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Jean Ait Belkhir


Managing Editor
Christiane Charlemaine

Race, Gender & Class
Sociology Department
College of Liberal Arts

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Phone: (504) 280-1209
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Published Issues:  Volumes 10-20

Volume 20

A) Election Processes, Politics, and Governance
in the Obama Era
B) Race, Gender and Class and Social Movement, Environmental Justice, Gender, Ethnicity, Culture
of Poverty Issues
Volume 20, Number 3-4, 2013. ISSN 1082-8354

Part A

Guest Editor:   George L. Amedee

George L. Amedee    Introduction:  Election Processes, Politics, and Governance in the Obama Era   (p 3-6)

Elgie C. McFayden, Jr.    The Politics of Race during the Obama Era    (p 7-17)

Abstract:  In recent years various mainstream social and political scientists have argued that race is no longer a compelling factor in national politics, particularly since the election of President Barack Obama. For many social and political scientists, race was a significant factor in the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections and continues to be significant today. This paper examines the impact of the African American vote on the election of President Barack Obama to better understand the role race plays in contemporary presidential elections. Keywords:  African American vote; Civil Rights, voter registration, African American political behavior; Barack Obama, presidential elections

Don-Terry Veal, William I. Sauser, Jr., Ronald R. Sims, and George Amedee    Economic and Technological Impact in the Obama Era: Social Networking, Transparency and Public Sector Learning    (p 18-32)

Abstract:  The financial crisis of 2007–2010 began prior to the election of President Barack Obama. It is widely viewed as the worst fiscal crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It was a result of severe shortfalls in the United States banking system and led to a collapse of large financial institutions and downturns in stock markets worldwide. These challenges also resulted in a crisis in the housing market, declines in consumer wealth, and declines in overall economic activity, all of which have adversely affected local governments and citizens across every race, gender, and class in many ways. The collapse also spurred protest movements fueled by technological innovations and the involvement of well-educated middle class youth. This article explores the breadth and depth of the crisis and its specific impacts on local governments and their citizens. It also examines how local governments responded to these fiscal challenges and identifies which actions governments implemented across the board and the targeted budget cuts taken during the economic recession. It also examines the role of technology and transparency in the Obama Era in mounting citizen responses designed to address dire economic conditions in a way that we have never seen before. This article discusses the organizational changes made through advances in technology, and—using events and revolutions in the Middle East as examples—favorably argues that governments with appropriate, transparent measures of accountability are more likely to receive support from citizens and financial communities for such measures.   Keywords:  accountability; Barack Obama; financial crisis; local government; Middle East; social networking technology; targeted budget cuts; transparency

George Amedee    Movements Left and Right: Tea Party and Occupied Wall Street in the Obama Era    (p 33-39)

Abstract:  The present article examines the two movements on the left and right that intensified under the Obama presidency in response to the economic crisis and the Wall Street bailout. In addition to tracing the evolution of the movements and their similarities and differences in terms of race, gender, and class concerns, this article assesses the present and future viability of the two movements as important players shaping policies affecting race, gender, and class. The author concludes that although the two movements came about because of similar concerns, there are clear differences in the focus of the two movements with their view of governmental and corporate entities of the society. He concludes that the long term integration of the Tea party within the political system has greater potential while the Occupied Movement’s future has been hindered by its anti-government, anarchist’s roots. Yet the author contends the Wall Occupied Wall Street Movement has galvanized considerable progressive energy on the left and has benefitted from having some of its goals to be similar to some of the policy goals of President Obama. Keywords: anarchy; the one-percent; social movements; social networking Trouble Asset Relief Program (TARP)

Joan Marshall Wesley    Foregrounding the “War on Women”: Right-Wing Conservatism and Progressive Policies    (p 40-63)

Abstract:  The research examines two issues at the core of the War on Women:  1) equal pay for equal work, and 2) reproductive health services. Data for the research were collected from secondary sources: The National Women’s Law Center, the American Association of University Women, the National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League, and the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Placing the discussion against the backdrop of Super Political Action Committee funding, the paper examines how powerful and well-financed ideologues advance contested policies that undermine women’s rights. It tracks legislative responses to the two core issues, explores the gender pay gap by state, and identifies encumbrances to women’s access to reproductive and other preventive healthcare services. The research also explores the implications of these two issues for women separately and at their intersection. Finally, the paper discusses immediate and long-term consequences of reproductive injustice and unequal pay, including housing and neighborhood choices, family stability, and their primacy in healthy sustainable communities.   Keywords:  women equity; gender equity; pay equity; reproductive healthcare

Ashraf Esmail, Lisa Eargle, Anna Evans Lamikanra, and Sonya Armstrong   The Art of Killing a Dream   (p 64-79)

Abstract:  This paper examines how race relations have changed since Barack Obama was elected to the office of President of the United States. The authors examined media coverage of issues encountered by this president, to see if any of those issues had a racial bias. Results showed that change has come to America in the area of race relations because a black man has ascended to the Presidency, the highest office in the land. On the other hand, commentators are still debating his “blackness” or lack thereof, which indicates race remains a salient issue in society.   Keywords:  race relations; media; “blackness”, Obama

Jimmy D. McCamey, Jr. and Komanduri S. Murty    A Paradigm Shift in Political Tolerance since President Obama was Elected    (p 80-97)

Abstract:  Since President Obama was first inaugurated, the rhetoric, overt opposition of political ideology, racial overtones, lack of bipartisanship, and reckless disrespect for the Oval Office have been overwhelming. Specifically, the negative reactions towards Obama and his actions culminated into an extreme ideology that far exceeds the past definition of the conservative movement, making it almost unrecognizable. Further, sensitive issues that the media conveniently left out during coverage of the Bush administration suddenly came to the forefront in frighteningly unfair ways. The two huge bailouts that were commissioned under the Obama administration were a culmination of a number of poor policies that were in place well before his time. Additionally, America entered a war that shifted the national budget from a surplus to a grueling deficit; the war consumed lives of many of our young men and women in uniform, and inflicted a seeming never ending series of traumas and injuries on many more of our veterans while not providing an exit strategy. In alignment with his campaign promises, President Obama eliminated unjust military practices and implemented safety nets to aid service men and women who returned home with debilitating financial and mental health circumstances. Despite the several positive steps that the Obama Administration undertook to restore the nation’s image in the world through the balanced use of diplomacy and force, the Tea Party Conservatives and their surrogates felt the need for a grass root appeal to reconstruct the political process in America. This article examines the paradigm shifts in President Obama’s policy initiatives during the last three and half years, and the situations that led to the Wall-Street movement. Keywords: paradigm shift; political tolerance; ultra conservatism; political ideology; Obama doctrine; Tea Party movements; Small town Governments; media influence

Shonda K. Lawrence, Jerry Watson, and Desiree Stepteau-Watson    President Obama and the Fatherhood Initiative    (p 98-113)

Abstract:  Since being elected in 2008, President Barack Obama has initiated Federal programs that seek to engage men to remain involved in family life. Father involvement is known to be an asset to children’s development and well-being, and can be especially critical to a boy’s socialization. In an effort to broaden our understanding of African American men’s experiences with fatherhood as a son and father, a study was conducted to examine intergenerational father involvement based on self reports of African American men. A survey questionnaire developed for this study was mailed to 300 men who participated in a fatherhood conference. Also, 70 men from local churches were asked to participate by completing the survey. In the end, forty-one men from the fatherhood conference and twenty-seven men from local churches completed and returned the survey. Findings suggest that men spend more time with their children than their fathers did with them. Fathers are also involved in a variety of activities with their children whether they live in the same home not. Additional findings indicate that African American men value involvement with their father and children respectively. Keywords: African American males; father involvement; African American fathers; Obama fatherhood initiative

Byron D’Andra Orey, Athena M. King, Shonda K. Lawrence, and Brian E. Anderson    Black Opposition to Welfare in the Age of Obama    (p 114-129)

Abstract:  In this article, we examine black attitudes toward welfare as a function of racial-identity, internalized racism and affection toward Barack Obama. We argue that black feelings towards domestic policy from which blacks benefit (in this case, welfare) are augmented by the presence of an African-American president; blacks who subscribe to the notion of “linked fate” will be more likely to support such policies; however, blacks who reject the notion of “linked fate” and accept the philosophy of individualism will point to the existence of an Obama presidency as proof that such policies are extrinsic to black socioeconomic mobility and that the true hindrance is the lack of desire by other blacks to pursue avenues of upward mobility. Moreover, blacks who possess internalized racism are expected to reject progressive policies that impact a disproportionate number of blacks. Using 2008 American National Election Studies Time Series Data, we test for positive racial-identity and internalized racism in predicting attitudes toward welfare. Our findings support our expectations as the level of internalized racism, racial identity and affection toward President Obama proved to be significant in explaining attitudes toward welfare. However, ideology, party identification and socioeconomic failed to significantly explain opposition to welfare.   Keywords:  linked fate; welfare; Obama; progressive policy; racial identity; internalized racism

Dawn Herd-Clark and Komanduri S. Murty   The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP):  What has it accomplished in the Obama Era?    (p 130-146)

Abstract:  When Barak Obama became president in 2008, the country was in a deep financial crisis. Due to unstable investments by financial institutions throughout the 1990’s and early 2000’s, lenders were reluctant to extend credit, thereby limiting consumers’ and commercial enterprises’ abilities to make purchases. With panic spreading throughout America, the public began to question the country’s ability to weather the financial storm. This paper attempts to analyze what TARP has (and has not) accomplished in the Obama era and how it influenced the outcome of the 2012 presidential elections.   Keywords:   Troubled Asset Relief Program; economic outlook; economic recession; economic depression; bailouts; Federal Treasury; Solyndra; auto industries; presidential election

Diane Byrd and Komanduri S. Murty    Foreign Policy Accomplishments in Obama Era    (p 147-165)

