gendered vibrancy" in African American ethnogenesis. Female migration flows were more significantly influenced by avenues of expressive culture (i.e., church participation) when compared with male flows, and women also have had more compressed and influential social networks in urban destinations. Keywords: Great Migration, African Americans, Ethnogenic, Female migration.

Cameron McCarthy Reading the American Popular: Suburban Resentment and the Representation of the Inner City in Contemporary Film and T.V.  (p171-188)

In this essay, I move beyond the radical tradition in curriculum and education research that treats race as an epiphenomenon — that is, as an effect of the political economy of class divisions. I also move beyond mainstream and panethnic conceptualizations of race that emphasize primordial attachments and ancestral continuity. Instead, I focus attention on the topic of racial discourse and the organization of affect in contemporary political life. I look specifically at the role of Hollywood film and television in the coordination of the identities of the professional middle-class (PMC) inhabitants of the suburbs and the disorganization of the identities of the dwellers of the inner city. Keywords: racial discourse, Hollywood film, television, professional middle-class, identities, gender, racial locations, whites and blacks in the U.S.

Environmentalism and Race, Gender, Class Issues (Part II)
Volume 6, Number 1, 1998, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editors: Robert D. Bullard, Dorceta E. Taylor & Glenn S. Johnson   

Introduction: Jean Ait Belkhir & Johnnella E. Butler  (p5-11)

The authors in both special issues on environmental justice of the journal Race, Gender & Class have done excellent work in identifying and examining the race, gender, and class inequalities in environmental injustice. Indeed, despite twenty years of research on the demographic determinants of environmental concern, and despite growing environmental activism in minority communities, there is still a great deal of confusion about racial, ethnic, gender and class differences in environmental injustice. The effort to grasp the nature and extent of intergroup differences in environmental injustice is particularly important in light of the emergence since the 1980s of the environmental justice movement. This movement now extends beyond the mainline environmental preoccupation with legislative reforms to embrace more firmly the commitment to "environmental justice" and build a progressive "rainbow" coalition that unites concern for the environment with a strengthened commitment to civil rights and economic justice (Bullard, Johnson, and Wright 1997).

Filomina Chioma Steady   Gender Equality and Ecosystem Balance: Women and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries  (p13-32)

In this paper, I discuss the relationship between women in developing countries and the environment including the impact of environmental degradation on their lives. I also offer some explanation for the marginalization of women and the failure of science and technology, propelled by the ideology of the domination of nature and of people, to provide solutions to problems of sustainable development. Finally I proposes a model for ecologically sound and sustainable development that will incorporate feminist perspectives as integral elements in policies and programs for sustainable development. Keywords: women, sustainable development, developing countries, ecosystem balance

Laura Pulido & Devon Peña   Environmentalism and Positionality: The Early Pesticide Campaign of the United Farm Workers' Organizing Committee, 1965-71  (p33-50)

What differentiates an environmental justice and mainstream environmental issue? Several different criteria have been suggested, including the articulation of explicit social justice concerns, as well as the subordinated nature of the affected population. In this article we explore this question and argue that positionality is one important criteria. Positionality refers to one’s location within a larger social formation, and thus affects how one experiences an environmental problem. Using the early pesticide campaign (1965-71) of the United Farm Workers’ Organizing Committee, we show that pesticides in and of themselves do not necessarily constitute an environmental justice issue. By comparing how mainstream environmentalists and farm worker activists encountered and responded to the problem of pesticides, we demonstrate how positionality is one important consideration in the development of an environmental justice framework. Keywords: Environmental justice, pesticides, positionality, United Farm Workers’ Organizing Committee.

Michael Dreilling   From Margin to Center: Environmental Justice and Social Unionism as Sites for Intermovment Solidarity  (p51-69)

In this comparative analysis of labor-environmental alliances it is argued that various forms of unionism and environmentalism help or hinder efforts to transcend narrow sectoral interests. Movement organizations that parallel, and sometimes emulate, grassroots organization, tactics, and discursive practices are better equipped to engage intermovement, oppositional alliances. This is evident in each of the periods where intermovement solidarity persisted. First, the efforts to build alliances between the two movements during the early 1970s can be located in the strategies of a handful of social unions and an even smaller group of environmental groups with concerns for social justice and full employment. Secondly, active grassroots mobilizations during the late 1970s and 1980s in both movements transformed the character of several leading social movement organizations. Finally, the broad alliance that challenged NAFTA makes evident that key sources of intermovement solidarity stem from the way in which larger movement organizations responded to, or were redefined by these movements from below, i.e. social movement unionism and environmental justice, respectively. Keywords: Environmental Movement, Labor Movement, NAFTA

Stephen L. Klineberg   Environmental Attitudes Among Anglos, Blacks, and Hispanics in Texas: Has the Concern Gap Disappeared?  (p70-82)

Using extensive data on environmental attitudes from two Texaswide surveys conducted in 1994 and 1996, this paper explores the specific ways in which Blacks and Hispanics differ from Anglos in their perceptions of environmental issues, before and after eleven other demographic and political variables are statistically controlled. The apparent differences between Anglos and people of color in concerns about local pollution and reported participation in pro-environmental behaviors decline to insignificance when the background variables are entered into the regression models. Being Black or Hispanic does, however, continue to have significant effects in dampening support for environmental initiatives, when these are explicitly associated with regressive impacts that threaten to exacerbate economic inequalities. People of color do not appear to differ from Anglos in their overall concern for the environment, but they do differ in the kinds of potential tradeoffs they are willing to accept. The data suggest that America's diverse communities are unlikely to unite in a new "rainbow" coalition until the efforts to promote a healthier environment are combined with a firmer commitment to economic and social justice. Keywords: environment, anglos, blacks, hispanics, attitudes

Francis O. Adeola   Environmental Injustice in the State of Louisiana? Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Illness in the Cancer Corridor   (p83-108)

This study offers theoretical and empirical assessments of hazardous waste distribution, environmental injustice, and associated human health problems in southern Louisiana. Demographic and socioeconomic differences in potential exposure to hazardous waste sites and related health problems are evaluated through discriminant analysis and logistic regression model. Respondents' perceptions of specific environmentally induced morbidity such as lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and respiratory problems are presented. Findings indicate that while Blacks are most likely to reside near hazardous waste facilities, they are less likely to perceive hazardous waste sites as the most serious problem. Furthermore, gender and socioeconomic factors are statistically significant in predicting the likelihood of environmental illness. Race (Black) was found to be more significant than socioeconomic factors in predicting residence propinquity to hazardous waste sites, controlling for other demographic and socioeconomic variables. Thus, the assertion of environmental, racial, and gender inequity found a strong support in the model estimated. The implications for community level actions, environmental education, environmental consciousness, environmental equity policy, and future research are discussed. Keywords: Environmental injustice, hazardous wastes, cancer corridor, LULUs, environmental illness, risks

Al Gedicks  Corporate Strategies for Overcoming Local Resistance to New Mining Projects  (p109-123)

Multinational mining companies are finding it increasingly difficult to get approval for new mining projects in sensitive areas in most advanced capitalist nations. To overcome grassroots environmental resistance to new mining projects, multinational corporations, in cooperation with the state, have attempted a variety of strategies, including the following: (1) legislative initiatives to thwart local democratic control; (2) legal challenges to local zoning authority; (3) mass media campaigns; and (4) attacks on tribal sovereignty. The development and effectiveness of these strategies will be evaluated in the context of the intense controversy over metallic sulfide mining in northern Wisconsin. Keywords: multinational corporations, mining, environmental resistance, democracy, corporate strategies, multiracial coalitions , tribal sovereignty.

David N. Pellow   Bodies on the Line: Environmental Inequalities.  Hazardous Work in the U.S. Recycling Industry  (p124-151)

A growing number of social scientists are researching the causes and effects of environmental inequalities -- the disproportionate toxic burdens in spaces where the poor and people of color "live, work, and play". This study expands upon this literature by exploring how environmental inequalities are produced in occupational environments. Drawing on Schnaiberg's Treadmill of Production model, I argue that the dangers involved in recycling work are produced and ignored by the ideology of pro-environmentalism and social responsibility used by recycling proponents. Workers in this industry face a great number of threats to personal well-being and respond to these hazards through a variety of strategies. These strategies underscore workers' capacity to critique and act against environmental injustices along dimensions of race, gender and class.

Keywords: labor, environmental racism, environmental inequalities, recycling, occupational

Laura Westra   Development and Environmental Racism: The Case of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni  (p152-162)

As Ken Saro-Wiwa rightly saw, the environment is "man’s first right." Without a safe and healthy habitat, neither humans nor non-humans can survive and thrive. This case study examines one of the blatant cases of environmental racism in recent times, a case of "omnicide" as Sara-Wiwa described it. I argue that the guilt lies primarily but not exclusively with the military regime in Nigeria, but that Royal Dutch Shell Oil, Northwest affluent countries and their leaders, and even all of us who care more about low prices for goods than for justice, must share the blame. Keywords: environmental racism, ecological safety, Northwest democracies, development.

Book Review: Glenn S. Johnson  Environmentalism and Economic Justice: Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest, by Laura Pulido, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1996  (p163-166)

Pulido emphasizes that the new social movements (NSMs) have a multifacet approach that addresses quality of life issues, environmental racism, identity politics, and class consciousness. Racism is defined in this book as a group with low economic power which result in their subaltern status in their community. This book does an excellent job in explaining how the struggles of the subaltern are framed in a larger political context due to their grassroots activism and their formation of an environmental justice movement around pesticide use, grazing land and grazing rights.

Volume 5

A Race, Gender & Class Critique of Genetic Determinism
Volume 5, Number 3, 1998, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editors: Carlos Muntaner, Christiane Charlemaine and Jean Ait Belkhir

Katherine Bankole  The Human/Subhuman Issue and Slave Medicine in Louisiana  (p3-11)

Enslavement and medicine historiography has not addressed the African’s proactive participation in and development of, medicine in the United States. The scholarly’s literature largely focuses on "Negro/Slave Medicine" in which the attention to disease is an important aspect. Antebellum disease studies of African people used the concept of race and supremacy to justify the enslavement of Africans. At the forefront of racial supremacist analysis was the question of whether African people were human or less than human among the world’s species of human beings. The notes contained in "The Human/Subhuman Issue and Slave Medicine in Louisiana" briefly review the complex circumstance and implication of the intersection of antebellum medicine and enslaved African people. Keyword: slavery, medicine, disease, race, racism, supremacy, Louisiana

Christiane Charlemaine & Jean-Claude Pons   What Monozygotic Twins Tell Us About Genetic Determinism  (p12-40)

The present paper reviews studies comparing monochorionic vs. dichorionic monozygotic twins on biological and behavioral phenotypes, revealing an anomalous pattern that MC-MZ are more dissimilar than DC-MZ twins for the former but less dissimilar for the latter class of phenotypes. The findings demonstrate that previous studies comparing undifferentiated MZs vs. DZs are invalid in estimating relative genetic and environmental influences on the phenotypes of interest and that such influences are much more complex in their interactions and effects than has been generally reported in the literature. The results from the MC-MZ vs. DC-MZ twins are generally acknowledged but dismissed in the methodological behavioral genetic literature. The present article in reviewing the little cited MC-MZ vs. DC-MZ body of research raises some serious issues about the validity of the MZ-DZ twin methodology for estimating relative genetic effects on behavior. Thus, twin studies may have misled us into believing in a genetic origin of many diseases and behaviors. In conclusion, this study discusses the growing paradox between the widely assumed identicality of MZ twins and the fact that truly identical twins do not exist, in either biological or behavioral traits. Keywords: monozygotic twins, monochorionic monozygotic twins, dichorionic monozygotic twins, genetic determinism.

David King The IQ Quantitative Trait Loci Project: A Critique (p41-50)

The IQ QTL project is an attempt to identify genes underlying variations in IQ score, using the maps of the human genome generated by the Human Genome Project. Due partly to a public campaign, the project has, for the moment, been postponed in the UK. I argue that IQ is a reification, a tool of social administration which describes a small subset of human intelligence. However, genetic variation probably does underlie part of the population variation in IQ. I situate IQ testing within the history of eugenics, and suggest that the IQ QTL project is a move to exploit the prestige of molecular genetics as 'hard science' and an attempt to escape from the debates around books such as The Bell Curve. I argue against funding the IQ QTL project because it will tend to lead to a closure of such debates and may lead directly to eugenic programs of genetic testing. While the liberal model of the relationship between science and society can only understand such opposition as an illegitimate attempt at censorship, a more realistic, dialectical, model understands that science funding decisions are themselves always acts of perpetuating certain paradigms and censoring others. Keyword: genes, molecular biology, intelligence, IQ, eugenic.

Christiane Capron, Adrian R. Vetta, & Attam Vetta  Genetic Model Fitting in IQ, Assortative Mating and Components of IQ Variance  (p51-60)

The biometrical school of IQists who fit models to IQ data trace their intellectual ancestry to Fisher (1918) through Mather & Jinks. There is, however no evidence that they understand Fisher or, indeed, have read it. Their genetic models have no predictive value and are, therefore, worthless. Fisher was critical of the concept of heritability, yet all their efforts are dedicated to finding an estimate of this worthless parameter. There is an assortative mating for IQ and Fisher showed that assortative mating introduces complexities in the study of a genetic trait. Assortative mating destroys independent segregation of genes, therefore, the concept of heritability which assumes independent segregation of genes, is not useful in presence of assortative mating. Keywords: Genetic model fitting, IQ, Assortative mating, Variance components.

Elizabeth A. Segal & Keith M. Kilty  The Resurgence of  Biological Determinism  (p61-75)

Biological determinism demonstrates the fact that science can be used to reinforce oppressive social values and conditions. Partly because of the atrocities of the Nazis and other fascists, biological determinism, especially in the form of eugenics, fell into disrepute following the end of World War II. Unfortunately, during the past 20 years, there has been a resurgence in the use of biological determinism as an explanation for human problems. This paper addresses two areas where science has been used historically, and continues to be used, to justify public policies and social attitudes which are discriminatory and oppressive: homosexuality and alcoholism. The article analyzes the debate over whether these social and personal characteristics are biologically or socially determined. How science has been used to reach these positions is addressed as well as the social and personal implications of such research. Of particular concern is the potential impact of biological determinism on the acceptance of human diversity. Keyword: biological determinism, diversity, eugenics, genetics

Jacquelyne F. Jackson The Resurgence of Genetic Determinism: Is It A Distraction? (p76-89)

Genetic determinism has received considerable media and scholarly attention of late, and the problematic social conditions suffered by African Americans and other low income or minority groups have been attributed to genetic deficiencies in these groups as a part of the debate on genetic determinism. This public clamber has overshadowed emerging research showing child maltreatment in schools such as corporal punishment and environmental pollution such as exposure to lead as more probable environmental contributors to poor social conditions and disadvantages of low status groups. Recognition of these environmental causes suggests interventions that might alleviate the problems.Keywords: genetic determinism, African Americans, low achievement, corporal punishment, lead toxicity,

Douglas WahlstenOrigins of Genetic Determinism in Medieval Creationism (p90-107)

The discovery of statistical laws of heredity by Gregor Mendel was an important advance in biological science. However, Mendel’s opinion that the entire character was transmitted was not derived from his data and instead reflected prior beliefs outside the domain of science. It is argued here that Mendel, a monk and later abbot of an Augustine monastery, was influenced by St. Augustine’s theory of divine creation of the rationes seminales which specified the form for all future beings in great detail. Furthermore, the continued adherence to genetic determinism among contemporary scientists is largely, despite strong evidence supporting a developmental systems or dialectical view of heredity and development. Keywords: St. Augustine, Mendel, Bateson, heredity, epigenesis, dialectics, reductionism

Craig T. Nagoshi Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment (p108-121)

The Hawaii Family Study of Cognition (HFSC) measured the cognitive abilities and social attainment of a large sample of American families (both biological parents and at least one teen-aged or older offspring) of Caucasian and Japanese ancestry. The present commentary summarizes a series of HFSC studies on possible genetic and social / environmental determinants of individual differences within and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies indicate that the factors that determine intelligence and attainment are more complex, interactive, and malleable than has generally been acknowledged in the literature. Keyword: intelligence, social attainment, genetic factors, social/environmental factors, racial/ethnic group differences

Melissa J. Perry & George W. Albee   The Deterministic Origins of Sexism  (p122-135)

Biological determinists often argues that women as a species are inherently inferior to men intellectually, physically and spiritually. This conclusion originates from an economic system that is dependent on the imposed inferiority of groups of people for the dominant group to remain powerful. Examples of the determinist imperative are plentiful in the sexist beliefs and practices of world religions. The consequences of deterministic patriarchy are pervasive in the physical and mental health status of women, and are illustrated by the perpetuation of patriarchal systems of physical and mental health treatment. This paper discusses the physical, sexual and psychological ramifications of biological determinism using examples from the global status of women’s health, the continuation of female genital mutilation, and the history of sexist beliefs in psychology that serve a social control function of both creating and defining women’s psychopathology.

Keywords: biological determinism, sexism, genital mutilation,, psychopathology, patriarchy.

Jean Ait Belkhir & Michel Duyme  Intelligence and Race, Gender, Class: The Fallacy of Genetic Determinism  (p136-173)

For good reason, the human brain is sometimes hailed as the most complex object in the universe. It comprises a trillion cells, 100 billion of them neurons linked in networks that give rise to intelligence, creativity, emotion, consciousness and memory. Can we ever fully understand human brain and intelligence? Every person is indeed genetically different, even "identical" twins are not "identical!" We cannot brush away genetic diversity; it is an observable fact, but rather than biology, it is the cultures that our brains have created that most severely limit our visions and the potentialities for the fullest possible development of each individual.

Race, Gender & Class Studies in Australia, Canada and U.S.
Volume 5, Number 2, 1998, ISSN 1082-8354

Introduction: Jean Ait Belkhir & Johnnella E. Butler   Race, Gender and Class Studies in Australia, Canada and U.S.  (p5-9)

Theorizing the relationship between class, gender and ethnicity becomes important in the context of attempting to understand the forms of inequality experienced by multiethnic and multiracial working women and men. There is a considerable body of literature which explores the interconnected relations of race, ethnicity, class and gender and how these relations have an impact on the lives of women and men (e.g., Belkhir’s RGC bibliography, 1997). While it can be argued that theorizing these relationships is particularly difficult, an examination of the papers in this issue of RGC show the relationships between these three concepts cannot be avoided. Those papers dealing with intersection issues make an important contribution.

Sandra Harding Backlash: Race, Gender and Class in Australia (p10-13)

Helen Ralston Race, Class, Gender and Multiculturalism in Canada and Australia (p14-29)

This paper explores issues of access to language programs and of recognition of foreign educational qualifications and work experience, their relationship with race, gender and class, and their impact on women’s lived experiences in the settlement country. I argue that settlement and multicultural policies and programs, by focusing on cultural diversity and difference rather than on inequalities among ethnic and racial categories of people, have constructed and reconstructed gender and racial inequity and that multiculturalism has done little to combat ethnocentrism, racism, classism or sexism in the work experience of South Asian immigrant women. I conclude that a critical feminist conflict approach to multiculturalism is an alternative paradigm for analysis, policy and action towards creating a gender-just and a race and class equitable democratic society. The paper draws on qualitative comparative data from original research among first-generation immigrant women who trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent and now reside in Atlantic Canada (126 women), in British Columbia (100 women), and in Australia (50 women). The field work, which was conducted in Atlantic Ocean between 1988 and 1991 and the remainder between November 1993 and May 1995, involved one-to-one interviews and limited participant observation in the women’s everyday activities.

Roberta Julian  "I Love Driving" Alternative Constructions of Hmong Feminity in the West  (p30-53)

This paper explores the social and cultural construction of femininity among young Hmong women in the western diaspora. Young Hmong women attending high school in the west find themselves located between competing and sometimes contradictory discourses in relation to gender as they are exposed to Hmong cultural ‘tradition’ and western educational values. The paper examines the strategies adopted by young Hmong women in Tasmania, Australia as they attempt to negotiate through competing sets of expectations to construct positive images of Hmong womanhood acceptable to both the local Hmong community and the wider society. It is argued that alternative constructions of Hmong femininity emerging in Australia and the United States challenge the core of Hmong social organization as ‘imagined’ in the West. The empirical and analytical discussion is located within a theoretical framework which focuses on the intersection of class, gender and ethnicity within the context of Australian multiculturalism. Keywords: Hmong, gender, ethnicity, Australia, femininity, identity

Michael D. Grimes, Susan A. Mann & James G. Shavor Gender and Intimacy: Do Race and Class Matter? (p54-78)

This paper examines the "essentialist versus diversity" debate by comparing men's and women's responses to questions involving intimate relations with partners/spouses and friends from two studies, each representing one side of this debate. After comparing our findings with regard to gender differences among African Americans with those of Lillian Rubin, we then extend our analysis to include another important dimension of diversity - class. Here we examine whether the responses of our sample of African Americans differ according to their locations within the class structure of American society. By focusing on the impacts of gender and class on intimate personal relationships among African Americans, this study provides a unique opportunity to address some important issues raised in the debates about essentialism versus diversity. Keywords: essentialism, gender, intimacy, race, class

Marie-Rose Mueller "Women and Minorities" in Federal Research for AIDS (p79-98)

This paper uses the case study of AIDS therapeutic research to narrate the social processes by which women and minorities came to be viewed as legitimate participants in federally sponsored biomedical research activities. It focuses on the strategies that physicians used to not only bring attention to the marginal status of women and minorities in treatment research for AIDS, but also to bring about the development of social policies to increase governmental funding for AIDS-related research. It argues that strategies deployed by physicians to advance the interests and participation of women and minorities in AIDS treatment research activities also served to advance the interests of medical doctors through the expansion of the jurisdictional boundaries of federally sponsored research activities. Keyword: AIDS, women, minorities

Rodney L. Brod & Paul E, Miller Race, Hunger, and Poverty on Montana Indians Reservations (p99-123)

In this paper we use a quantitative analytic procedure, logistic regression, to search for and identify critical attributes of race. In particular, through a secondary analysis of survey data, we shall ascertain and highlight fundamental, yet counterintuitive characteristics of American Indians that underlie hunger on Montana’s seven reservations. In a conventional sense, it might be a foregone conclusion that an analysis of data gathered on Indian reservations would be, from the point of view of race, a study of a constant, i.e., a study of only one race, but that is not the case. Keywords: quantitative methods, logistic regression, American Indians, hunger.

Elisabeth M. Esterchild & Rodney A. McDanel   Race, Gender and Income (p124-138)

This research describes the annual average income of women and men among the twelve largest distinct race and ethnic groups in the United States. Groups with high average incomes and a large gap between the income of women and men are small in population and comprised largely of highly educated immigrants who frequently own their own businesses. Groups with low incomes and a small gap income between women and men are large in population, mainly indigenous and, frequently employed in manufacturing or government work. The final section of the paper discusses methods for teaching the social structural perspective employed in the research. Keywords: race, gender, income

Michelle H. Miller, Rick Anderson, Julie H. Cannon, Eduardo Perez & Helen A. Moore Campus Racial Climate Policies: The View From The Bottom Up  (p139-157)

We review the debates over campus multicultural goals from the perspective of university officials and again from the perspective of the policy target: students. We then assess a sample of student policy opinions and the role of campus experiences and diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds in shaping those opinions. Often descriptive, this provides insights on working with diverse student populations. We focus our research on students because student voices are often unheard in education. Administrators are assumed to "know better" because of their years of campus experience or professional training. Keywords: student, diversity, education, multiculturalism

Donna Langston  Black Civil Rights, Feminism and Power  (p158-166)

Liberal feminism was strongly influenced by the strategies and vision of the black civil rights movement. Similarly, radical feminism was shaped by the strategies and visions of the black power movement. This article offers a comparative perspective of the strategies and visions of feminist, civil rights, and power movements.Keywords: liberal feminism, black power, civil rights, radical feminism

Book Review: Mary Bosworth Race, Gender, and Class, Martin D. Schwartz & Dragan Milovanovic (eds), Garland Publishing, Inc., New York, 1996  (p167-171)

The collection of essays entitled Race, Gender and Class in Criminology: The Intersection, edited by Martin Schwartz and Dragan Milovanovic is exemplary in its attempt to address the complex interaction between these categories. Consisting of two parts -- "Theoretical Perspectives" and "Applications" -- the book offers a rich variety of essays that range from postmodern, feminist and left realist perspectives, to empirical studies of women in prison, homelessness and adolescent fear of crime. Although the chapters differ substantially in content, each strives to challenge the implicit biases that still exist within criminology and within society. For, according to the editors" brief introduction, criminologists must "not only discover [the] configurations and repressive effects [of the interlocking systems of race, gender and class], but also conceive ways of transcending these historical structures.