Abstract:  The national security concerns following the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 have played a key role in our foreign policy issues. Americans are struggling to have confidence in intelligence agencies, the governmental system, and the president of the United States to reduce (or eliminate, if possible) terrorism (home grown as well as of foreign origin). The Middle East (e.g., Iran, Israel, and Syria), China, Africa, and North Korea continue to pose challenges to our foreign policy. Another issue that gained attention recently is the president’s executive order to prevent deportation of nearly 800,000 illegal immigrant children. This paper delves into various foreign policy issues, their affects on the 2012 presidential election and beyond, and a few lessons learned.  Keywords:   foreign policy; national security; Middle East; nuclear threat; illegal immigration; Obama’s policies; progressive pragmatism; Presidential Elections

Part B

Guest Editors:  Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine    Introduction:  Race, Gender and Class and Social Movement, Environmental Justice, Gender, Ethnicity, Culture of Poverty Issues    (p 167-170)

Kasey Henricks and Victoria Brockett    Counter-Revolutions in the Name of Emancipation:  The Regressive Character of Race and Gender    (p 171-190)

Abstract:  Despite emancipatory ideals introduced by Enlightenment intellectuals, social progress has entailed a regressive character. Deprivation and marginalization continue to reflect the status quo despite the extension of formal universal rights to most everyone in the U.S. Our intent is to synthesize an often compartmentalized literary body on class, race, and gender and illuminate the independent and interlocking nature of these inequalities. Our argument is divided into two sections. We first highlight distinct realities of class, race, and gender conflict by raising questions of race and gender left unanswered by some Marxists. Then we analyze the regressive character of race and gender progress under a capitalist system built upon an Enlightened ethos. Our analysis reveals that historically, racial and gender struggles have been left to defend the mere human dignity of people of color and women alike, while undergirding issues of the political economy remain unaddressed and material interests of the elite preserved. To this end, contemporary abstractions of liberty, freedom, and justice do not serve emancipatory interests but implicitly endorse domination in the name of liberation. We conclude with a defense of Enlightenment despite this inversion. Such ideals have never been fully realized, but this does not mean they could not be.   Keywords:  race, class, gender inequality; Social Movement Theory; Enlightened Repression

Nicole Rousseau    Historical Womanist Theory:  Re-Visioning Black Feminist Thought    (p 191-204)

Abstract:  In three phases, historical womanist theory, which situates Black women as a unique racialized and gendered laboring class in the US, is developed. Phase one illustrates how Black women have been historically contextualized as instruments of production. Phase two is an expansion of the first phase and shows the sedimentation of Black women’s status as instruments of production through processes of racialization and racialized patriarchy. In turn, the third phase of theory development establishes historical womanism as an important theoretical construct and guiding lens that illuminates the contemporary status of Black women.   Keywords:  historical womanist theory; feminist theory; social rhetoric; inequalities; Black women

Demetrius S. Semien   The Diversity of Re-entry Social Networks    (p 205-225)

Abstract:  This paper highlights diversity exhibited within social networks of people who are engaged in re-entry work. Re-entry work consists of efforts by community members to assist people who have been incarcerated to transition back into society. In this process social boundaries are crossed as people step across racial, social class, age, and gender lines of “difference” to work together to create viable options for people who have criminal records. At the same time, connections also occur along lines of “similarity” as people with criminal records assist those who are still incarcerated or who have recently been released from prison. This paper presents voices of community partners who discuss their experiences as they navigate diverse re-entry social networks.   Keywords:  social capital; re-entry; recidivism; volunteering; prison; criminal records; race; social class; gender; age; social networks; Second Sentencing

Lolita D Gray, Glenn S Johnson, William H Boone, and Jennifer Schoenfish-Keita    Asthma and Public Policies: An Environmental Justice Case Study on Minority Youth in Georgia   (p226-253)

Abstract:  Asthma has been increasing in the United States since 1980. Among minorities, this increase is significantly greater. Although statistics indicate air pollution has markedly declined, surprisingly; the last two decades have shown a notable increase in asthma. According to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute as well as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, asthma is considered to be a major public health problem; however, the State of Georgia Department of Health has not categorized asthma as a “reportable” disease. As such, there exists no standards and/or mandates for systematic reporting by the state of Georgia’s health departments. Through this study, the authors put forth that asthma consistently and disproportionately impact people who live in urban areas to a greater extent than people who do not live in urban areas. The authors used the environmental justice framework, born from the Environmental Justice Movement, as the foundational premise for this study. In addition to the elements of the Environmental Justice Framework, the authors integrated a sixth element, Monitoring of Programs and Policies for Effectiveness (MOPPE) as a model to be used in the perpetual evaluation of program/policy effectiveness. The methodology employed is a case study performed within the state of Georgia. The purpose is to present evidence that demonstrates the correlation between environmental justice and the occurrence of asthma, and the need for effective asthma-related policies and/or federal law. Keywords: asthma; minority youth; environmental justice; public policy; Georgia

Brinda Sarathy    Legacies of Environmental Justice in Inland Southern California    (p 254-268)

Abstract:  This paper seeks to draw connections between historic and contemporary struggles for environmental and social justice in inland Southern California. I show that communities in this region have not passively accepted the negative externalities generated by production and trade. Rather, many low-income communities are coming together to fight the development of large warehouses, intermodal facilities, and poor labor conditions. Significantly, these organizing efforts are rooted in a legacy of earlier community struggles waged primarily by working-class white women against toxic waste dumps in the region. I argue that these earlier struggles against toxic waste have helped build a base for ongoing advocacy against environmental and social injustice on the parts of many immigrants in the region today.   Keywords:  environmental justice; social justice; logistics industry; goods movement; Stringfellow Acid Pits; toxic wastes; Mira Loma; Glen Avon; Moreno Valley, California

Ryan Patten, Matthew O. Thomas, and Paul Viotti    Sweating Bullets:  Female Attitudes Regarding Concealed Weapons and the Perceptions of Safety on College Campus    (p 269-290)

Abstract:  The purpose of this study is to better understand women's attitudes as they relate to concealed weapons on a college campus. In this regard, this research study used a survey instrument to ask female participants at California State University, Chico (N = 794) whether they wanted more concealed guns on campus. Over 80 percent of the sample did not want qualified individuals to be able to carry a gun on campus, did not feel safer with more concealed guns on campus, and did not think additional guns would promote a greater sense of campus safety. Overall, the study empirically advances the argument that a majority of women do not want concealed guns on their college campuses.   Keywords:  women; campus safety; carry concealed guns

Thanh V. Tran, Hae Nim Lee, Thuc-Nhi Nguen, and Keith Chan    Perceived Community Efficacy, Social Networks and Depression in a Sample of Vietnamese Americans Living in Post-Hurricane Katrina Areas   (p 291-298)

Abstract:  This study examined the association of depression with perceived community efficacy and social support networks in a sample of Vietnamese American living in two post-hurricane Katrina communities of Louisiana and Southern Mississippi. A community based-survey on post-natural disaster experiences was conducted among 119 Vietnamese American adults aged 18 and older. The results revealed that individuals with higher levels of perceived community efficacy (Beta = -0.19, p < .01) and greater social support networks (Beta = -0.20, p < .01) reported lower depression. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for demographic variables. The test of statistical equivalence indicates that there was no statically significant difference in the association of depression with perceived community efficacy and social support networks. Findings from this study are useful for future larger health, mental health surveys and services for immigrants and refugee communities.   Keywords:  social support; immigrants; Vietnamese; depression; community efficacy

Chandra D. L. Waring    ‘They See Me As Exotic… That Intrigues Them:’  Gender, Sexuality and the Racially Ambiguous Body    (p299-317)

Abstract:  This article highlights the distinct, layered intersection of gender, sexuality and race in a population that disrupts racial categories, and therefore transforms how the categories of gender, sexuality and race interlock. Drawing from 60 interviews, I classify a subgroup of 22 black/white biracial respondents as “racially ambiguous” and elucidate how these participants are coded as “exotic” by romantic interests by virtue of both their body and their racial backgrounds. My findings show that participants internalize the ideologies that camouflage the term “exotic” as a compliment. Secondly, I demonstrate how being considered “exotic” influences respondents’ dating preferences and patterns. Lastly, I document the nuanced dynamic of how being characterized as “exotic” shapes sexual excitement, expectations and encounters.   Keywords:  race; bi/multiracial Americans; gender; sexuality; exotic

Komandury S. Murty    Affirmative Action Bake Sale Controversy:  Diversity or Racism    (p 318-332)

Abstract:  The authors in this article examine the contrasting views of proponents and opponents of a campus bake sale strategy by a convenience sample of (a) internet bloggers as compared to (b) a survey of opinions on this subject found among a sample of African American HBCU students (undergraduate and graduates). We reasoned that internet bloggers were predominantly whites or members of middleclass background, who would render the prevailing mainstream views on bake sales in academia, whereas HBCU African American students views might differ; and, that the implications of these differences would prove useful in: (1) the implication of Affirmative Action measures in academia; and (2) disclosing any diverse reactions toward such measures.   Keywords:  Affirmative Action; bake sale; racism; conservatism; liberalism; college admissions; California Proposition 209; diversity

Leroy A. Binns    Cuba:  Race Matters    (p 333-345)

Abstract:  The Cuban journey on race relations denotes an adventure driven by ideology. A doctrine of equals and the need for consensus building towards national unity called for the reversal of disenfranchisement commonly practiced prior to the revolution. To this end commendable public policy particularly in education, healthcare, housing and employment has affirmed a commitment to social integration of people of color yet the residue of bigotry still inflames the Cuban populace and stymies potential maturity among its people. Within lies a portrait of foreign configuration and associated effects on an island of mixed heritage and an agenda to undo a legacy of political and economic bondage in exchange for comradeship.   Keywords:  politics; race; class

Enobong Hannah Branch and Mary Larue Scherer    Mapping the Intersections in the Resurgence of the Culture of Poverty    (p 346-358)