Environmentalism and Race, Gender, Class Issues (Part I)
Volume 5, Number 1, 1997, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editors: Robert D. Bullard, Dorceta E. Taylor & Glenn S. Johnson

Introduction: Jean Ait Belkhir & Francis O. Adeola   Environmentalism, Race, Gender & Class in Global Perspective  (p4-15)

The environmental justice movement provides an ideal foundation for alliance building and a respectful unity-in-diversity because it understands that the very concept of dominating nature stems from the domination of human by human. The movement has linked the issues of neocolonialism, racism, sexism and classism as illustrated in this special issue. Most importantly, perhaps, is the fact that the environmental justice movement has redefined problems deeply embedded in the nation’s social, political and industrial history, and contends that they cannot be solved through a piecemeal approach. Therefore, the connections made between race, class and gender differential environmental impact have resonated in the environmental justice movement. As most of the contributors demonstrate in this special issue, the environmental justice movement differs from the mainstream environmental movement in its attempt to link environmental principles with historical and contemporary social and economic justice struggles.

Dorceta E. Taylor   American Environmentalism: The Role of Race, Class and Gender in Shaping Activism, 1820-1995  (p16-62)

The history of American environmentalism presented by most authors, is really a history of middle class white male environmental activism. The tendency to view all environmental activism through this lens has deprived us of a deeper understanding of the way in which class, race and gender relations structured environmental experiences and responses over time. The inability of the white middle class environmental supporters of the reform environmental agenda to recognize the limits of that agenda has led working class whites, people of color and some middle class activists, marginalized and/or excluded from the reform environmental discourse, to develop alternative environmental agendas. The environmental movement is a powerful social movement, however, the movement faces enormous challenges in the future. Among the most urgent, is the need to develop a more inclusive, culturally sensitive, broad-based environmental agenda that will appeal to many people and unite many sectors of the movement. To do this the movement has to re-evaluate its relationship with industry and the government, re-appraise its role and mission, and develop strategies to understand and improve race, class and gender relations. Keywords: environment, people of color, class, race, gender, environmental justice

Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson & Beverly H, Wright  Confronting Environmental Injustice: It's The Right Thing To Do (p63-79)

The environmental justice movement has set out clear goals of eliminating unequal enforcement of environmental, civil rights, housing, transportation, facility siting, and public health laws. Community residents are fighting to end their exposure to harmful chemicals, pesticides, and other toxins in their homes, schools, neighborhoods, and workplace. They are challenging the "science" and faulty assumptions in selecting sites for polluting facilities, calculating, assessing, and managing risks. In many cases, the only science involved in the siting of locally unwanted land uses or LULUs is political science.

Joe Bandy Reterritorializing Borders: Transnational Environmental Justice Movement on the U.S./Mexico Border  (p80-103)

In the turbulent restructuring of the global economic order, North America has seen the emergence of a neoliberal regime of accumulation, in which the ideologies of free markets and transnational production accompany practices of uneven development and the exploitation of natural and human resources. In this context, the U.S./Mexico border, and especially the San Diego/Tijuana area, has been a site of intensive political contradictions: rapid growth and industrialization, yet extensive immiseration and environmental destruction. However, the border also has been the site of an emergent group of community-based environmental justice movements which have worked to build trans-issue and trans-national coalitions in opposition to the abuses of corporate capital and unrepresentative government in the region. Through extended interviews with several environmental justice organizers, this study explores the possibilities and limitations of their coalitional endeavors, as well as their eco-populist and radically democratic vision of globalization from below. Keywords: environment justice, neoliberalism, US./Mexico border, coalition building, radical democracy.

Jael Silliman   Making The Connections: Women's Health and Environmental Justice  (p104-129)

This paper examines and compares the transnational women’s health movement with the environmental justice movement in the US. It discusses how both seek to empower those discriminated against with the information, tools and resources to challenge discrimination. Women have played key roles in both these struggles. Each movement has mobilized its own constituency and developed a distinctive political and economic critique. While providing a broad brush overview of each movement I underline their similarities and key differences. I compare the two movements on the basis of their objectives, leadership and membership patterns, organizing methods, constituencies, and their impacts. The paper points to potential areas for collaboration and suggests ways to relate to other social movements dedicated to creating a future based on a more inclusive set of values. KeyWords: health, environment, transnational organizing, environmental justice

Raquel Pinderhugues   Who Decides What Constitutes A Pollution Problem?  (p130-152)

This article focuses on problems which emerge for residents who live in low income communities impacted by small source polluters when environmental regulatory staff do not concur with their perception that there is a pollution problem in their community. The article discusses five main differences in perception between community residents and regulatory staff about the degree to which small source polluters constitute a "pollution "problem." First, differences in perception about the importance of looking at small source polluters vs. large source polluters as one defines what constitutes a "pollution problem." Second, differences in perception about the need to compare communities within the regulatory agency's jurisdiction to one another as one defines what constitutes a "pollution problem." Third, differences in perception about the need to take the resources of the regulatory agency into consideration as one defines what constitutes a "pollution problem." Fourth, differences in perception about the need to take the health of the business into consideration as one defines what constitutes a "pollution problem." Fifth, differences in perception about the need to take zoning regulations into consideration as one defines what constitutes a "pollution problem." Utilizing case study analysis, the author concludes that the current "regulatory approach" should be replaced with a "community-based approach," and that the new approach should be an "effects based analysis" rather than a "source-based analysis." Keywords: pollution, air pollution, environmental justice, community, small source pollutants

Paul Mohai  Gender Differences In The Perception Of Most Important Environmental Problems  (p153-169)

Research to date has suggested that gender differences in concern about environmental issues are more likely to exist for local problems that pose health and safety concerns than for environmental problems that are framed more generally. It has been hypothesized that women are more concerned than men about local environmental problems because they have been socialized to be family nurturers and caregivers. However, beyond the "local versus general" environmental concern distinction, there is little information about whether men and women differ in their concerns about a wider range of environmental issues, and what might account for these differences if they exist. In this study, gender differences were examined along five specific dimensions or sets of environmental issues: 1) resource conservation, 2) nature preservation, 3) pollution, 4) global environmental problems, and 5) neighborhood environmental problems. Women were found to express greater concern than men over most dimensions, although differences were modest. Keyword: gender, race, environment, environmental justice, environmental movement

Book Review: Joseph Damrell  The New Resources Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations, by Al Gedicks, Boston, MA South End Press, 1993  (p170-173)

Al Gedicks’ book, The New Resource Wars, points out that one problem is that, despite all the claims to the contrary, there is simply no safe way to extract minerals from the earth. The mining industry worldwide destroys nature and leaves human devastation in its wake. 

Volume 4

Race, Gender & Class : Asian American Voices
Volume 4, Number 3, 1997, ISSN 1082-8354

Guests-Editors: Qun Wang, Wendy Ng and Jean Ait Belkhir   

Introduction: Jean Ait Belkhir & Johnnella E, Butler   Race, Gender, and Class from an Asian American Perspective  (p5-11)

This special issue greatly contributes to the development of multicultural race, gender and class studies, by exploring the intersection of race, gender and class from an Asian American perspective. We want to thank all authors of this edition of Race, Gender & Class which reveals how the race, gender and class paradigm becomes a major concept not only in academic disciplines, but also in understanding better human social issues.

Yen L. Espiritu   Race, Gender, Class in the Lives of Asian American  (p12-19)

This essay discusses how Asian Americans, as racialized "others" who occupy a "third" position, both disrupt and conform to the hegemonic dualism of race, gender, and class. 

Tim Libretti   Asian American Cultural Resistance  (p20-39)

In this paper, I will explore the possibilities that might be produced from an encounter between Marxism and Asian American literary theory and begin to imagine what an Asian American Marxism (in the spirit of Cedric Robinson’s Black Marxism) might look like. More particularly I will examine the dynamics of both Asian American literary practice and theory as acts of cultural resistance and interventions into the complex and interrelated processes of Asian American working class, national, gender and racial formation and evaluate how the introductions of "class" and "totality" as literary critical categories might complicate and enhance our understanding of particular literary texts as well as our theorization of Asian American political identity as its constituent elements traverse diverse yet at-times contradictory categories of class, gender, race and nation.

David Leiwei Li   Race, Gender, Class and Asian American Literacy Theory  (p40-53)

This essay approaches the categorical construction of "Asian America(n)" through an interdisciplinary examination of its contemporary literary emergence. It investigates the ways with which race, gender and class are embedded within or absent from an evolving Asian American critical and cultural discourse, to reflect upon the interplay among the key "trilogy" itself, to note its inextricable relation to "nation" and "disapora," and to relate them to the role of Asian American academic critics. To accomplish this general objective, I will engage in a three-fold argument. First, I shall briefly use the "pre-scriptive" to suggest both the official legal definition and an earlier historical definition. The production and prohibition of the "Oriental" within the formation of the United States thus constitutes the prescription of the "Asian American" and predetermines to a large extent the scope of its challenge. Second, I look at the ethnic nationalist and feminist writings of the "Asian American" as counter narratives and "self (in)scriptive" acts where race and gender become central categories of contestation to the Orientalist "prescription." Last but not the least, I shall examine the "post-scriptive" Asian American delineational efforts within the more familiar and influential operations of postmodernist and poststructuralist discourses. This will bring us to the present moment when Asian American Studies is undergoing serious disciplinary revision due to the increasing duress of transnational capital. Attention will be devoted to the global and local capital's complication of race, gender and class issues, and to the place of the Asian American (academic) intellectual caught within this nexus of relations.

Julia Lisella   Class, Ethnicity and Gender in Maxine Hong Kingston's China Men (p54-68)

China Men is a book about work and class. And to focus on the mythic aspects of Kingston’s narrative is to overlook this larger theme. In this light, I would like to argue here, it might be more useful to look at Kingston’s work beside that of a more politically identified literary forebear than Williams, such as Filipino writer Carlos Bulosan. Indeed, Bulosan scholar E. San Juan, Jr., likens Kingston’s efforts in China Men to Bulosan’s text, America is in the Heart in that it offers "another strategy of creative disruption that can outflank the lure of identity politics, the lure of the romantic totem of the liberal imagination for writers who overvalorize its demiurgic capacity" (San Juan, 1991:58). Like Bulosan, Kingston examines immigrant labor and the racism that assailed Asian-American workers during their early century immigration to North America. And like Bulosan’s landmark autobiographical text, America is in the Heart, Kingston offers us a hybrid text that combines personal autobiography, personal history, and fiction to tell her story.

Jinhua Emma Teng  Miscegenation and the Critique of Patriarchy in Turn-of-the-Century Fiction  (p69-87)

Chinese journalist Wong Chin Foo’s account of the New York Chinese for the August 1888 issue of New York’s The Cosmopolitan addressed a subject that was attracting increasing attention in the American press during the late nineteenth century: the intermarriage of "whites" and "Mongolians." Wong’s claim for a supposed preference on the part of white working-class women for Chinese husbands can be read in part as a response to the more prevalent sensationalist treatment of white-Chinese relationships in the American media (Wong, 1888:308).

Qun Wang   "Double Consciousness" Sociological Imagination and the Asian American Experience  (p88-94)

As is demonstrated in Asian American literature, what many writers are searching for is a ground on which they can find their own identity, whether the identity is Asian or American, or American Chinese or Chinese American. In Chinese American Amy Ling's article, "Creating One's Self: the Eaton Sisters," the author reiterates "what has by now become almost a truism": "the self is not a fixed entity but a fluid, changing construct or creation determined by context or historical conditions and particularly by power relationships" (1993:306). By using the example of the Eaton Sisters who had adopted identities of their choice in creative writing, Ling convincingly reveals the dialectical relationship between creation and recreation and between the permeability of the boundaries of the self and the influence of historical conditions. To understand Asian American literature in the postcolonial period is, indeed, to resist the temptation of totalization, to accept the plurality of the Asian American experience, and to appreciate Asian American writers' effort to democratize American literary voice by (re)presenting what has been mis(sing)-represented, by celebrating the cultural diversity of American society, and by calling readers' attention to the peculiarity and uniqueness of the Asian American experience.