Abstract:  Recent scholarship has reintroduced cultural analysis to poverty studies. In this paper, we revisit the “culture of poverty” thesis and its variants comparing it to contemporary cultural analysis. Instead of debating its merits, we assess the value added by cultural analysis to structural theories of poverty. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which contemporary cultural analysis has incorporated intersectional scholarship that has brought variations along race, class, and gender lines in the exposure to and experience of poverty to the fore. We find that the emergent culture discourse, aimed at complicating, enriching and expanding our understanding of poverty, ultimately fails to account for ways structuralists have been doing so all along—acknowledging differences by social locations, such as race, gender, and class. We offer a roadmap for bridging intersectionality and culture by highlighting existing scholarship and identifying new directions. We re-imagine contemporary cultural analysis within an intersectional frame, highlighting how Black women in poverty illustrate the utility of both an intersectional and cultural analysis.   Keywords:  culture; poverty; intersectional theory; black women; work

Dean Richard and Edward Toby Terrar    Book Review    (p 359-364)

Race, Gender & Class 2012 Conference
Volume 20, Number 1-2, 2013.  ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editors: Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine    Introduction : Race, Gender & Class 2012 Conference    (p 3-7)

Alexandra Allweiss and Carl A. Grant   Progressives, Conservatives and “Education Disadvantage”:  The Limits of the Bifurcation   (p 8-24)

Abstract:   The term “educational disadvantage” has its historical roots in educational scholarship, programs, policy and practice. This complex concept is solidified and bound within political and educational discourse, enterprises and endeavors. This paper wishes to trouble the way the framing of "progressives" has often served as oppositional to "conservatives" in discussions of the education of the “disadvantaged.” The intention is to show that this binary binds discussions of “disadvantaged students” within competing discourses limits the possibilities for more inclusive understandings and educational improvements. This paper argues that there is a need for the constructive pluralistic engagement of diverse political and social groups. Finally, this paper troubles the history of the term "disadvantaged", its use in education, and the way it neglects to deal with education in more holistic terms by binding students within a deficit location.  Keywords: educational disadvantage; educational policy; constructive pluralistic engagement; political and educational discourse; U.S. politics

Martha E. Richmond     Assessing Obama’s Decision Not to Support EPA’s Revised Ozone Standard:  A further Retreat from a Progressive Agenda?  ( p 25-41) 

Abstract: Responding to the Obama administration’s decision in September, 2011 not to support the US Environmental Protection Agency’s proposal to lower the ambient ozone standard, a November 17, 2011 New York Times editorial noted that this decision “may well go down as the worst environmental decision of [Obama’s] administration-unless, or course, even more damaging retreats lie ahead.” Ambient ozone, part of the mix of urban air pollutants commonly known as smog, is associated with numerous health symptoms, including asthma. This often serious condition disproportionately affects children, people of color and those living in poverty, and accounts for 13-14 million lost school days annually. According to the EPA, the revised standard would have protected up to 38,000 people from asthmatic health symptoms. Given the intense lobbying against the revised standard, it is difficult not to attribute Obama’s decision to political considerations. In a larger sense, however, the decision may also demonstrate the failure of the “command and control” policy standard in the regulatory arena—one that, because of its inflexibility, creates an environment where regulatory proposals are often likely to fail. The following paper explores these issues and considers whether other approaches may be more effective.  Keywords: air pollution; EPA regulation; ozone; asthma; underserved communities; public health

Michael D. Forster and Tim Rehner    Building a Progressive Agenda in Ultra-Conservative Mississippi  (p 42-48)

Abstract: Mississippi continues to move in an ultra-conservative direction, putting political progressives on the defensive like never before. A small and informal survey of selected Mississippi progressives attempted to assess prospects for building a progressive agenda in the current regressive environment.  Keywords: Mississippi politics; progressive politics; Mississippi Democratic Party

Susan Hrostowski     Social Work:  A Harbinger of a New Progressive Vision?    (p 49-55)

Abstract:   Social work provides a unique and realistic perspective on the effects of current and proposed social welfare policies on the lives of individuals and families and on the consequent effects on communities and society as a whole. egislators and other policy makers would do well to seek out and attend to social work’s experience and perspective. The challenge for social work is to develop a voice and garner the attention and credibility necessary to influence those in power. A survey of social work leaders—academics and community activists from across the country—identified which issues they view as most pressing, how social workers’ perspectives on these issues varies from the most policy makers, and how social workers can best convey their perspectives to the general public.  Keywords: progressive; social work; social issues; public policy

Komanduri S. Murty, Meigan M. Fields, Dawn J. Herd-Clark, Ashwin G. Vyas, Edward L. Hill, Barbara Wyche, Diana Byrd, Sonja R. Shavers     Congressional Progressive Caucus Agenda:  Challenges and Opportunities for 2012 Elections   (p 56-77)

Abstract:   This paper discusses selective hot-topic areas for the progressive caucus as election day for 2012 draws closer. It explores the many areas that Americans are concerned about today, including: immigration, house foreclosures, national banks and the education system. We delve into the many opportunities there are for the incumbent president to tap into in order to prove himself as the best presidential candidate once again. Political factions aside, the progressive vote is the vote of the future, so long as the candidates uphold the ideals and stay true to the caucus’ intentions. Keywords: Progressive caucus; immigration; troubled relief asset program; home foreclosures; DREAM act national infrastructure bank; planned parenthood; foreign policy; blocking black vote

Laura Merrifield Sojka     The Impact of Obama on the Composition of Congress  (p 78-92)

Abstract:   The 2008 presidential campaign seemingly broke barriers of both race and gender in the United States, as both parties offered competitive female candidates for the highest national offices and the first African-American man was nominated and subsequently elected to the chief executive. Yet many of our other political institutions lack diversity. This paper aims to explore the changing composition of Congress and whether Obama’s election marked a substantial change in both the representation of racial and gender diversity and the policies pursued by the legislature. Evaluating whether the administration shift influenced the demographic structure of Congress and the agenda and issues on which it concentrated could provide valuable insight into the potential magnitude of impact that Obama’s electoral victory.  Keywords: Congress; gender in politics; race in politics; electoral politics; representative government; 2008 presidential election; Obama effect

Megan A. Burke     Beyond Fear and Loathing:  Tea Party Organizers’ Continuum of Knowledge in a Racialized Social System    (p 93-109)    

Abstract: Making use of fieldwork and 25 open-ended interviews with Tea Party organizers in the state of Illinois, I argue that Tea Party organizers draw from a continuum of knowledge, combining personal knowledge and experience with a conservative corporate media and Tea Party network frame. I draw upon the work of Weber to show how this continuum connects to various types of rational social action. Widening this scope of analysis allows not only for a more complex analysis of how corporate interests are connected to the grass roots movement, but also how the core frames of the movement are located throughout our mainstream political and ideological system.  Keywords: Tea Party; rationality; racism; ideology; social action

Daudi Ajani ya Azibo. Jeanene Robinson-Kyles and Marc Johnson      Prototypical Psychological Africanity (Racial Identity) Profiles and Orientation for Social Engineering of African Descent People   (p 110-129)

Abstract:   It is asserted within the context of Frantz Fanon’s call to set afoot a new person of African descent that for social, cultural, and economic development of the African-U.S. population, perhaps Africans worldwide, racial identity must be changed to “psychological Africanity”, an orientation to sustain, develop, extend, and defend African life and culture as a priority. Desirable and undesirable profiles and orientations of psychological Africanity (also called racial identity and African personality) based on Azibo’s (2006a) rudimentary psychological Africanity framework were investigated for this purpose. Five conceptual profiles and three empirically-derived psychological Africanity orientation groups labeled correct, diffused, and incorrect were articulated and operationalized. Hypothesized relationships with a measure approximating pure psychological Africanity (meaning identification as African descent as if there had been no Eurasian disruption of African civilizations) and huge amounts of explained variance were found in two studies for both profile conceptualizations and the orientations. Results confirm the desirable profiles and the correct orientation group stand the best chance of bringing the psycho-cultural change necessary for African-U.S. development.  Keywords: African-U.S. racial identity; African personality; racial identity profiles; Afrocizing; psychological Africanity; the new African; United States

Phillip J. Ardoin   Why Don’t You Tweet?:  The Congressional Black Caucus’ Social Media Gap   (p 130-140)  

Abstract:  A 2010 national survey conducted by Edison Media Research found African Americans make up nearly 25 percent of individuals on the social network site Twitter, nearly double their percentage within the current U.S. Population. Moreover, Meeder (2010) finds the tight networks established on Twitter by young African Americans are leading them to dominate the sites conversation (which currently includes more than 74 million registered users). While African Americans in the electorate are clearly participating and in some cases leading America’s social media revolution, we do not know if black leaders in Congress are leading or even following their constituents online. Using multiple measures of twitter engagement and influence, my analyses find Members of the Congressional Black Caucus are unfortunately not leading their constituents online and in many cases not even following.  Keywords: social media; congress; black politics

Demetrius S. Semien and Michael E. Roettger     Employing Du Bois and Myrdal to Analyze the U.S. Criminal Justice System   (p 141-155)

Abstract:   Forty years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act, low-skilled African Americans face substantial inequalities in income and employment, relative to non-blacks in the U.S. In this article we draw upon theoretical insights from W.E.B. Du Bois and Gunnar Myrdal to explain empirical inequalities for blacks in labor markets and the U.S. criminal justice system. We argue that Du Bois and Myrdal class and caste models help account for much of the racial disparities found in the empirical research on the criminal justice system.  Keywords: African Americans; Du Bois; Myrdal; employment; incarceration; race; class, caste

Denise Ann Narcisse    Pride and Joy:  African American Mothers’ Influences on their Professional Daughters’ Success   (p 156-176)

Abstract:   Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 44 African American women lawyers, accountants, and human resources professionals, this study examines how the mothers of these women facilitated their daughters’ entry into high status professions. Findings indicate that mothers’ socializations and emotional and instrumental support provided their daughters with the self-confidence, discipline, resilience, and other resources that helped them achieve their career aspirations. Integrating a Black feminist perspective of mothering with effects of the Civil Rights Movement on African Americans, the paper reveals the complex interplay between individual and socio-political factors that underlies some African American mothers’ contributions to their daughters’ careers. I discuss the implications of study findings for a Progressive political agenda. Keywords: mothers; socialization; professional women; Black feminism; Civil Rights Movement; Progressivism

Joy M. Thomas    Mass Incarceration of Minority Males:  A Critical Look at its Historical Roots an How Educational Policies Encourage its Existence       (p 177-190)

Abstract: This paper examines how the United States became the land of the imprisoned, incarcerating more people per capita than any other country. The paper will also scrutinize how the school to prison pipeline is complicit with mass incarceration of minorities. Imprisoning exorbitant amounts of human capital means imprisoning whole communities—particularly communities of color. Implications of this study aspire to inform best teaching practices for curriculum development and classroom management.  Keywords:   African American males; mass incarceration; racism; injustice

Be Stoney and Grizelda L. MacDonald   2Skins Deep:  Engrained Racism in Reflective Writing     (p 191-213)

Sandra L. Hanson     STEM Degrees and Occupations among Latinos:  An Examination of Race/Ethnic and Gender Variation     (p 214-231)

Abstract:  Data from the National Survey of College Graduates are used to examine race/ethnic and gender variation in achievement of STEM degrees and occupations with a special focus on Latinos. Findings show that odds of Latino male college graduates achieving degrees or occupations in STEM are equal or higher than odds for other males. Latino female graduates are more likely than African American females to achieve a STEM degree and as likely as white females. Results reveal greater gender variation in the Latino sub-sample (relative to the African American or white sub-samples). Findings provide insight into a portion of the science pipeline involving college graduates that is not often examined for Latinos.  Keywords:   science; occupations; degrees; gender; race/ethnicity; Latinos

Wylin Dassie Wilson and Norbert L.W. Wilson    African American Health Activism in the 21st Century:  Black Women and the Farm Bill   (p 232-241)

Abstract:   A disproportionate number of African American women have the highest rates of poverty and poor health. It is therefore imperative that health activism be centered on policies that directly affect the well-being of these women and their communities. One such comprehensive policy that affects the lives of African American women and all Americans is the Farm Bill. This legislation includes issues of food safety and nutrition, rural development, environmental stewardship, energy, food stamps and supplemental food assistance. This comprehensive policy binds the fate of all Americans; therefore, it must be a priority on the health activism agenda to ensure the health and well-being of all communities in the nation, particularly African American women who suffer disproportionately from health and economic disparities. This paper discusses the implications of the Farm Bill for African American women and highlights recommendations for health activism that is concerned with addressing the real needs of such vulnerable populations who will be affected by this important legislation.  Keywords:   African American women; health; Farm Bill; health disparities; poverty; food policy

Diane Byrd and Sonja Shavers     African American Women and Self-esteem:  The Various Sources  (p 242-263) 

Abstract:   As a result of prejudice and discrimination, African American women are likely to experience adversity. We examined possible sources of self-esteem among 16 African American Women utilizing a mixed design (i.e., quantitative and qualitative). Quantitative data was gathered through objective measures (i.e., Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Reflected Appraisal Scale, Revised African American Identity Scale, Womanist Identity Attitude Scale, and Feminist Identity Scale). Qualitative data was obtained through an unstructured interview. Results indicated that religion, specifically, having a good relationship with God influenced self-esteem. Family closeness related to self-esteem and role models enhanced identity development as well as self-esteem. Based on these findings, socialization factors may assist in maintaining self-esteem in dealing with adversity for African American women.  Keywords:   self-esteem; development; African American; women; identity; religion; role models; family

Sandra L. Combs      FLOTUS:  Media Darling or Monster?      (p 264-278)

Abstract: The job of First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the official hostess of the U.S. with a White House Office and Staff, and is high profile, unpaid, highly scrutinized by the media, criticized by many, sometimes thankless, offers great travel to distant lands, and is one that is oftentimes misunderstood. For example, Hillary Clinton (FLOTUS #42) was demonized for wearing pantsuits and saying she wasn’t a stay at home mom who baked cookies. Nancy Reagan (FLOTUS #40) was criticized for her Hollywood connections, designer gowns and astrology consultations. Barbara Bush (FLOTUS #41) was noted for her grandmotherly white hair and ever-present pearls. And now there is Michelle Obama (FLOTUS #44). Most recently, there was a Fox News story about whether the Muppets, in the latest movie, are spouting Communists propaganda. “Are the Muppets Communists?” is the headline on one story with a big color picture of FLOTUS Michelle Obama seated next to Kermit the Frog. The photo, not from the movie trailer, was taken on Dec. 1, 2011 during the National Christmas Tree Lighting Ceremony. In addition, FLOTUS Obama has been criticized for favoring sleeveless garments and for eating a hamburger in public while championing the fight against childhood obesity and while encouraging children to “Let’s Move.” This paper will examine media representations and coverage of the first ladies over the past three decades. Those first ladies are: #40 - Anne Frances Robbins Nancy Davis Reagan (1923-), Ronald Reagan Administration 1981-1989; #41 - Barbara Pierce Bush (1925-), George H.W. Bush Administration 1989-1993; #42 - Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947-), William Jefferson Clinton Administration 1993-2001; #43 - Laura Welch Bush (1946-), George W. Bush Administration 2001-2009; and #44 - Michelle Robinson Obama (1964-), Barack H. Obama Administration 2009-.  Keywords:   first lady; FLOTUS, media; press; women; president; journalists; Dolley Madison; news

Lori Hale     A Critical Analysis of Women in Manufacturing     p 279-291

Abstract: This research is a critical analysis of women working within the manufacturing sector. Women’s work within factories has been ignored and the main focus of analysis with regards to the manufacturing sector has been on men. This critical analysis strives to correct for the lack of research within this area. With Marx as a theoretical framework, this researcher strives to understand the particular conditions effecting women within this employment sector. This paper examines women’s manufacturing within a historical context and the continuation of bias within the workforce, such as the influence of World War II on women’s jobs and the legislation in place to minimize women’s employment opportunities. Finally, this research examines the continued issues women face labor in modern day society.  Keywords:   women; manufacturing; Marxism

Linda Williamson Nelson and Maynard Robinson     Which Americans are More Equal and Why:  The Linguistic Construction of Inequality in America     p 292-304 

Abstract:   Neoliberal economics holds that the unfettered operation of markets is most efficient and produces the best results. Neoliberals have argued, moreover, that American labor is overpriced compared to that of workers worldwide. In this way, their arguments justify increasing inequality in the US and policies that exacerbate this inequality. Using select print media, particularly newspapers and reports from conservative “think tanks,” this paper examines the linguistic construction and reproduction of a hegemony that inscribes an increasingly divisive ideology of social inequality, which devalues some marginally located Americans, while placing extraordinary value on others. The paper ultimately offers a measured response to Bourdieu’s entreaty to “challenge the production of … these reactionary think tanks which support and broadcast views of experts appointed by the powerful.”  Keywords:  ideology; neoliberalism; linguistic hegemony; ultraconservatism

Ronald J. Mancoske     Cultural Competency, Children’s Mental Health, and School Performance     p 305-323

Abstract: This study describes youth in a children’s mental health program, their problems, their school performance, and the caregiver’s perception of the cultural competency of their care provider. It also examines the relationship between the caregiver’s perceived cultural competency of their care provider and reported school competencies. A study was conducted of a public children’s mental health program that used a community-based, systems of care approach to service delivery. Care providers delivered individualized services that were family driven and culturally and linguistically competent. Data from a sub-sample of families (n = 117) with youth (average age 12.3) and primarily African American (81.5%) was analyzed in this study. Findings describe the youth, their related mental health problems, the perceived cultural competency of their providers, and school performance. Children in services show a distinct pattern of improved school performance from baseline to follow ups. The study also finds that more culturally competent services may improve child’s competency in school performance. This study provides empirical clinical data that supports the beliefs that improved cultural competency leads to improved school performance among children with emotional and behavioral problems.  Keywords:  cultural competence; school performance; children’s mental health; advocacy

Ashraf M. Esmail, John Penny, and Lisa A. Eargle   The Impact of Culture on Crime   p 324-341

Abstract:   The focus of this paper was to look at the impact of culture on crime. Data, except for Religion Adherence Rates, came from the 2007 County and City Data Book. Religion adherence rates came from for the Association of Religion Data Archives. The dependent variables were total crime, violent crime, and property crime rates. The main independent variables used in the analyses were those that measured aspects of culture. These variables are religious adherence rates, percent republication, and net immigration. Religious adherence rate had a weak, negative, and statistically significant association with total crime rate. A similar result occurred when examining religion adherence rate’s association with property crime. The association between religion adherence rate and violent crime rate was weak and statistically non-significant. The sex ratio had a negative, weak, and statistically significant association with crime rates. Percent urban had a positive, moderate, statistically significant association with crime rates. South had a positive, weak and statistically significant association with crime rates.  Keywords:   culture; crime; religion; race; class

Anthony I. Igiede     Cultural Division among Diasporic Nigerians:  A Systemic Dilemma     p 342-350

Abstract: In my childhood, it was quite noticeable that distinctions between Yoruba, Edo, Ibo, and Hausa were minimal. At independence in the early 1960's, Nigeria's population stood at fifty-six million, compared to about 152 million today. Between 1960 and 2008, Nigeria, a multi-ethnic and multi-religious nation with considerable development potential, fell into the ethnic clashes over distribution of scarce resources among competitive interest groups. Nigeria cultural divisions are very complicated phenomena. This essay reviews the degree of normlessness, alienation, powerlessness and cultural estrangement among diasporic Nigerians and how social dynamics, such as differentiated ideology and social distance, have affected the participation of ethnic minorities within their Nigerian counterparts. In addition, to a great extent, the cultural division faced by the diasporic Nigerians gradually increased bias among ethnic groups often against their own group interest.  Keywords:   race; gender and class; ethnic relations; ethnic conflict; social change