Madhulika S. Khandelwal   Defining Community and Feminism: Indian Women in NYC  (p95-111)

This paper is a case study of (Asian) Indian immigrant women in New York City. Though this is a discussion of one of the Asian American ethnic groups, it challenges attempts to compartmentalize ethnic women in homogeneous and static categories of race, ethnicity, and culture. By placing immigrant women in community trajectories, I hope to bring out gender dynamics that are shaped at the intersection of multiplicity of factors such as capitalism and international migration of labor, racial and partiarchal hierarchies, generation, and family conditions. At the same time, this intercontextuality of gender is in constant motion, and is (re)constructed out of relativity of roles.(Mohanty, 1991).

Jeffrey Chin   Mobilizing for Social Change: An Asian American's Perspective  (p112-121)

This paper will discuss some strategies for initiating institutional change on a college campus with intergroup relations as the focus. The paper will outline conditions under which change agents are likely to work and some of the special circumstances that arise when the change agents are Americans of Asian descent. Sociological theories of intergroup relations are presented to provide a better understanding of why these circumstances are peculiar to Asian American change agents, and the paper provides concluding comments.

Deborah Woo   Asian Americans in Higher Education: Issues of Diversity and Engagement  (p122-142)

The present article looks specifically at how Asian American students have experienced and viewed their own participation on a college campus which has one of the most ethnically, racially, and culturally diverse student bodies in the world, the University of California at Berkeley. During the late 1960s, when student unrest appeared on many different fronts, issues of racial and ethnic diversity revolved fundamentally around access. In addition to the protests related to America's involvement in the Vietnam War, students of all backgrounds were influenced by the Civil Rights movement. There were real legal and tradition-bound barriers to participation of ethnic-racial minorities in higher education in the United States (e.g., old-boy networks and access only via traditional black colleges). While the workplace was the first sphere in which affirmative action measures would be implemented, universities would ultimately be forced to embark on a course of self-examination of their own restrictive policies. Institutions receiving public monies were thereby required to better assess how well or poorly minorities fared, relative to the general population.

Milliann Kang   Manicuring Race, Gender and Class:  Service Interactions in NYC Korean-Owned Nail Salons  (p143-164)

This paper presents ethnographic data collected through interviews and participant observation with customers and manicurists in one Midtown Manhattan salon, focusing on the use of language (Korean vs. English) as a site of imposition and contestation of status and power positions.

Joyce N. Chinen   Sewing Resistance into the Grain:  Hawaii's Garment Workers at Work and at Home  (p165-179)

This paper explores Asian and Pacific American women's resistance to racial, class, and gender oppression by examining the work and family experiences of workers in Hawaii's garment industry. Interviews with twenty-five garment workers, most of them Asian and Pacific American women, showed that these workers were a diverse group in terms of age, generation, training. However, there were also similarities in the resistance strategies employed by these women in both their workplaces and homes.

Race, Gender & Class: Latina/o American Voices
Volume 4, Number 2, 1997, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editors: Anne R. Roschelle, Theresa A. Martinez, & William Velez

Preface: Jean Ait Belkhir & Johnnella E. Butler  (p5-9) 

This edition of the journal Race, Gender & Class focuses on the multiple effects of race, gender, and class on the daily lives of Latina/o Americans. The authors use a systematic analysis that integrates race, gender and class intersection from a Latina perspective and show three levels of interrelated contributions. First, Latino/a Americans have made limited gains in educational levels, labor participation, economic situation, rates of poverty, immigration policies, and other socio-economic indicators. For example, during 1990-91, approximately 60 percent of all baccalaureate degrees, 49 percent of all Masters degrees, and 33 percent of all doctoral and professional degrees were awarded to women. However, during 1990-91 Hispanic and African American women together received less than 6 percent of all baccalaureate degrees, and 4.3 percent of all graduate and professional degrees. Second, Latino/a Americans have developed resistance against the persistent sources of inequality produced by the interconnected effects of race, gender, and class on their daily lives - - e.g., utilizing the paid or unpaid labor of other adults residing in the home. Third, Chicanas are in the forefront in reformulating Chicano/a Studies by producing a solid body of literature that explores the intersections of race, gender, and class. As Alma Garcia writes, "Chicanas have been outside the framework of Chicano investigation and its research," as well as its general discourse. Thus, Chicana feminist work in the tradition of those women of color theorists who have pushed the issues of race, gender, and class to the forefront of analytical, theoretical and societal discourse.

Alma M. Garcia   Voices of Women of Color: Redefining Women's Studies  (p11-28)

These personal reflections from my childhood provide a particular dimension to my analysis of multiculturalism, the voices of women of color, and Women's Studies. Research on coming of age as a person of color in the United States is incomplete if gender identity is overlooked. Similarly, gender research on "growing up female" requires an analysis of racial, ethnic, and class identity formation. Within the academy, Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies scholars have been addressing the complexities of race, ethnicity, and gender which shape the daily life of women of color.

Richard A. Garcia   Toward a Theory of Latina Rebirth "Renacimiento de la Tierra Madre:" The Feminism of Gloria Anzaldua  (p29-44)

In this essay, I want to suggest that Anzaldua has not only analyzed the ethnic women's experiences, but has constructed a new theoretical framework from which to move beyond a dualism in identity to a state of multiple identities, including lesbianism. She has founded her theories on a "consciousness of collectivity," linked by a unity of spirituality, mythology, and humanism, and based on a recognition of differences.

Stephanie Amedeo Marquez   Race, Class, and Gender: Reformulating "The Push and Pull Factors" Explanation of Hispanic Immigration  (p45-56)

The most scathing indictment of the dominant sociological theory of Hispanic immigration is not that it is inadequate, or overly simplistic. The push/pull thesis of job and poverty cogently reinforces the public stereotype of "floods of poor, fertile, and illegal" Mexican immigrants fleeing poverty and stealing American jobs."

Cecilia Garza   Foreign Domestics: The Use and Abuse of Undocumented Household Workers  (p57-72)

This study presents an insight into the lives and intricacies of an otherwise invisible population of domestic workers. It also challenges the protected groups within the framework of established middle-class and upper-class families and business-sector institutions. Economic connections between the United States and Mexico have created a marginalized population differentiated on the basis of race/ethnicity, gender and social class.

Diana J. Torrez   The Role of Gender and Race in the Older Latinas's Economic Well-Being  (p73-90)

Utilizing Latinas’ socioeconomic indicators during adulthood, this paper examines the economic well-being of older Latinas. The educational levels, types of occupation and incomes of Latinas during the life course is examined in an attempt to understand these factors long-term effect on the economics of older Latinas. The author concludes that because Latinas are socioeconomically disadvantaged throughout their lives, this disadvantage not only persists into old age, but often worsens. This is evident by noting that Latina women have the lowest median income of any aged group. This paper concludes that older Latinas’ race and gender are directly related to their well-being. In order to begin to improve the economic situation of older Latinas, intervention must begin with young and middle aged Latinas. The intervention must not only assume the form of increased levels of education, but also must be accompanied by improved job opportunities and pay equity. Changes must occur not only at the individual level, but at the societal level as well, if the middle-aged Latinas are to fare better in the future than their mothers and grandmothers.

Vilma Ortiz Family Economic Strategies Among Latinas  (p91-106)

This paper examines one economic strategy that Latinas may use to improve their family’s economic status - utilizing the paid or unpaid labor of other adults residing in the home. To address this issue, I study whether the presence of other adults residing in the household, not including a spouse, has an effect on the family’s income level of Latinas. Moreover, I examine the questions (1) does the presence of other adults benefit non-married Latinas heading families more than married Latinas and (2) does the presence of other adults contribute more to the family’s income when women are employed than when they are not employed? In other words, does the presence of other adults in the home interact with marriage and employment? I also examine whether the characteristics of the adults present in the household influence their contribution to family income. For instance, does the presence of other women or employed adults in the household have an effect on family income? This study uses a 1990 survey of Latinos residing in California, who are primarily of Mexican origin. Results show that the presence of other adults in the household generally improves family income, especially among non-married and non-employed Latinas. Moreover, the characteristics of adults present in the household does influence their contribution to family income. These results contribute to our understanding of the economic strategies used by Latinas to improve their family’s income and illustrate how class, race/ethnicity, and gender intersect to influence family’s economic well-being.

Anne R. Roschelle   Declining Networks of Care: Ethnicity, Migration, and Poverty in a Puerto Rican Community  (p107-126)

Although past research suggests that women of color are more likely to participate in informal social support networks than non-Hispanic White women, there is limited research examining the child care networks of Puerto Rican women. In addition, past research often attributes participation in extended kin networks to cultural norms valuing familism or structural factors requiring participation in networks to mitigate against the deleterious effects of poverty. However, artificial dichotomies between culture and social structure have hampered the development of a broader theoretical paradigm from which to examine participation in extended social support networks. The research for this particular study originated from an earlier project that examined kin and non-kin social support networks among African American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, and White families using national survey data. Based on the findings of quantitative analyses, I designed a follow-up ethnographic study to address important questions left unanswered by survey research. Drawing on the ethnographic data, this research examines Puerto Rican women's participation in informal child care networks using an integrative theoretical perspective that explores the intersection of race, gender, and class by examining both cultural and structural indicators of social support.  

Ruth E. Zambrana, Claudia Dorrington, & Sally Alonzo Bell    Mexican American Women in Higher Education: A Comparative Study (p127-150)

Mary Romero Class-Based, Gendered and Racialized Institutions of Higher Education: Everyday Life of Academia From the View of Chicana Faculty  (p151-173)

This study focuses on the everyday practices occurring within institutions that shape the professional roles of Chicana scholars and teachers to fulfill specific class, gender, racial, and ethnic expectations held by the dominant majority in higher education. Analyzing the accounts of Chicana academic experiences provides a rich source of thick description about the everyday organization and practices in institutions, particularly the dynamics in universities, departments, and classrooms that genderize and racialize the academic positions.

Race, Gender & Class: Working Class Intellectual Voices
Volume 4, Number 1, 1996, ISSN 1082-8354

Editors: Judith Barker & Jean Ait Belkhir 

Janet Zandy   Decloaking Class: Why Class Identity and Consciousness Count  (p7-24)

What I would like to do is offer a road map to class. I want to point to certain directions, certain stops along the way, hoping that you will return to them for a closer look another time. In the first part I address the question of class identity and definition and suggest some approaches to thinking about this large concept. In the second part, I look at the question of visibility -- particularly in terms of the blocking of class history and knowledge. And in the third part, I speak more personally about my own work and my traveling identity as a working class person.

Brenda Cochrane and Dawn Addy Through the Wall of Fire: Class and Identity in Labor Education and Labor Studies  (p25-40)

Little attention has been paid in this literature to a small group of academics who, although they are trained in traditional disciplines, choose to pursue their academic career in the specialized fields of labor education and labor studies: fields where the primary mission is the education and empowerment of the working class. In this study we will examine the experiences of these academics who, in their choice of field, appear to be self-consciously struggling to maintain their class identity and their ties to the working class as a way of coping with the alienation they feel as they work in the upper-middle-class milieu of academia.

Fernando E. Gapasin Race, Gender and Other "Problems" of Unity for the American Working Class  (p41-62)

This study involved a local union in the public transportation industry. During the period being studied, 1970 through 1992, this union was transformed from a 124-member private sector union, made up mostly of White male bus drivers, into a 1800-member multiracial, multigender, multioccupational union. It was a period of tremendous economic, political, social and ideological change, marked by militancy, during which a rank and file movement for democracy unseated a 25-year incumbent president. It was also a period in which the leadership of the union changed from a White-run union to a minority led union.  This study suggests that demographic changes in the work force set objective conditions for fragmentation to occur, but the single variable that is decisive in building working class unity is the subjective factor, i.e., class conscious leadership. By class conscious I mean leaders who interpret the U.S. as a social system divided by class relationships, primarily, working class and capitalist class. Within this context, class conscious leaders understand that the system of dominance is not simply one of capitalist domination over the working class, but also a system of domination characterized by racial and gender privilege. In other words, within classes, there exist structures and cultures of domination by which White males have a privileged position over racial minorities (women and men) and White women. In addition, White men and women share a favored position in the American social system over racial minorities (women and men). I argue that "class consciousness" is a requisite to effective working class leadership. That is, leadership that recognizes that workers have multiple identities that are given meaning by their occupation, gender and race. It is the ideological "consciousness" that leads to activist strategies that create internal union coalitions aimed at increasing democratic participation. The implementation of the strategy results in an organizational restructuring that increases the potential of racial minorities and White women to play a leading role in union governance.