Alisha Ali, Emily McFarlane, Kristin Lees, and Neha Srivastava    Who is a Patriot?  Psychological Recolonization and the Proliferation of US Nationalism   p 351-360

Abstract:   The notion of patriotism in America has been adopted by the far-right fundamentalist agenda to exclude large numbers of U.S. residents from full participation in American life. In this paper, we ask: Can the ideals of patriotism be reclaimed in order to counteract prevailing forces of nationalism that threaten to damage America’s standing within the international community? The orienting construct in our analysis is psychological recolonization, an imposition of values and ideals on subjugated peoples at the hands of a dominating nation or group. We argue that voices of positive change are silenced through this recolonization, resulting in a false depiction of homogeneity across groups, communities, and systems. We outline avenues for social change and for redefining what constitutes an “American patriot”.  Keywords:   nationalism; psychological recolonization; social change

Rachel Allison   Book Review   p 361-363

Volume 19

Social Justice, Environmental Justice, New Racism, and Race, Gender and Class                                                                                                                     Volume 19, Number 3-4, 2012.   ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editors:  Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction :  Social Justice, Environmental Justice, New Racism, and Race, Gender & Class   (p 4-8)

Dana Williams    From Top to Bottom, a Thoroughly Stratified World:  Anarchist View of Inequality and Domination     (p 9-34)

Abstract:   Since its origins in the Industrial Revolution, anarchism has observed and criticized a wide swath of inequalities. Likewise, some sociologists have independently developed theoretical understandings of inequality that reflect anarchist interests and sentiments. This paper develops an anarchist-sociological grand theory of domination, offering the ability to systematically analyze real world phenomena, including forms of inequality yet to be identified. This theory is then applied to three major forms of domination: class, gender, and race. Domination is considered a subject worthy of study by both anarchists and sociologists, instead of simply social inequality. But, there are ethical problems with the mere study of domination. Consequently, anarchists have initiated numerous responses aimed at the elimination of domination.   Keywords:  inequality; domination; anarchism; disadvantage; praxis; intersectionality

Pierre W. Orelus     Unveiling the Web of Race, Class, Language, and Gender Oppression: Challenges for Social Justice Educators    (p 35-51)  

Abstract:   There is often a tendency to focus on one form of oppression and pay less attention to, or leave others out, despite the fact that a vast body of research shows that all forms of oppression are interconnected. This paper aims to counter this tendency that has been circulated in the mainstream media as well as in institutions such as schools. Specifically, drawing on the scholarly work of feminist, socio-cultural, and critical race theorists, this paper critically examines the effects of intersectional oppression on people, particularly those who have been pushed to the margins because of their targeted social identities, and proposes alternative ways to combat these forms of oppression.  Keywords:   race; class; language; gender; oppression; bilingual students of color; English language learners; marginalized groups

Jesse Mills     Somali Social Justice Struggle in the U.S.:  A Historical Context     (p 52-74)

Abstract: In 1913, California outlawed marijuana on the basis of express racial animus. The federal government prohibited marijuana in 1937 on a similar basis. We hypothesize that the racism behind marijuana prohibition influences current arrests. An analysis of data from 2000-2008 in California connects the racialized origins of marijuana prohibition to current marijuana arrests. Blacks and Hispanics are significantly more likely than whites to be arrested for a marijuana offense. We conclude that marijuana prohibition is too entangled with racism to be fairly enforced today. Evaluating selective-arrests, we show evidence of institutional racism regarding marijuana prohibition in California. We argue that a medical marijuana framework should replace prohibition, returning to the policy that existed prior the beginning of prohibition.   Keywords:  marijuana; war on drugs; racism; institutional racism; selective-prosecution; prohibition

Kenneth Michael White and  Mirya R. Holman   Marijuana Prohibition in California:  Racial Prejudice and Selective-Arrets    (p 75-92)

Abstract:   In 1913, California outlawed marijuana on the basis of express racial animus. The federal government prohibited marijuana in 1937 on a similar basis. We hypothesize that the racism behind marijuana prohibition influences current arrests. An analysis of data from 2000-2008 in California connects the racialized origins of marijuana prohibition to current marijuana arrests. Blacks and Hispanics are significantly more likely than whites to be arrested for a marijuana offense. We conclude that marijuana prohibition is too entangled with racism to be fairly enforced today. Evaluating selective-arrests, we show evidence of institutional racism regarding marijuana prohibition in California. We argue that a medical marijuana framework should replace prohibition, returning to the policy that existed prior the beginning of prohibition. Keywords:  marijuana; war on drugs; racism; institutional racism; selective-prosecution; prohibition

J. Edward Sumerau     Mobilizing Race, Class, and Gender Discourses in a Metropolitan Community Church     (p 93-112)

Abstract:   Drawing on principles of intersectionality, I explore how members of a southeastern Metropolitan Community Church use race, class, and gender discourses to construct and signify moral identities as Christian sexual minorities. Based on fourteen months of fieldwork, I demonstrate how members mobilized discourses emphasizing the incorporation of racial diversity, the minimization of class distinctions, and the equalization of gender categories within the church to signify their own moral worth. Moreover, I show how members anchored these discourses in the authority of Biblical scripture, which allowed them to claim moral standing within the larger Christian tradition while minimizing the tension between their sexual and religious identity claims. In conclusion, I draw out two central implications of this work: (1) how race, class, and gender discourses may provide symbolic resources for integrating sexual and religious identities and locally constructing sexual and religious morality; and (2) the importance of intersectional analyses for assessing LGBT religious experience.  Keywords:   intersectionality; LGBT Christians; sexualities; moral identities

Elisabeth Elmeroth     Winners and Losers in the Swedish School System:  An Intersectional Perspective     (p 113-129)

Abstract: This study analyzes from an intersectional perspective how categorizations based on gender, class and ethnicity transform into inequalities in regard to school success. The study is based on data from an assessment in Sweden, where 6,788 students in ninth grade participated. Students’ overall grade scores are compared on the basis of gender, class and ethnicity. Class is operationalized with the help of the parents’ educational background, while ethnicity is rated based on the parents’ country of birth. The three background variables interact and form different patterns of inequality. Although parents’ educational level has considerable importance for school success, it interacts with gender and ethnicity in different ways. Boys as well as girls are disadvantaged by a low level of education in the home, while it is mainly girls who are disadvantaged by a foreign background.  Keywords:   intersection; education; school success

Ronald J. Peters, Jr., John Miller, Jr., Angela Meshack, Kentya Ford, Pete Longoria, Mandy Jeanine Hill and Tarsha Cavanaugh      Low Sports Fundamental Development among Urban Youth: Beliefs and Social Norms Concerning the Culture of “Playing with Swagger”   (p 130-142)

Abstract:   Several studies have found that social status is an important variable in youth having access to resources that allow them to learn proper sports fundamentals. To shed light on this, a qualitative approach was used to investigate the relevant cultural norms and beliefs of sports involvement among African American young adults. Eighty African American male students attending a historically black university participated in this study in the fall of 2010. Overwhelmingly, they believed that the attention they receive from spectators and/or females and modeling by professional athletes were the major reasons why youth would rather play with swagger than simply using the fundamentals of sports. Participants also stated that youth who play with swagger eventually encounter problems being coached due to their lack of game knowledge and discipline as well as selfishness in a team environment. Lastly, respondents reporting lack of athletic ability to play with swagger also reported that they were more likely to receive “deprecation from peers”, undergo “isolation/lack of participation” and to have “higher video game use”. Implications for these results are discussed.  Keywords:   fundamentals; sports; urban; beliefs

Phoebe C. Godfrey      Eschatological Sexuality:  Miscegenation and the ‘Homosexual Agenda’ from Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) to Lawrence vs. Texas (2003)   (p 143-160)

Abstract: This essay explores the similarities between the rhetoric put forth by select fundamentalist Christians in reaction to the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education and Lawrence vs. Texas. A race, class and gender analysis is applied to primary and secondary sources in order to compare statements made by three groups of white fundamentalist Christians, each of whom were responding either directly and / or indirectly, to one of these two Supreme Court’s decisions. The three groups of white fundamentalist Christians are: 1. State and federal judges, 2. Church leaders, and 3. White activist mothers / women. The overall goal in is to show the similarities in these white fundamentalist Christians’ reactionary discourses in terms of the theme of sexual contamination, in particular in relation to white children. This comparison shows how for many fundamentalist Christians, fears of interracial sex / marriage and same-sex sexuality / marriage have been and are still eschatological.  Keywords:   interracial sex; miscegenation; same-sex sexuality; interracial marriage; same-sex marriage; fundamentalist Christians, Supreme-Court cases

Danielle Taana Smith and Roderick Graham   Household Expenditures on Information and Communication Technologies:  A Proposal for a Digital Practice Model   (p 161-178)

Abstract:   This study proposes the digital practice model for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs) access and usage. The digital practice model suggests that use of technologies is predicated on the everyday information and communications needs of diverse groups. This model moves beyond the digital divide framework, which explains ICT use as primarily determined by socioeconomic and demographic inequalities. Using data from the Pew Research Center, we apply the digital practice model to household level expenditures spent to use ICTs. The digital practice model posits that individuals and groups use ICTs for their own purposes and advantages. We conclude with a broader consideration of the model for understanding ICT use based on group context specific factors such as household characteristics, in addition to the traditional focus on socioeconomic, gender and racial and ethnic variables.  Keywords:   digital practice; digital divide; ICT use; household expenditures