Joan M. Morris and Michael D. Grimes Contradictions in the Childhood Socialization of Sociologists from the Working Class (p63-82)

Early socialization within a class culture has important and long-lasting effects. Therefore, when individuals are socialized within a working-class family environment, they can expect to experience "culture shock" when they achieve upward mobility that takes them out of their class-of-origin and into the foreign terrain of middle-class culture. And, to the extent that gender and race or ethnicity manifest themselves in ways that are distinctively class-oriented, the effects of this "shock" are magnified for women, for people of color, and for the members of ethnic minorities. The focus of this paper is on the childhood socialization of a group of sociologists from working-class backgrounds - a group of people who have, by most standards, "made something" of themselves, but not necessarily in the ways their parents intended. In fact, for many of them, their successes have been accomplished in spite of what their parents taught them about what it means to be successful; their successes have also sometimes come at the expense of the approval and acceptance of their families and childhood peers.

Jake Ryan   Even If You Can't Go Home Again, Do It Anyway!  (p83-102)

The proteanism essential to the survival of an authentic self can be realized through action according to Lifton. The search for the authentic self is through a spiritual journey inward to essence or outward in causes that reconnect us to our species being, be those cases ecological survivals or other paths leading to a sense of global belonging. These are the paths leading to hope and psychic survival (1993:232).  What I wish to do in this paper is raise some questions about Lifton’s postulations, particularly historical dislocation. What I wish to argue is that far more conflict exists between historical locations than he allows. Further, when historical dislocations are multifaceted and include several overlapping oppressions, such as intersections of class, race, gender, or ethnicity, the problem for the individual goes beyond estrangement to inner conflict. Resolution of these inner conflicts is not readily resolved by inward spiritual journeys or astroprojection or cosmic belongingness. Rather, it is a matter of engaging the specifics of inner conflict and the external mechanisms of oppression.

Judith Barker  A White Working Class Perspective on Epistemology (p103-118)

I was in the early stages of a research project, interviewing academics from working-class backgrounds, when Jake Ryan, co-author of Strangers in Paradise gave me a call for papers from working-class academics and suggested that I write something. Like all junior faculty I was under pressure to publish and felt that I had to write something. Since my research was still in the early stages I decided to write a personal essay about being a white woman from a working-class background in academia. When I attempted to begin writing I found that I could not separate my personal experience from my academic knowledge: my academic knowledge kept creeping into my personal account. The reverse was true when I tried to write from a purely research standpoint. I spent several months attempting to write an essay without even creating an introduction or outline. This was a painful process for me and I began to think that I had writers block. As the deadline approached I finally wrote an introduction; a "story" about my mother and myself which was grounded in a combination of personal experience and academic knowledge. I had no idea why I began that way, but somehow it worked.  When the essay was completed I summarized the roots of my analysis as: my own personal experiences; conversations with other working-class women in academia; and the preliminary results of my research. I sent it off, and while initially rejected, it was later published in a Women's Studies text. (Barker, 1990).

Roxanne Rimstead  What Working Class Intellectuals Claim to Know  (p119-142)

Should we lament the distance that comes between working-class intellectuals and the friends and family they "leave behind" or should we celebrate our connectedness? Is class primarily a social location from the past that working-class intellectuals have transcended through professionalism, a past that houses memories of family life and neighborhood but exists largely outside of and out of touch with the academy we now call home? Or is working-class reality ever present to its own "organic intellectuals," to use Gramsci's term, who have special knowledge and special feelings about this community? Can academics from the working class have it both ways by claiming to know special secrets about both worlds - and yet protesting we are "nowhere at home" (Ryan & Sackrey 1984, Overall in Dews & Law 1995)? These are not merely choices of theoretical paradigms or personal metaphors. These conflicting images of distance and solidarity help construct the relationship between intellectuals and oppressed people by generating cultural beliefs about the possible relation between the two.

Terry R. Kandal  Gender, Race & Ethnicity: Let's Not Forget Class  (p143-166)

The most serious and pressing intellectual and political challenges to Marxist class analysis are posed by the rise of new social movements based on sex/gender and race/ethnicity (leaving aside those based on sexual orientation, generation, physical challenge, etc., etc.) captured by the characterization "identity politics." To these we could add environmental/ecological movements, with green parties attempting to unify all these disparate groupings with sections of an older left (s). Combined with the relative and recently absolute decline of the industrial proletariat (Kimeldorf 1994:25) in the advanced capitalist countries, the weakening of working-class organizations, and trade unions, the centering of labor and socialist parties, the collapse of Soviet-type communist states and third world socialist regimes, many on the Left have argued that the concept of class has outlived its power and usefulness, scientifically and in political practice. Two sociologists (Terry Clark and Seymour Martin Lipset) from different ends of the political spectrum, but always at the cutting edges of social and theoretical developments, represent this shift away from class analysis.

Jean Ait Belkhir  Social Inequality and Race, Gender, Class: A Working Class Intellectual Perspective  (p167-194)

We are not born class awareness. It must be learned. My family was working class, and I began my working life as a factory and construction worker at the age of 14-15 years old. My family never identified itself as working class. I discovered this word in Marxist literature when I went back to school at the age of 29 years old to become a working adult student without a junior or high school diploma. I struggled for years to understand it. All learning about social class inequality begins with Marx, but does not end there. Marx does not adequately address gender and racial inequality and does not seem to realize that educational inequality is a form of capital, even more under socialized economy. My aim is to argue that the complexities of social inequality cannot be understood without a combination of Marx's concept of class and Weber's theory of socioeconomic status with Bakunin's analysis of education as a form of capital with race, gender and class intersections as analytical categories. I will use domestic work as a model to illustrate how the complexities of race, gender, and class are played out. Boldly I call for "Higher Education for All Children," and of course, what I have in mind, is higher education within a curriculum framework of multi-culturalist and egalitarian ideology.

Book Review: M. Bahati Kuumba  From the Left Bank at the Mainstream: Historical Debates and Contemporary Research in Marxist Sociology, by Patrick McGuire and Donald McQuarie, New York: General Hall, Inc., 1994  (p195-198)

This collection of articles, edited by Patrick McGuire and Donald McQuarie, explores the importance of Marxism as a distinct sociological tradition, source of key concepts and frameworks to mainstream U.S. sociology, and ideological basis for countless socioeconomic and political liberation struggles. The timeless of this work is indisputable. It emerges into a socio-political atmosphere charged by rising neoconservatism, the proclaimed demise of Marxism as a relevant paradigm, and the dysfunctionality of socialism as allegedly illustrated by the disintegration the Eastern bloc.

Volume 3

Volume 3, Number 3, 1996, ISSN 1082-8354

Lois Weis, and Michelle Fine   Notes on "White" As "Race:" (p5-9)

"White" as "Race" is a terribly important question, and we would like to see multiculturalist educators and race, gender, and class scholars push it more.

Deborah Woo Asian Americans in Higher Education: Issues of Identity and Access  (p11-38)

This article reports on how Asian American students have discussed issues of access at UC Berkeley. During the 1960s efforts to mitigate social inequalities took new, reformist, sometimes even radical institutional form. Affirmative Action was a small reformist measure, introduced into institutions of higher education to offset previous practices which contributed to the exclusion of certain groups from the ranks of students, faculty, and staff. On July 20, 1995, a bare majority of the University of California regents voted to end the use of race as a factor in both admissions and hiring.

Enrico G. Pedro  South African Matriculation Results: Comparison Across Racial Lines (p39-60)

In this article, I demonstrate that, because of inequality that resulted from past racial discrimination, a comparison for recognition between the matriculation results of the various South African racial groups is unfair, absurd, and illegitimate. A comparison for recognition can only be fair and legitimate if the effects of past racial discrimination are eliminated. I contend that a racial breakdown of the matriculation results, however, is necessary to monitor the equalizing process. I focus on the following aspects: racially segregated education, funding, physical resources, teacher provision, medium of instruction, curriculum and evaluation, socio-economic conditions, culture of resistance, parental involvement, apartheid bureaucracy, teacher strikes, and student discipline all of which contributed to the inequality in South Africa's education.  I also make a few recommendations toward eliminating the effects of past racial discrimination. They are the dismissal of elements that obstruct progressive change, a greater racial integration in neighborhoods and schools, compensatory money allocations, socio-economic empowerment, and a drastic change in the content and format of the curriculum, and the evaluation instrument. This may only be achieved over a few decades.

Meg Wilkes Karraker Race or Socioeconomic Status? Predicting High School Females' Plans for Higher Education (p61-76)

This article addresses three questions related to a primary component of gender roles, the education plans of adolescent females. To assess the relative impact of race and socioeconomic status on those role plans, the research on which this article is based examined three questions: 1. Do Black and White adolescent females have the same or different plans for higher education? 2. Do Black and White adolescent females from the same family income circumstances have the same or different plans for higher education? 3. What contributions do race and family income make to the education plans of adolescent females? The data which these questions were measured are from the High School Class of 1980, a decade which signifies the high school graduation of the cohort known as the 'baby bust'. Scholars and planners can look to this cohort in anticipation of seeing the crystallization of gender role changes which occurred in the preceding generation.

Milagros Peña Beijing's 95 and the Women's Movement in Michoacan, Mexico: Centering Discussions on Gender, Class, and Race (p77-87)

The 1995 United Nations' sponsored International Women's Summit conference held in Beijing, China was a catalyst for an impressive worldwide mobilization of women's non-government organizations (NGOs). This paper looks at women's NGOs contributions in Michoacán, Mexico to the 1995 United Nations' international conference on women. The "Toward Beijing" strategizing helped the women's NGOs in Michoacán mobilization process and the crystallization of its movement focus. Archived documents, interviews, and letters circulated in the mobilization for the toward Beijing buttressed dialogue around gender, class, and race issues that had been evolving in Michoacán. The opportunities created by the toward Beijing efforts created forums for dialogue and opportunities for women’s NGOs to meet regularly and for them to bring their perspectives to the toward Beijing preparatory process.

Linda Pertusati   The 1990 Mohawk-Oka Conflict: The Importance of Culture in Social Movement Mobilization (p88-106)

Using an explanatory framework that draws upon the insights of social movement theory that stresses the importance of culture and frame analysis , this article will demonstrate how Mohawk Warrior Movement leaders were able to use cultural resources in order to nurture and capitalize on an ideological interpretive frame, "nationalism," to articulate their own and their constituents' grievances against state repression and to assign meaning to movement participation and protest activity. I will also demonstrate how this ideology of Mohawk nationalism, when merged with a sense of responsibility to Mohawk history (in this case, a recurring pattern of land theft, cultural denigration, and resistance), mobilized a committed constituency of resistance during the 1990 Mohawk-Oka conflict.

Theresa A. Martinez   Toward A Chicana Feminist Epistemological Standpoint: Theory at the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender  (p107-128)

This present work is about that unlearning and learning process. While the paper is by no means a complete denial of Marx, Weber, and Durkheim and the other "masters of sociological thought" that dominated my undergraduate and graduate training, it is about affirming other ways of knowing the social world. But chiefly, this paper is about autobiography. It is about my story, my personal history as a Chicana, and as a feminist. In trying to know and understand my personal history, I take a step that sharpens my ability to envision the social world within the individual life, as well as the individual life within the social world, that is both theorizing and storytelling. This paper, while not an achievement of a completed Chicana feminist epistemological standpoint, is a beginning step taken toward its accomplishment and toward affirming its timeliness and its significance in the world of academia and in everyday life. 

David Nibert   Note on "Minority Group as Sociological Euphemism"  (p129-136)

Recently, while I was teaching a course on the sociology of race and ethnic relations, a student bristled when the concept of minority group was presented. The student maintained the label somehow diminished the status of entire groups of people. As I attempted to respond to my student with the routine sociological definition, I became increasingly uncomfortable with my own defense of the concept. I came to consider the possibility that the term minority group was a euphemism created and perpetuated by social scientists. It is that position that is developed here.

Raymond S. Franklin  A Brief Essay on "The Response to Black Youth Crime By A New  Breed of Bleeding Heart Conservatives"  (p137-146)

If you can trust the words of Newt Gingrich, American Civilization rests on the shoulders of black 12-year-old girls. On April 7, 1995, he stated: "The fact is, no civilization can survive with 12-year-olds having babies"(NY Times 1995:8). Black girls were not mentioned because it was unnecessary. Whenever teenage pregnancies are discussed in the media, pictures of young black girls are shown. The teenage mom has become a code word for young black women who have children out of wedlock. How do we make sense of Gingrich’s statement? What does it mean when a congressional leader of the only superpower left in the world expresses the belief that the future existence of his country depends on the chastity of black 12-year-old girls? I will try to provide an answer to these questions.

Jean Ait Amber-Belkhir in collaboration with 16 authors 
Multiculturalism and Race, Gender, Class in American Higher Education Textbooks (p147-173)

Domination and Resistance of Native Americans
Volume 3, Number 2, Winter 1996, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editor: Luana Ross

A Short Story by Patrick LeBeau  (p5-10)

The following is true as far as it goes. I remember Grandpa Allard - my mother’s Mother’s father - use to tell many stories and such when we would come visiting but only if us kids would sit quietly and tend to his needs. I always brought him a pack of Camels; a brand he said he began smoking in 1917. In 1976, when I was eighteen, he told me a more serious story because he overheard my father and me discussing what I should do with my life. My father wanted me to go to college rather than throwing block in Minnesota or raising horses for the rodeo with my uncle in South Dakota. The story Grandpa Allard told was analogous both to his life and to my father’s life. But, I wonder how much the story was meant for me.  

Jack Forbes  The Native Intellectual Tradition in Relation to Race, Gender and Class  (p11-34)

A review of indigenous American writing has made it apparent that indigenous authors have had to think of race, gender, and class, or more precisely, nation, gender, and caste, within the context of invasion, colonialism and imperialism. Whatever the position of the genders in pre-invasion American societies, the five centuries which followed have forced most First Americans to preoccupy themselves with colonialism, and with the evolution of caste societies as the latter gradually shifted emphasis from religion, nationality, and class, to primarily race and caste.

Franke  Wilmer Narratives of Resistance: Postmodernism and Indigenous World Views  (p35-58)

This article will focus on the commonalties between two in particular which have not been examined coincidentally: postmodernism and indigenous peoples' activism as narratives of resistance and liberation. In addition to remedying this deficiency by enlarging discussions about postmodernism to include indigenous social theory and philosophy, this essay also points the way to further explorations into some of the most pressing problems unveiled by the postmodern critique, such as how others can be include without assimilating and totalizing them, and identifying alternative ways of conceptualizing gender and difference. Finally, by revealing the important ways in which indigenous philosophies enlighten a broader critique of modernity, this essay is also a call to social theorists and practitioners to take the indigenous critique seriously. As global processes weave together ever more tightly a common destiny, it may well be exactly the pieces of knowledge contributed by the myriad of indigenous cultures that become vital in our mutual efforts to adapt, and therefore evolve, in an ever changing social and physical environment.

Rodney L. Brod, and John Lundt   Ethnic Differences In An Indian Reservation High School  (p59-74)

Supported by the school administration and the local Indian parent committee, a study was designed and undertaken to determine the extent of the relationships, if any, between ethnicity (being American Indian or not) and relevant measures of schooling and academic achievement. In addition to using school achievement data, an extensive questionnaire was designed based upon concepts and items from previous major studies by Dornbusch (1985) and Dornbusch & Ritter (in press) in the area of home characteristics and by Rutter, et al. (1979) in school environment. The study instrument reported here was administered to the sophomore, junior, and senior classes from this reservation school. Freshmen were not included in the study because, compared to older students, they were less likely to have: 1) settled into their niches (e.g., social groups, curriculum track and advanced placement), 2) acquired a clear and complete academic track record (e.g., standardized tests, grades and attendance records), and 3) exhibited measurable socialization and contextual effects of schooling in the secondary level setting. The study population consisted of 96 students of which 51 (53%) were Anglo and 45 (47%) were American Indian. Before discussing the specific results, we briefly review some relevant theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to the study of ethnic or racial differences in education.

Patricia Albers, and Nancy Breen   Gender Parity and American Indian Reservations (p75-96)

Although gender differences have been examined in the light of federal policy, there has been no attempt to systematically study how economic features of gender status vary between reservation and non-reservation populations. In this paper, we compare select economic indicators from the 1980 Census of Population and from the Supplementary Reservation Census (PC80-2-ID) published during the same year to determine whether there are gender differences between on-reservation and off-reservation American Indian populations. In the course of examining these data, we argue that American Indians living on reservations are associated with a set of conditions that contribute to a greater income parity by gender.

David E. Wilkins Henry Berry Lowry: Champion of the Dispossessed (97-112)

Laura E. Donaldson Virtual Conquest: A Little Tale Of Genocide for the Cybernetic Age (p113-124)

Sid Meier's Colonization. Hunt Valley, MD:MicroProse Software, 1994. [A CD-ROM computer game in which participants choose to represent either English, Spanish, Dutch or French nationalities. Play offers several different difficulty levels, all of which involve the constructing of a "New World" in the Americas. All quotes from the game and game manual will appear in italics].

Luana Ross Resistance and Survivance: Cultural Genocide and Imprisoned Native Women (p125-142)

This article focuses on resistance and survivance as a response to prisonization. Specifically, I examine racism, sexism, and rehabilitative programming. In addition, I briefly discuss reprisal on behalf of prison officials to prisoners' acts of resistance. I do so gingerly, because I fear for the Native women who are presently incarcerated in Montana.

Jean Ait Belkhir, Luz Mangurian, Christiane Charlemaine, Brian Masters, Michel Duyme, and Maureen Yarnevich Mathematics, Intelligence and the Human Brain: A Race, Gender & Class Critical Analysis (p143-173);

Volume 3, Number 1, Fall 1995, ISSN 1082-8354

Sandra Harding Multiculturalism in Australia: Moving Race/Ethnic Relations from Extermination to Celebration? (p7-25)

Is Australia culturally plural? Is it structurally plural? Is Australia a multicultural society? I reach this conclusion after proceeding through four stages. First, I place multiculturalism in historical context by briefly examining the history of race/ethnic relations in Australia. Like Wilson (1980), I feel that much can be learned by viewing race/ethnic relations in the large, as part of the historical development of a particular society or nation-state. In this particular case, setting the context reveals the enormity of recent changes in espoused public policy towards white ethnics and, most especially, people of color. This is no less than a 180o shift in Australian public policy. Next, I review contemporary research on multiculturalism with a view to both describing the diversity of scholarship in this area and demonstrating that the espoused theory of multiculturalism does not (yet) appear to be the theory-in-use. Then, I seek to understand why Australia does not conform to the ideal of a multicultural society. A range of barriers, structural, ideological, and attitudinal, exist that have worked against multiculturalism. More importantly, I suggest that as a theoretical construct multiculturalism is flawed. Finally, I draw some conclusions about race and ethnicity in Australia and briefly comment on the implications of my analysis for calls for multiculturalism in the United States.

Shelley M. Park & Michelle A. LaRocque  Multiculturalism: A Challenge to Two Myths of Liberalism   (p27-48)

This paper comprises a mere beginning on this project. In the first part of this paper, we sketch a brief account of multiculturalism. This sketch is not intended as a complete account of the complexities of multiculturalism. Indeed, it serves merely to point out, rather than work out, those complexities. Nonetheless, it provides some of the contours of the concept of multiculturalism which serve to distinguish it from other positions that have been under attack recently. In the second part of this paper, we address two prevalent and diametrically opposed criticisms of multiculturalism, arguing that multicultura lism, properly understood, evades both of them. More specifically, we argue that criticisms of multiculturalism as relativistic, on the one hand, and as absolutist, on the other, simply mask liberal democratic theory's myth-begotten attempt to resolve the tension between the one and the many. Multiculturalism challenges the myths of meritocracy and abstract individualism which underlie liberalism and proposes a reconceptualization of democracy.

Barbara Huddleston-Mattai  The Black Female Academician and the "Superwoman Syndrome" (p49-64)

Women are on the lowest rungs of the academic ladder. In a 1989 national survey (Millem & Astin 1993), women were53.5% of the Lecturers and 49.7% of the Instructors whereas they were 38.1% of the Assistant Professors, 26% of the  Associate Professors, and only 14% of the Professors. Of 8,771 black women, who were full-time instructors in institutions of higher education, 6,364 (71.9%) were concentrated at the Assistant Professor and lower ranks (Digest of educational Statistics 1993). Only 1,606 (18.3%) were at the Associate Professor level and 801 (0.9%) were at the Professor level. While it can not be denied that racism, sexism, and classism are factors operating against the upward mobility and job security of black academicians, it is being proposed here that the "superwoman syndrome", based on these factors particularly in reference to black women, also operates in a manner that affects the scholarly productivity of these women.

Judith Barker  White Working-Class Men and Women in Academia  (p65-78)

White men and women from working-class backgrounds confront some remarkably similar experiences, issues, and problems in the context of class mobility in academia. Gender does, however, shape the mobility process in a number of ways. As Myra Ferree says, While middle-class professional women are relatively insulated from the costs capitalism imposes, as are working-class men from the costs of patriarchy, working-class women experience and must come to terms with both. (Ferree, 1990:187-188). Race, whiteness in this case, also shapes the mobility process; white men and women are insulated from the costs of racism. In this essay I explore some of the ways in which the structure of our gender system leads to different experiences, issues and problems for class mobile white men and women, as well as some of the ways that a common class and racial background lead to similar experiences.

Alison A. Carr Race, Class & Gender Differences in School Change Team Membership (p79-96)

Community participation has become an important aspect of almost any change effort in public schools in recent years. The movement has waxed and waned through the decades since the Common School, but is enjoying renewed interest with the emphasis placed on involving stakeholders in systemic change efforts. Typically, community participation has taken the form of seeking "buy-in" of parents and community members. The shape of the new systems that are being designed by current restructuring teams will be largely determined by the makeup of the team itself. Where multiple perspectives are represented, the team must grapple with diversity but the product will be more likely to represent the views of many instead of a select group. After an exploration of the relevant literature on systemic change, community participation, race, gender, and class, this paper explores membership patterns exhibited in six middle schools seeking to increase parental and community participation. The study finds that minority and father populations were underrepresented and draws implications for the impact of this lack of balance on school design teams.  

Gail Dines  Class, Gender and Race in North American Media Studies  (p97-112)

This article, rather than providing a comprehensive map of the field, is particularly concerned with looking at how North American scholars modified the theories and methodologies developed by the CCCS group to explore the role media play in constructing ideologies and identities. In its journey across the ocean, cultural studies underwent many changes, some for the better and some for the worse. For many of the critics of North American cultural studies, the most debilitating change was what they see as the severing of its intellectual ties to Marxism; while I will argue that there is some truth to this, I will also suggest that these critics have ignored the enormous contributions that white feminists and scholars of color have made to the development of theory and research in North American cultural studies.

Thomas K. Fitzgerald Ethnic Markers: Media & Changing Metaphors of Ethnicity and Identity (p113-124)

For better or worse, we are a consumer society that now recognizes the utility of diverse markets: suddenly ethnicity and ethnic markers sell. Is this a transient fad or a fundamental cultural change? How have metaphors aided in understanding ethnicity, culture, and identity? This paper addresses the question of metaphorical effectiveness - the "aptness" of metaphor - in scientific discourse about ethnicity, especially in the contemporary "culture" debates. Although literal descriptions have their limitations, metaphorical ones - increasingly subject to ideological manipulations - call for constant scrutiny. Despite the wonderful richness of such imagery, metaphor in scientific discourse remains problematic at several levels. When judging the elegance of research models, the effectiveness of its guiding metaphors must always be carefully evaluated.

Jean Ait Belkhir, Maureen Yarnevich, Lawrence Shirley & Christiane Charlemaine Mathematics For All Children: A Multicultural Race, Gender & Class Analysis (p125-160)

We regard this paper as a preliminary study to attempt to set out the issues and indicate possible directions, and will be following it up with more in depth studies later on. Is mathematics a social filter or a women, race, and class issue? Since mathematics is an activity that is performed by human beings who live in certain historical and cultural contexts, mathematics is inevitably an activity influenced by social forces. Everyone can learn mathematics. The mathematics education movement suggests that this should be true, and some math teachers and mathematicians believe that it is true. For many years, mathematics teaching was based on the opposite premise. We assumed that not everyone was capable of learning mathematics, the "either you get it or you don't" theory, but we also seemed to expect that only a small percentage of children would succeed in mastering the concepts and techniques of this discipline. This study does show that there is something wrong with mathematics? Why is that particular race, class or gender have a gift of being able to succeed and that others do not in mathematics? 