Erika Derkas    The Organization Formely

Known as CRACK:  Project Prevention and the Privatized Assault on Reproductive Wellbeing    (p 179-195)

Abstract: The reproductive lives of U.S. women have been the subject of heightened media coverage and increased regulation. Prenatal drug use in particular is a contentious issue and with the exception of South Carolina, no state has laws regulating pregnant drug users. Failed attempts to prosecute have provided a raison de’etre for Project Prevention, a non-profit organization. Using content analysis and Reproductive Justice Theory this study examines the role Project Prevention plays in problematizing women’s struggle for reproductive integrity, especially for poor women and women of color. The analysis demonstrates how Project Prevention’s rhetoric reifies racist, heterosexist, classist, and sexist hegemony by positioning women as villains in turn complicating the fight for reproductive justice by women of color and poor women.   Keywords: reproductive justice; sterilization; population control; CRACK; pre-natal drug use

Charles R. Johnson, Jr. and Glenn S. Johnson    Environmental Justice and Title VI of Civil Rights Act of 1964:  A case Study on the Siting of MTA’S Bus Depot in Harlem, New York    (p 196-216)

Abstract: The New York City Metropolitan Transit Authority buses provide service to low-income and minority residents of Northern Manhattan which allow them accessibility to the rest of the city. However, without the buses these residents would not be able to commute to their respective jobs outside of their communities. The Manhattan depots were overcrowded which resulted in many buses being parked on streets near the depots which blocked traffic in the area. This article provides an examination of West Harlem Environmental Action Inc. protest of the building of a second bus depot in West Harlem, New York. The authors use the environmental justice framework to examine and analyze the policies and practices surrounding the siting of the bus depot. This case study addresses two critical questions: How effective is Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in protecting racially segregated neighborhoods from both environmental racism and institutional discrimination? Also, Does Title VI hinders the ability of the community-based organizations from lobbying the rights of under-represented groups?   Keywords:   environmental justice; bus depot; Harlem, New York; Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Northern Manhattan; environmental racism; institutional discrimination; transportation racism

Terry D. Carmon, Glenn S. Johnson, Angel O. Torres, and Kimberly L. Triplett   Environmental Justice and Safety Restraint in Atlanta, Georgia    (p 217-240)

Abstract:    Atlanta is a region designed for cars. Automobile crashes are the leading causes of injury-related deaths in the United States. Deaths and injuries of passengers tend to cost employers by days missed from work and lost productivity. The passive safety of the auto consists of seatbelts, airbags, and the physical structure of the automobile. Safety restraint is very important because it saves lives. Seat belts are considered the most effective means of reducing fatalities and serious injuries during a car crash. Child safety seats are used to protect children while they are riding in a motor vehicle. The environmental justice framework is used to analyze safety restraint in the context of who is being discriminated against environmentally. The researchers have studied safety restraint in Atlanta, Georgia over a ten year period by reviewing and analyzing data on safety restraint. They also reviewed and analyzed the content of ten years of newspaper articles on transportation equity and pedestrian fatalities in the Atlanta metropolitan area. An environmental justice impact assessment is done to explain how specific impacts (cumulative, direct, indirect, & community) affect the environment of a community. Environmental justice tends to provide alternatives for pedestrians and drivers by providing vital recommendations on reducing unnecessary roads and highways that can be risky and hazardous for pedestrians. Minority pedestrians face multiple risks associated with transportation because their primary mode of traveling is by foot. Environmental justice ensures that laws are enforced which protects individuals who walk or drive in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The researchers provide policy recommendations that can be used to improve safety restraint. A safe environment makes it safer for people to live and makes it easier to preserve life.   Keywords: environmental justice; safety restraint; child safety seats; pedestrian fatalities; smart growth

LaToria Whitehead, Glenn S. Johnson, William H. Boone, and Howard W. Grant      An effective Environmental Justice Partnership:  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Citizens    (p 241-265)

Abstract:   Lead poisoning has been a human health issue for many years. Childhood lead poisoning has been recognized as a disease since the earlier part of the 20th century. Underserved populations have experienced more than their share of environmental hazards. In this particular partnership the federal government is working with a community-based organization (CBO) and utilizing the Whitehead model as a tool to examine political and economic barriers, and the accountability of policymakers to enforce policy for underserved populations. The incidence of childhood lead poisoning has made a dramatic decrease over the years; however, Black children continue to bear more than their share of this preventable disease. Unfortunately, the prevention of this disease competes with political agendas and the effectiveness of childhood lead poisoning prevention depends upon various factors in the state, including a lead law and the political atmosphere of the state. This study examines the relationship between the federal government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the effectiveness of this partnership when addressing environmental justice issues for vulnerable populations. This pioneering research includes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC), Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch (HHLPPB) partnering with an environmental justice (EJ) organization to influence policy,   increase lead testing, and raise the awareness of childhood lead poisoning in Savannah, Georgia.  This study also introduces the Whitehead Model; a blended model derived from a combination of two models, in addition to its original political science theories. The methodology for this research was a multi-method, descriptive, explanatory, case study, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data, however for the purposes of this article only a portion of the qualitative data will be discussed. The conclusion drawn from the findings suggest that the federal government is more effective resolving environmental disparity issues for vulnerable populations, when partnering with EJ organizations that have a solid relationship with the community.  Keywords:   Federal Government Partnerships; environmental justice; childhood lead poisoning; Citizens for Environmental Justice; non-governmental organizations; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Shirley A. Rainey-Brown, Glenn S. Johnson, N. Latrice Richardson, Tye G. Stinson, and Natasha P. Ellis      New American Racism:  A Microcosm Study of a Small Town (Clarksville, Tennessee)    (p 266-291)

Abstract:   Racism is a moral issue and a political issue in the United States. Our society is built on the notion that ascertaining equality is shared and that all who desire to acquire the American Dream can have it with hard work. This assumption or notion by European Americans has been a misconception of reality. Some populations are allowed to achieve the American Dream socially, economically, physically, and politically while other disenfranchised population groups suffer from oppression, exploitation, and racial discrimination. This research examines individuals’ perceptions of racism working and living in Clarksville, Tennessee. The method used in the study is in-depth interviews with residents who live and work in the local community where they have experienced racial discrimination.  Keywords:   racism; African Americans; Clarksville; Tennessee; racial discrimination; critical race theory; cultural racism

Melissa E. Wooten and Enobong H. Branch      Defining Appropriate Labor:  Race, Gender, and Idealization of Black Women in Domestic Service   (p 292-308)

Abstract:   Appropriate labor conveys the notion of a negotiated ideal indicating who has been collectively defined as suited for a particular type of work. Importantly, these negotiations provide a justification for why a group is represented in one occupation as opposed to another. Using domestic service as an example of an occupation based in an informal, female-centered organizational structure we illustrate the process by which black women came to be seen as the idealized worker in Northern U.S. households between the mid-19th and -20th centuries. The analyses demonstrate that the designation of black women as appropriate labor enabled the maintenance of an institution that was vital to the social reproduction functions of white, middle-class, American households.  Keywords:   race; gender; domestic service; disembodied worker; institutional theory

Belinda C. Lum and Michelle M. Jacob     University-Community Engagement, Axes of Difference and Dismantling Race, Gender, and Class (p 309-324)

Abstract:   This paper examines ways that a critical education helps students identify, understand, and address inequalities based on race, class, and gender. Using data collected in our Sociology and Ethnic Studies classes, we analyze how we utilize community engagement in our classrooms to work towards a curriculum that dismantles systems of oppression. We analyze student reflection papers from service-learning projects and argue that an applied critical pedagogy must provide students with systematic, grassroots oriented engagement with communities of color. We argue that deliberate and strategic community based organization partnerships can guide students towards deeper understanding of course curriculum. We conclude that a praxis-oriented education prepares students for successful engagement in working to change systems of oppression.  Keywords: community service learning; critical education; teaching; praxis

Sandra L. Hanson and Emily Gilbert        Family, Gender and Science Experiences:  The Perspective of Young Asian Americans    (p 326-347)

Abstract:   Data from an innovative web based survey administered to a representative sample of young Asian Americans are used to examine the role of family and gender (in the context of Asian American culture) on reports of science influences and experiences. The interplay of race, gender, and class is stressed. Findings support the notion of “tiger moms” but provide insights into the complexities of cultural and family influence. Detail on resources and pressures for mobility and success through science is provided. Results suggest that most of the respondents are aware of stereotypes about Asian American achievement associated with the “model minority” image in general as well as in science, but not all report a personal interest or desire to pursue science. Keywords:   gender; science, Asian American

Adia Harvey Wingfield and  Melinda Mills    Viewing Videos:  Class Differences, Black Women, and Interpretations of Black Femininity    (p 348-367)        

Abstract:   In the wake of several high profile media incidents and an ongoing dialogue about hip hop culture, representations of Black women in rap videos have become the subject of much media controversy and debate. In academic circles, feminist researchers have long argued that images of Black women in hip hop (and in mainstream media at large) reinforce gendered racist ideals. Yet there is little study of how Black women interpret media images of women, and the research that does exist typically emphasizes Black women’s critiques of media glorification of white femininity and their ability to reject these particular images as unrealistic. In this study, we shift the focus to examine how young Black women interpret images of Black femininity, particularly when those images are widely labeled oppressive and objectifying. Using an intersectional framework, we assess the ways class differences among Black women shape the different meanings they attach to the images in rap videos. This work thus contributes to the research that explores women’s perceptions of media images, and offers a broader context in which to situate public debates about race, gender, sexuality, and hip hop culture.  Keywords: black women; class; femininity; gendered racism; hip hop; rap music videos; intersectionality                                                                       

A) Race, Gender & Class and Climate Change                                         B) Race, Gender & Class Environmental, Recolonization, Slavery, ... Issue Volume 19, Number 1-2, 2012.  ISSN 1082-8354