Volume 2

Race, Gender & Class Perspective On Canadian Anti-Racism
Volume 2, Number 3, Spring 1995, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest-Editors: Agnes Calliste, George Sefa Dei

Agnes Calliste, George Sefa Dei, and Jean Ait Belkhir   Canadian Perspective on Anti-Racism and Race, Gender & Class (p5-10)

While each paper argues for the centrality of race in Canada's anti-racism education debate, the authors explore the relational aspects of social difference by race, gender and class in what may be termed integrative anti racism. It is pointed out that a working knowledge of the intersection of race, class, and gender in the anti-racism discourse is helpful in the development of multicultural education. If we are to respond to any of these questions, our current thinking on race and anti-racism education will have to include a critical interrogation of the economic, political, social and ideological processes and structures of society for their implications in sustaining contemporary forms of what may be termed "anti-different" racism.

George Sefa Dei   Integrative Anti-Racism: Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender (p11-30)

This paper examines some of the basic tenets of anti-racism education and the implications for transformative learning and social change. While the paper argues for the centrality of race in the anti-racism debate, the author explores the relational aspects of social difference (race, class, gender, sexuality) in what is termed "integrative anti-racism.".It is pointed out that a working knowledge of the intersections of race, class, gender and sexual oppressions in the anti-racism discourse is helpful in the struggle for educational equity, social justice and change. In the final section of the paper, the author examines issues concerning the education of youths of African descent in Canadian school systems, pointing out the lessons for an "integrative anti-racism".

Carl E. James Multicultural and Anti-Racism Education in Canada (p31-48)

In this paper, we will examine how "official" multiculturalism has influenced multicultural and anti-racism educational policies and practices in Canada. We will argue that the principles and practices of multicultural education, premised on the Canadian Multiculturalism Policy/Act, which are to be found in the approaches to education in many of today's classrooms, have been ineffective in addressing the needs, expectations and aspirations of students generally, and minorities in particular. While schools and institutions, particularly ethnically and racially homogeneous ones, have been somewhat hesitant to take a multicultural education approach in addressing the needs and problems of students, they are even more hesitant to adopt anti-racism education because it is perceived as "counter-productive" and placing too much emphasis on race by racism (Mansfield and Kehoe 1994).

R. Patrick Solomon Why To Teach From A Multicultural And Anti-Racist Perspective?(p49-66)

The study reported in this article analyzes my experience as a African-Canadian male directing a Social Foundations of Education course at a teacher education facility in urban, multicultural Canada. The course engages students in a sustained inquiry into the sociological, historical and philosophical issues that are pervasive in the practice of teaching in contemporary schools and classrooms. Student teachers whose world-views are often anchored in their race, class and gender locations are provided alternative interpretations from the literature to broaden their perspectives and prepare them for the complex task of teaching. Some of the issues explored in the course are race, culture and socialization; schooling and social class stratification; gender socialization and occupational opportunities; policy, provision and pedagogy for antiracism and ethnocultural equity; teacher education for racial and cultural diversity. An introduction to these issues in plenary is followed by small group seminars where assigned readings as well as student - generated resources are discussed. The experiential and interactive dimensions of these seminars provide the opportunity for student teachers to link theoretical perspectives presented in the literature with their own experiences in schools and classrooms. Although most of the course content was Canadian based (e.g. , Claiming on Education: Feminism and Canadian schools by Jane Gaskell, Arlene McLaren and Myra Novorgrodski; Stacking the Deck:The streaming of working-class kids in Ontario Schools by Bruce Curtis, D. Livingstone and Harry Smaller), their conceptual framework was enriched by cross-cultural research and literature.

Sherene H. Razack The Perils of Talking About Culture: Schooling Research on South and East Asian Students (p67-82)

This paper is an exploration into how we as activists and researchers might simultaneously talk about the sign of culture, the terrain of racism and the many ways in which schools are organized to reproduce a highly racialized and gendered status quo. I will argue that the only way to pay attention to these three themes is to confront head on the risks of talking culture in educational debates and to pay attention to the context of culturalised racism in which such discussions are conducted. The risks notwithstanding, it is clear that we do need to talk about cultural differences in the context of schooling given that culture is the terrain in which racial othering occurs and also the ground for an oppositional politics.

Najja N. Modibo Immigrant Women's Participation in Toronto Union Locals (p83-104)

Over the last two decades increasing demographic shifts resulting from immigration patterns in Canada has continually remade the make up of trade union membership, this has been especially so in the country's major cities. At the same time, immigrants have not actively participated in their unions. Also, their experiences have largely been ignored in the literature. In this study of 35 women who immigrated from countries such as South Korea, China, Mexico, Vietnam, Uganda, Bolivia, Spain, Poland, Hong Kong, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, Portugal, Jamaica, Greece, Cambodia, India, St. Vincent and the Ukraine, I examined the obstacles to the women's participation in their locals. All of the women were of working class backgrounds. Some observers have identified the women's lack of familiarity with the host language, and their culture as responsible for their lack of participation in their locals. However, I have found that despite the efforts of some trade unionists and trade unions to adjust to the new membership's needs, issues of class, ethnicity/race and gender offer a better explanation to the women's lack of participation.

Ronnie Leah Anti-Racism Studies: An Integrative Perspective  (p105-122)

In this exploratory article, I discuss the emergence of anti-racism studies as an identifiable perspective in sociology and related disciplines in Canada. Anti-racism studies incorporates multiple theoretical models, and it builds on the analysis of gender, race, and class to provide an integrative understanding of oppression -- how the social relations of gender, race and class intersect in people's lives. Anti-racism studies incorporates multicentric and holistic understandings of human experience in its social, cultural, ecological and spiritual aspects. This perspective is explicitly transformative and liberatory, focussing on social justice for all people as the goal of academic analysis and community activism. Drawing predominantly on recent Canadian writing and research, as well as relevant international literature, I suggest that anti-racism studies can be considered an emerging paradigm in sociology.

Agnes Calliste The Influence of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movement in Canada (p123-142)

This paper examines the influence of the American Civil Rights and Black Power movements in Canada from a social movement perspective. These movements had a tremendous impact on a new social and political consciousness and identity of African-Canadians, for example, they intensified their anti-racist organizing and resistance. In 1968-69, several African-Canadian organizations (such as the Afro-Canadian Liberation Movement [ACLM] in Nova Scotia and the National Black Coalition of Canada [NBCC]) were formed to foster Black consciousness and identity and to eliminate racial oppression, social and economic injustices against Black people (ACLAM 1969). However, the status quo resisted African-Canadians' demands for societal transformation and power-sharing. The Canadian state sought to contain the movement for Black equality through political appeasement--such as funding African-Canadian organizations and the appointment of commissions--and RCMP surveillance of anyone suspected of being a Black activist.

Jean Ait Belkhir Integrative Anti-Classism: Race, Gender & Class (p143-166)

Review Essay: John A. Weaver Popular Culture and The Shaping of Race, Class and Gender: Exploring Issues and Imploding Academic Boundaries (p167-174)

In this review essay, I want to suggest that as sociologists, educationalists and cultural critics of race, class and gender we should embrace a hybrid of the two: one that sees popular culture as a vital source of knowledge but maintains the critical tradition.

Volume 2, Number 2, Winter 1995, ISSN 1075 - 8925

Jean Ait Belkhir Multicultural Education: Race, Gender & Class. Rethinking the Introductory Textbook in the Academic Disciplines  (p11-38) 

Robert J. Frankle Integrating Multiculturalism Into General Education: Some Practical Issues and Models (p39-48)

The movement for a more multicultural curriculum in higher education has, of course, many dimensions (for a discussion of some of these, see Adams 1992). One is supporting and strengthening programs such as Women's Studies, African-American Studies, and Ethnic Studies. Another is striving to transform both the curriculum and the structure of the different majors and professional programs. Still a third is seeking to insure that all students are required to study some multicultural material in the course of their college career. It is this last dimension which will form the subject of this paper. While there does not yet appear to be a consensus on a precise operational definition of "multiculturalism," the term is often used, sometimes indiscriminately, to denote two related but distinct types of content. One is the study of differences among disparate cultures. The other is the examination of the relationships between dominant and subordinate groups, including such issues as racism, sexism, and class conflict. In this paper, I shall refer to the first of these contents as "cultural diversity" and the second as "issues of injustice." I shall use "multiculturalism" as a broader, umbrella term to encompass both of these two meanings.

Patricia I. Francis A Review of the Multicultural Education Literature  (p49-64)

Attempts are made in this article to capture the fairly tumultuous history of multicultural education, to summarize its many meanings, and to identify conceptual and pragmatic problems faced by educators who have tried to implement this approach. Special attention will be paid to these issues in America higher education, the educational level at which multicultural education is least developed. A basic assumption is that college-level educators can learn a great deal from efforts to implement this approach in primary and secondary schools, particularly regarding the need to extend multiculturalism beyond the classroom to the total campus environment.

Penny Anthon Green  Evolutionary Insights Into Problems of Sexism, Classism & Racism, Including Prospects for their Elimination (p65-84)

My argument begins by introducing theoretical preliminaries necessary for understanding the evolved foundations of human behavior. It then considers some evolutionary insights that are relevant to gender, class, and racial/ethnic domination. Objections surrounding Darwinian analyses are also addressed. The concluding discussion examines the evolutionary foundations of behavior that would seem essential to eliminating the aforesaid domination.

Vivian J. Rohrl The Anthropology of Race: A Study of Ways of Looking at Race  (p85-98)

First of all, I would like to make clear that, as far as contemporary scientific anthropology is concerned, there is no set of scientific racial categories. (Lasker, 1976). Furthermore, one premise of anthropology is that science, rather than reaching absolute truth in a vacuum, progresses and selects what and how we study on the basis of who we are and what we believe and assume about life and relationships. This means that, if the concept of race once existed, it was the product and result of ways in which groups of people thought about other groups. The fact that our scientists are now dismantling the idea of race reflects aspects of our North American version of such things as equal rights under the law, an extension of the earlier Euroamerican "melting pot" tradition. Having said that, in the rest of this discussion I will explore with you the ways in which the concept has been used in the past and the implications of this word, "race," in modern times.

Ronald E. Hall The Color Complex: The Bleaching Syndrome  (p99-110)

The objective of this paper is then to inform African-Americans and shed light upon some of the dynamics associated with racial domination. It will introduce the Bleaching Syndrome (Hall, 1990a) as a response by African-Americans in their attempts to assimilate into a society characterized by such domination. It will also make available to scholars a theoretical framework for logically comprehending the impact of assimilation and racial domination upon the psyche of less powerful groups. And lastly, it will define and illustrate some of the consequences of the Bleaching Syndrome for those African Americans who internalize light skin and other dominant race characteristics as the ideal point of reference for normal assimilation into American society.

Robert Jensen Men's Lives and Feminist Theory  (p111-126)

The two main points of this essay may seem self-evident or simplistic to feminists, but they are important for men to consider: (1) For men who are messed up (that is, facing problems related to their emotional lives, sexuality, their place in society, and gender politics -in other words, me and virtually every other man I have ever met) feminism offers the best route to understanding the politics of such personal problems and coming to terms with those problems. (2) If men accept the first point, feminism will confront and confuse us about ourselves, and our job is to embrace, not run, from that challenge. Put more simply: Men need to (1) take feminism seriously, and (2) take it personally, for their own sake as well as in the interests of justice.

Helene M. Lawson Gender Equality in the Manual Working Class  (p127-138)

This paper focuses on the gendered exchanges and coping strategies used by these married working-class men and women to get a college education and keep their marriages intact during the process. First I discuss the data- gathering methods used for this study and the characteristics of the sample. Next, I examine the concerns of students and their spouses with juggling school, work and family responsibilities. I then describe coping strategies based on role switching and sharing used by these couples and their satisfaction with their new roles. I conclude with a discussion of the meaning of these findings for future class, family and gender research.

Terry R. Kandal Gender, Race & Ethnicity: Let's Not Forget Class (p139-162)

The questions this essay addresses are whether it is possible to integrate in a scientifically adequate sense the problematic relations of ethnicity/culture, sex/gender and social class into systems of structured social inequality (to take from Cynthia Heller). More specifically, under what conditions are which identities most salient? It appears that we know more about those in which racial, ethnic, national, gender, and sexual identities take precedence than about what happens when such differences are overcome by a common consciousness and mobilization against dominant classes. The only guidelines we can derive are from a careful comparative examination of the historiographies of revolutions, working-class, women's and oppressed minorities' movements employing the theoretical armories of the full range of humanistic disciplines. It is clearly the case, to borrow a title from Robert J. Antonio, that we have witnessed "The Decline of the Grand Narrative of Emancipatory Modernity" (1990) so central to Marxism. Before we put class in third place (or even further down the scale) we must remember that in 1898, Eduard Bernstein, following the Fabians, had declared class polarization, immiseration, and capitalist crises passe. It is the argument of this paper that the dismissal or severe reduction of the theoretical and political significance class is premature and unwarranted - especially in light of the relentless, irreverent and licentious and fetters to the accumulation of capital on a world scale. Further, in a world of identity hatreds, we ignore class at our own peril and do a disservice to our students. With these introductory remarks made I will turn to a consideration of these points in some of the literature generally referred to as multiculturalist.

Volume 2, Number 1, Fall 1994, ISSN 1075-8925

Jean Ait Belkhir, Suzanne Griffith, Robert Beam, David Carroll, Diane Garsombke & Mary Pulford Multidisciplinary Reviews on Race, Sex & Class  (p7-30)

This article has examined various issues involved in teaching about race, sex, and class in multiple disciplines. These three topics and their integration and inclusion are on the cutting edge of pedagogical and curricular change. With that change will come new paradigms (new understandings of humanity, its diversity, and how these diversities influence behavior, thought, and emotions) to guide instruction in the 21st century.

Christine E. Sleeter   Multicultural Education and the American Dream: Race, Class and Gender (p31-54)

In this article, I will examine why most teachers participating in staff development project felt that they had learned much, but why changes in their classrooms were generally quite limited. First, their conceptions of multicultural education will be described. Then I will analyze three contexts in which those conceptions were constructed: their work at school, their personal life experience in the wider society and the staff development project.

Jama Lazerow Winning Hearts As Well as Minds? Teaching Multicultural History in the 21st Century 55 Berch Berberoglu Class, Race and Gender: The Triangle of Oppression (p69-78)

This paper examines the class nature of racial and gender oppression under capitalism and provides an analysis of the processes by which capital has secured for itself a racially and sexually differentiated working class that it can exploit for greater private profit. The relationship between class, race, and gender are thus examined in the context of the processes that facilitate the exploitation of labor within capitalist society.

Jean Ait Belkhir The "Failure" and Revival of Marxism on Race, Gender & Class Issues 79 Vincent J. Roscigno Social Movement Struggle and Race, Gender, Class Inequality  (p109-126)

This paper is devoted to exploring the general issue of group subordination and struggle with a particular emphasis on the ways in which patterns and processes are constant and the extent to which they may vary across subordinate groups. First, I examine processes central to insurgency as suggested by prior research. Following this discussion, I question the extent to which these processes may vary depending upon whether the struggle occurring is rooted in race, gender, or class inequality. Finally, implications for researchers, educators, and social activists interested in inequality and group struggle are explored.

Rose Weitz Sex, Class, Race: Health and Illness in the United States (p127-144)

The causes of illness are not randomly distributed among the U.S. population, but rather fall more heavily on some than on others. Similarly, the nature of illnesses varies dramatically from group to group, with some groups experiencing health problems unknown to others. This article looks at how, is illness distributed among the U.S. population, examining the impact of three social factors - sex, class, and race or ethnicity.

Robert E. Parker Race, Sex, Class: The Contingent Work Force in the United States (p145-160)

This paper focuses on the race, sex, and class dimensions surrounding the emergence and growth of the contingent workforce in the U.S. economy. Contingent workers are those who have a loose affiliation with their employers (Polivka and Nardone 1989; Russell 1991). As the 1990s began, between one-quarter and one-third of all U.S. employees were a part of this burgeoning workforce. Examples of contingent workers include temporary workers (the fastest growing category), many self-employed "entrepreneurs", part-time workers (both involuntary and involuntary), and contract or subcontract workers (usually employed by business service firms). Each of these occupational categories that make up the contingent workforce are growing considerably faster than the U.S. labor force as a whole. While some workers choose a contingent working status (often for family or other personal reasons), a large and growing percentage of these workers are finding contingent positions their only option as U.S. corporations continue to downsize and restructure their global operations.

Yaffa Schlesinger Race, Sex, Class: Social Theory, Politics and the Arts (p161-173)

The 1993 Biennial exhibit at the Whitney Museum of American Art (New York, March 4 - June 15, 1993) has been described as a sociopolitical exhibit with a social consicence. It received mixed reviews, from being a politically correct exhibit with little concern for esthetic and pleasure, to an exhibit that is most ethnic and diverse. In this exhibit, Glenn Ligon presents a most unusual work titled Notes on the Margin of the Black Book. This paper suggest that Rashomon, the movie by Akira Kurosawa, and Mapplethorpe, as presented by Glenn Ligon, have become new concepts added to the vocabulary of arts and letters.

Volume 1

Volume 1, Number 2, Spring 1994, ISSN 1075-8925

Jean Ait Belkhir, Suzanne Griffith, Christine Sleeter & Carl Allsup   Race, Sex, Class & Multicultural Education: Women's Angle of Vision  (p7-22)

It was at the American Sociological Association workshop on Race, Class, and Gender in June 1993, that I realized how we were ill prepared to face the challenge of developing and teaching a race, sex, class and multicultural education in our disciplines. In the past two years, working with several colleagues in my campus, we have found that the problem is very serious. In general, students are mostly not "interested" learning about "differences" between racial ethnic groups, or women are the only ones in the classes on gender. And finally, they have been taught that the United States is a classless society! How, in the face of such concrete reality, can education be developed to educate, support, and empower those who have been (are still) excluded from the history of human society? An additional issue is the paucity in all disciplines of programs that focus on race, gender, and class and multicultural education. The challenge is great! It is time to question ourselves: do we want to encourage each other to integrate race, gender, and class in our classroom and beyond?  -Jean Belkhir

Gail Dines What's Left of Multiculturalism? Race, Class and Gender in the Classroom  (p23-34)

This article discusses my attempts to facilitate such a shift in my classes at Wheelock College--a process which involved much self-scrutiny and re-analysis of what it means to be a progressive feminist teacher coming out of the English education system.

Joyce Beggs, Dorothy Doolittle, Diane Garsombke   Entrepreneurship Interface: Linkages to Race, Sex & Class (p35-52)

Jean Ait Belkhir Race, Sex Class & 'Intelligence' Scientific Racism, Sexism, & Classism  (p53-84)

Much of this paper is an attempt to reject the notion that racial, sexual, and class differences in "intelligence" truly exist or can be attributed to genetics. There are a number of similarities in the research on race and class, including (a) fairly large and reliable differences in IQ; (b) a continuing controversy over the relative importance of genetics and environment in these differences; and (c) an obsession with IQ scores as opposed more specific measures of intellectual performance (such as mathematical vs. verbal ability). By contrast, in the studies on sex, we can notice (a) weak and inconsistent overall differences in IQ or brain size; (b) relative less concern with cultural differences between men and women; and (c) a concern with more specific measures of intellectual performance. But overall, I believe the idea to study the dubious link between genes and "intelligence" by comparing race, sex, and class would never be scientifically value free because it originates in a society based on racial, sexual, and class differences.

Monika Bahati Kuumba The Limits of Feminism: Decolonizing Women's Liberation/Oppression Theory (p85-100)

Qun Wang i>Literature Reading, Curriculum Building and Cultural Diversity (p101-110)

Eleanor Lapointe Integrating Gender, Race, Class and Ethnicity into our Research and into Graduate Student Studies  (p111-116)

The following discussion is based on a presentation I gave at the 1989 meetings of the Eastern Sociological Society, graduate student caucus. Written from a graduate student perspective, the analysis reflects on how students grappled with aspects of diversity, inclusion, and exclusion in a seminar designed to address theoretical issues of inequality.

Kathleen Kaufelt   Social Class: By Design or Default? Conceptualization of Poverty as Hegemonic Discourse  (p117-136)

In this paper, I will present my contention that everyday conceptualizations of poverty serve as a hegemonic discourse in the ensuing struggle for power and domination which I have just described. I will argue that this hegemonic process is not one that has recently surfaced but rather has deep historical roots embedded in the conservative decades of this nation's life span. Writers such as Edward Banfield, Lawrence Mead and George Gilder will be profiled to exemplify the specific fallacious notion of blaming the victim which serves as an ideological tool in this hegemonic dynamic. By no means do I mean to imply that these are the only such adherents of blaming the victim. I have merely included in this writing a sampling of those whose arguments I found particularly applicable to my premise, and, quite frankly, I feel are the most proficient at manufacturing a false notion of reality.

Eloise Hiebert Meneses Race and Ethnicity: An Anthropological Perspectives (p137-146)

Book Review: Suzanne Harper White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness, by Ruth Frankenberg, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993  (p147-149)

Ruth Frankenberg's study of white women makes a major contribution to our understanding of the complex intertwining of race, gender, sexuality and class. Drawing on recent writing which views "race" as a fluid social, political and historical construct. Frankenberg explores white women's lived experience of "race," and specifically "whiteness."

Mary Pulford   Anthropology and Race, by Eugenia Shanklin, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994  (p149)

This book is ideal reading not only for faculty but also for students. While its aim is to address the notion of race    within anthropology course, its appeal id broad based and should be helpful in all of the social sciences. The content of this book is divided into five chapters: "Race as a Social Category, Not a Biological Fact", "The Anthropological Curiosity: Why Are There Differences?", "Ignoble Savages or Just Others? Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace", "Race, Culture, and Eugenics", "Discarding Race, Dealing with Racism". At the end of each chapter Shanklin provides discussion questions as well as a list of further readings.

Volume 1, Number 1, Fall 1993 ISSN, 1075-8925

Jean Ait Belkhir, & Michael R. Ball   Editor's Introduction: Integrating Race, Sex & Class in our Disciplines  (p3-11)

Elizabeth Higginbotham   Sociology and the Multicultural Curriculum: The Challenges of the 1990's and beyond  (p13-24)

Patricia Hill Collins   Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection  (p25-46)

My presentation today addresses this need for new patterns of thought and action. I focus on two basic questions. First, how can we reconceptualize race, class and gender as categories of analysis? Second, how can we transcend the barriers created by our experiences with race, class, and gender oppression in order to build the types of coalitions essential for social exchange? To address these question I contend that we must acquire both new theories of how race, class and gender have shaped the experiences not just of women of color, but of all groups. Moreover, we must see the connections between these categories of analysis and the personal issues in our everyday lives, particularly our scholarship, our teaching and our relationships with our colleagues and students. As Andre Lorde points out, change starts with self, and relationships that we have with those around us must always be the primary site of social change.

Jean Ait Belkhir, Michael R. Ball & Paul Lutter   Race, Sex & Class:  An Alternative Introductory Course. A Working Class Egalitarian Perspective  (p47-64)

Although the definition of sociology as a "social science" implies that the discipline is objective and therefore neutral in its stance, sociologists and other scientists have not been immune to adopting the culture's standards without reflection. This has been especially true in the study of race, sex and class.

Jeanne Ballantine Race, Gender, Class and Education (p65-94)

In this article, we examine several aspects of the educational experience of race, gender and class and their dynamic process within this system.

Marcia Texler Segal ; The Academic Confrontation with Patriarchy: Two Decades of Feminist Theory and Practice in Sociology and Related Disciplines (p95-108)

I begin this paper with an overview of the theoretical perspective that currently inform feminist scholarship in the social sciences. Next, I discuss the epistemological and methodological implications of the theories. Comparisons with more traditional approaches in the social sciences are made throughout.

Larry T. Reynolds and Leonard Lieberman   The Rise and Fall of "Race"  (p109-128)

Walda Katz-Fisman and Jerome Scott  After the Quincentenary and the Columbus Debate: Whose "New World Order?"  (p129-144)

 

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