Part A

Guest Editor: Phoebe C. Godfrey

Phoebe C. Godfrey     Introduction:  Race, Gender & Class and Climate Change   (p 3-11)

Janet Fiskio   Apocalypse and Ecotopia:  Narratives in Global Climate Change Discourse   (p 12-36)

Abstract: In this essay I analyze two dominant narratives in climate change discourse, which I label “the lifeboat” and “the collective,” and trace the eugenic and utopian sources of these imaginaries in speculative fiction. Both of these narratives rely on what Ursula Heise has described as a mutually constituting relationship between apocalyptic and pastoral genres. The conjunction of lifeboat and apocalyptic narratives leads to the exclusion of corporeal differences, while the collective runs the risk of nostalgia. I argue that speculative fiction reveals that allegedly maladaptive characteristics can become the key to the creation of new modes of thinking about climate change.   Keywords: climate change; narrative; disability

Ryanne Pilgeram    Social Sustainability and the White, Nuclear Family:  Constructions of Gender, Race, and Class at a Northwest Farmers’ Market   (p 37-60)

Abstract: Using participant observation at a farmers’ market in the Pacific Northwest, interviews with market consumers, and observations at sustainable farms, this project examines how ideologies of race, class and gender inform the construction and practice of sustainable agriculture within a local case study. The discourses surrounding sustainable agriculture typically emphasize environmentalism or health rather than social justice, but providing a socially sustainable food system—one that meets the long-term needs of all members of the community—is foundational to the success of sustainable agriculture. As demonstrated in the farmers’ market at the core of this study, however, the marketing and practice of sustainability ties the images and ideologies of the white, middle-class, nuclear family to the perceived wholesomeness of sustainable foods and privileges whiteness and heterosexuality within the space of the market.   Keywords: farmers’ markets; social sustainability; sustainable agriculture; whiteness; heteronormativity

Christine Shearer    The Social Construction of Alaska Native Vulnerability to Climate Change   (p 61-79)

Abstract: The effects and severity of anthropogenic climate change are being increasingly realized, with international efforts through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aimed at mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to current and future changes. Many of these adaptation measures focus on helping communities in developing nations, grounded in an inter-national framework that notes national disparities in responsibility and impact. While consideration of international inequality is an important and salient framework, it can have the unintentional effect of masking intra-national inequality, and eclipsing the role that factors such as race, class, and gender also play in shaping individual and community vulnerability to climate change. To highlight the role of such social factors in vulnerability, this paper looks at the Alaska Native village of Kivalina, an Inupiat community that must relocate due to climate change. It will be argued that while Kivalina shares many similarities with other global communities heavily impacted by climate change, due to common historic injustices, Kivalina also faces unique challenges by being located in the US, including longstanding resistance by US government and corporate interests to recognizing and acting on climate change, lack of adaptation measures, and cuts to federal disaster management. These challenges raise questions about how governments in “developed” countries can be held accountable when they do not adequately assist their people in danger from climate change.   Keywords: disaster management; environmental justice; climate change; indigenous studies

Kari Marie Norgaard    Climate Denial and the Construction of Innocence:  Reproducing Transnational Environmental Privilege in the Face of Climate Change   (p 80-103)

Abstract: Global climate change is experienced very differently across race, gender, class and nationality. Wealthy people in the Global North who generate the most carbon emissions have been apathetic regarding climate change, considering it a low priority in relation to other social problems. Meanwhile climate impacts are felt most acutely by women of color in the Global South. In today’s globalized risk society such perceptions of near and far, immediate or abstract are politically charged social constructions. How do privileged people with knowledge of climate science re-create a sense of safety in the face of troubling events and information? What is the significance of their constructions of risk and concern in reproducing transnational power relations along the lines of race, gender and class? This paper is part of a larger project that uses ethnographic observation and interviews in a rural Norwegian community I call ‘Bygdaby’ to understand why globally privileged people perceive climate change as relatively unimportant. Here data are re-analyzed with emphasis on the relationship between the cultural production of denial and the maintenance of global privilege. I describe how for people in Bygdaby knowledge of climate change threatened a sense of order and innocence. People were aware of climate change but simultaneously re-created a sense that “everything was fine.” Normalization of climate change occurred by using “tools of order” to recreate order and security and “tools of innocence” for the “construction of innocence.” In the course of normalizing a troubling situation, residents simultaneously reproduce transnational environmental privilege. The construction of denial and innocence work to silence the needs and voices of women and people of color in the Global South, and thus reproduce global inequality along the lines of gender, race and class.   Keywords: global climate change; social organization of denial; construction of innocence; transnational privilege

Rachel Hallum-Montes    “Para el Bien Común” Indigenous Women’s Environmental Activism and Community Care Work in Guatemala   (p 104-130)

Abstract: This article adopts an “eco-intersectional” perspective to examine the motivations and strategies that guide indigenous women’s environmental activism in Guatemala. A total of 33 indigenous Kaqchikel women who work with a transnational environmental organization were interviewed in 2006 and 2009. The interviews reveal that gender, race, and class figured prominently in women’s decisions to become environmental activists. Women mobilized around their identities as mothers and caregivers, and viewed their environmental activism as a way of caring for both their families and the indigenous community. Women also linked their local activism to larger social movements—including the indigenous, women’s, and environmental movements. The article concludes by discussing recommendations for academic, activist, and policy work.   Keywords: gender; indigenous; environment; Guatemala; ecofeminism

Milton Takei   Racism and Global Warming:  The Need for the Richer Countries to Make Concessions to China and India   (p 131-149)

Abstract: Racism contributes to many people in richer countries not wishing to make concessions on global warming to people of color in poor countries. Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus (unconscious predispositions) helps to explain why racism might lead some people to act or not act on the global warming crisis. Japan’s past wars with Russia and the United States are of particular interest, because, like China today, Japan in the early 1900s was a rising power inhabited by people of color. Global warming sets up a clash between the Global South’s right to economic development and the lifestyles of the richer countries.   Keywords: global warming; habitus; China; India; Japan; the United States; racism; negotiations; economic development; lifestyle

Younes Abouyoub     Climate:  The Forgotten Culprit. The Ecological Dimension of the Darfur Conflict   (p 150-176)

Abstract: Even though one cannot deny the importance of the ethnic dimension in the Darfur conflict, it cannot be argued it was the triggering factor of the conflict, but rather has gradually imposed itself more as a consequence of the prolonged conflict than a cause. While the conflict in Darfur is over-determined, and a complex web of triggering factors have contributed to its eruption, this paper argues nevertheless that the conflict which has been going on, with varying intensity, since the early 1980s in the region of Jebel Mara (north Darfur) is in fact an ecological conflict par excellence in which issues of race and ethnicity have been used by the warring parties—and unfortunately the mainstream western media also- as mobilizing tools although regrettably they have ended up being ends in themselves.   Keywords: ethnic conflict; climate change; Africa; Darfur; drought; desertification; political ecology

Tracy Perkins, Christine Shearer, Younes Abouyoub, Dean Richards    Book Reviews   (p 177-188)

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine     Introduction.  Race, Gender & Class Environmental, Recolonization, Slavery, ... Issues   (p 189-191)

Dale Roberts, Glenn S. Johnson and N. Latrice Richardson     Environmental Justice and Youth of Color at the Westcare Foundation in Atlanta, Georgia   (p 192-217)

Abstract: The environmental justice movement over the last twenty years has been instrumental in developing comprehensive, innovative, and practical solutions for critical environmental problems that impact vulnerable populations, marginal populations, disenfranchised low-income people, and economically impacted communities. Environmental justice advocates have been committed to recruiting, mentoring, and training people of color youth to accept leadership positions within the environmental justice movement. The youth and elders are bonding and connecting across various social justice issues that are important in environmental justice communities. The intergenerational connection between youth and elders within the environmental justice movement is significant in creating a healthy and sustainable movement for future generations. This article provides a descriptive and analytical examination of youth of color’s perceptions, attitudes, and social behaviors of environmental justice issues at the Westcare Foundation-Georgia. The researchers used participant observation and a focus group as their qualitative methods. The researchers also used an environmental justice analysis of youth of color education on environmental justice issues at the Westcare Foundation. It is vital that environmental justice stakeholders build strong grassroots organizations and networks that include youth of color occupying leadership roles which will provide longevity in addressing environmental injustices in fence-line communities. The environmental justice framework uses a holistic analysis to examine social problems and environmental problems in order to adequately address the root causes of these problems. The environmental justice movement since the 2002 Second National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, has spent time on self-reflection to focus on where they have been as a group? Where they are currently? And Where they are heading as a movement?   Keywords: environmental justice; youth of color; Westcare Foundation; youth

Michelle Larkins Jacques, Carole Gibbs, Louie Rivers, and Tracy Dobson    Expanding Environmental Justice:  A Case Study of Community Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Industrial Animal Farming Operations   (p 218-243)

Abstract: Using an Environmental Justice Framework (EJF) and risk perception theory we investigated the perceptions of residents of one West Michigan agricultural community regarding the density of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in their area. Semi-structured interviews (n=11) with operational stakeholders and orally administered surveys (n=296) with the community at large were conducted. Hispanic community members and farmworkers were purposively sampled due to their unique status in the community. Results indicate that community perceptions of risk differ significantly among demographic groups. Hispanic community members were more likely to perceive the employment benefits of CAFOS as being more important and the likelihood of environmental pollution and human health effects to be lower in importance than non-Hispanics. Women were more likely to perceive the potential of environmental pollution effects of CAFOs to be more significant and the economic benefits to be less important than men.   Keywords: environmental justice; risk perception; marginalized communities; industrialized agriculture; Hispanic farmworkers

Daniel Wu    Reimagining and Restructuring the Figueroa Corridor, 1990-2005:  Growth Politics, Policy, and Displacement   (p 244-265)

Abstract: How do new discourses and policies about both growth and equity emerge out of a decades long interaction among growth coalitions, union leaders, and grassroots activism? The Figueroa Corridor, a stretch of development extending north of the University of Southern California and south of Los Angeles’ downtown, is an ideal place to explore the emergence of equitable development over 15 years and subsequent reimaginations of the city through the half-billion dollar subsidies of the Convention Center, Staples Center, and L.A. Live. Chicago school urban ecology would explain these developments through free markets, which create urban organizations that benefit all. In contrast, this paper takes a political economic view of these three developments, uncovering a growth coalition transforming in a 15-year period. Qualitative methods such as analyses of newspaper and city archives between 1990-2005 as well as quantitative methods such as demographic mapping and statistical analysis of historical and current Census data will be utilized. A historical theme is the displacement of local community residents to make space for an exclusive reimagination of the city. The research periodizes the transformation and discursive, “value-neutral” practices of the growth coalition and community resistance among economic and racial grounds the past 15 years. Additionally, demographic comparisons find Latino and African American rates suppressed in areas nearer to three developments. The first to investigate the Figueroa Corridor, this research comments on widespread efforts to transform urban areas into tourist, entertainment districts, and ultimately urges for a inclusive urban agenda for all urban residents.   Keywords: urban politics; growth politics; community organizing

Valerie H. Hunt, Shauna Morimoto, Anna Zajicek, and Rodica Lisnic    Intersectionality and Dismantling Institutional Privilege:  The Case of the NSF ADVANCE Program   (p 266-290)

Abstract: For almost three decades, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has sponsored women faculty-oriented equity efforts in science and engineering disciplines, including the ADVANCE initiative launched in 2001. In this paper, we analyze ADVANCE program announcements and solicitations to assess faculty equity programs’ potential to dismantle race and gender-based institutional privileges. We find that while the NSF attempts to make the ADVANCE program inclusive, it continues to privilege the racially unmarked locations of white women. Importantly, two recently added ADVANCE program components appear promising for addressing racialized inequities in institutions of higher education, but may be hindered by inattention to social class privileges. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for policy efforts to dismantle institutional privileges.   Keywords: intersectionality; race and gender inequities; social class privilege; institutional transformation; feminist phase theory

Celeste M. White, Kommanduri S. Murty, and Gerry L. White Electoral Participation among Black Women in Georgia:  A Comparative Analysis of Atlanta and Keysville   (p 291-304)

Abstract: This study examines the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, Political Knowledge, Familiarity and Engagement, Voting Attitudes, Voting Patterns and Voting Participation among black women voters in Keysville and Atlanta, Georgia. Employing a cluster sampling, a self administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data from 218 black women in Keysville and 246 black women in Atlanta. The findings, focused on the rural-urban differentials of voting patterns among these women, suggest an overall need to increase the participation of black women in local, state, and national elections.   Keywords: African American; Georgia women; women in politics; electoral participation; Keysville; gender and electoral participation

Kareem R. Muhammad     Pearly Whites:  Minstrelsy’s Connection to Contemporary Rap Music   (p 305-321)

Abstract: When North Carolina-based rap group Little Brother released “The Minstrel Show” in 2005, it served for many as an appropriate metaphor to what many felt rap music was becoming. Or was it metaphor at all? Perhaps the most important implication taken from Little Brother’s work is that minstrelsy of hip-hop is not an arbitrary process, but is something done to maintain white supremacy by America’s corporate media elite. Additionally, in using minstrelsy as the frame of reference, Little Brother positions this as a historical continuum of how blacks have been portrayed in other moments of time in America. My work explores what quantitative and qualitative evidence exists to make the connections that Little Brother suggests with “The Minstrel Show?” The question at the center of this research project is: What are the ways that contemporary rap music mirrors historical patterns of minstrel performance in America? My examination found that modern rap music not only shared many historical parallels with minstrel performance, but perhaps should be de-categorized as separate from hip-hop music altogether. I support this analysis by studying the content from video selections on Black Entertainment Television’s “Rap City.” “Rap City” airs from 4-5 pm central standard time, Monday through Friday. My work contains analysis of 40 episodes from September and November of 2006. Video is my medium of choice because its visual signifiers can provide for a more sound analysis than music on the radio alone. Additionally, these shows can speak more to national trends than local radio can.  Keywords: hip-hop; noeliberalism; subculture; African-Americans; minstrel

Alisha N. Ali, Emily McFarlane, Robert Hawkins, and Ini Udo-Inyang     Social Justice Revisited:  Psychological Recolonization and the Challenge of Anti-Oppression Advocacy   (p 322-335)

Abstract: In this article, we describe the principles of anti-oppression advocacy (AOA), an intervention model that is informed by ideals of social justice and by an emphasis on promoting psychological wellness in immigrant communities. We argue that the AOA model can create positive transformation through alternatives to traditional modes of psychological intervention, through social capital advocacy, and through activist-oriented partnerships between universities and communities. We also outline some of the challenges involved in advancing the AOA model, namely existing methods of service-delivery that ignore the complex workings of racism and long-standing methods of training that fail to equip practitioners with tools to counter oppression in the communities they serve.   Keywords: racism; oppression; advocacy

Erica Alane Hill-Yates    What’s in a Tale?:  Slavery, Memory and the Intersections of Race, Class and Gender in Coastal Tanzania    (p 336-352) 

Abstract: Based on oral interviews conducted in the former slaving port town of Bagamoyo, Tanzania, this article examines the recounting of three often recalled stories concerning the experiences of enslaved and formerly enslaved women during the East African slave trade. Considering the centrality of the themes of loss and belonging and the representation of mother and child in these stories, I argue that these tales continue to resonate with residents because they allow for the contemporary contextualization of the slave trade and slavery on the Swahili coast. In addition, the article demonstrates that it is through the recounting of these tales that residents impart insight on the historical and contemporary intersections of race, class, gender and religious faith in town.  Keywords: slavery; memory; Tanzania

Volume 18

Race, Gender & Class 2011 Conference                                                        Volume 18, Number 3-4, 2011, ISSN 1084-8354

Guest Editors:  Jean Ait  Belkhir, Christiane Charlemaine, and Adia Harvey Wingfield

Jean Ait Belkhir and  Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction.  Race, Gender & Class 2011 Conference   (p 3-6)

Stefan Brueck and Carl A. Grant    The Obama Administration’s Federal Educational Policy, Intersectionality, Citizenship, and Flourishing     (p 7-27)

Abstract: In this article we analyze, evaluate, and critique contemporary federal educational policy in the United States. We initially focus on philosophical matters involving the aims of education and purposes of schooling, with specific spotlights on flourishing and citizenship. Next, we introduce the lens of intersectionality, and follow with a brief discussion about the functions of educational policy. We then provide an overview of Race to the Top, the federal Department of Education’s recent proposal for educational reform. After this, we offer a summary of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics, another example of present-day federal education policy. Subsequently, we share our assessment of both Race to the Top and the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics program. Utilizing the aforementioned intersectionality perspective, we assert that the documents examined demonstrate limited attention to the interlocking and intertwining of the multifaceted dimensions that education policy should consider. In conclusion, we argue that the Obama administration’s current federal educational policy inadequately contributes to the cultivation of citizenship and flourishing.  Keywords: philosophy of education; educational policy; intersectionality; citizenship; flourishing

José D. Villalobos   Staff of the People?  Assessing Progress in Descriptive Representation under the Obama Administration   (p 28-53)

Abstract: Over the past few decades, presidents have made some increasingly noticeable efforts to fill their administrations with a higher number of minorities. Though not yet fully representative of the general public, such advances in descriptive representation are a sign of progressive change occurring within the executive branch, with positive potential implications for the state of representative democracy and public policy. In this article, I survey the current state of descriptive representation under the Obama presidency and the extent to which the president’s policy agenda has substantively addressed the needs of historically underrepresented groups. Descriptively, I find that President Barack Obama has been symbolically progressive in adopting an inclusive approach for staffing the upper echelons of his administration. However, concerning substantive policy outcomes, I find that although the Obama administration has made some major strides concerning women’s issues, its record concerning the needs and expectations of the African American and Latino communities has been more mixed.  Keywords: president; Obama administration; descriptive representation; staffing

Martha E. Richmond     Scientific Transparency and the Gulf Oil Spill:  Which Constituencies is the Obama Administration Serving?  (p 54-70)

Abstract: During the 2008 presidential campaign, Obama promised to end the Bush administration’s approach to science which he characterized as one “where ideology trumps scientific inquiry and politics replaces expert opinion.” Obama made a commitment to implement measures ensuring that, as applicable, decisions would rely on the best available scientific evidence. Government scientists could speak openly with the public and the media, providing transparency, presumably even where interpretation might be subject to debate. Implicit was that the Obama administration would seriously consider the science behind issues important to human and environmental health, issues ranging from environmental contamination to climate change to cleaner energy. While some more protective regulations have been introduced, many events suggest that standards set by Obama as a candidate have been overlooked since he became president. A tragic example of government failure to be open and transparent and to make decisions about human and environmental health based on the best scientific evidence is the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the impact of the oil spill that followed. This paper will consider how the oil spill might have been prevented, consider why preventive measures were not in place, examine the government’s response, and consider how this has adversely affected communities most vulnerable to effects of the oil spill. It will also attempt to identify other ways that communities, scientists, and regulators could work to better serve the needs of all constituencies.  Keywords: science; policy; integrity; oil spill; deepwater drilling; safety; community; clean up; transparency; communication

John C. Berg   Race, Gender, Class, and Barack Obama Obstacles to a Progressive RGC Presidency in the US   (p 71-81)

Abstract: The Obama Administration is considered with regard to three kinds of representation: descriptive, representative, and inclusion in power. President Obama and his team are found to have achieved important policy goals, but to have fallen far short of the expectations of race, gender, and class liberation due to the structural limits on the power of the presidency. The essay concludes with some consideration of the political changes that would be needed to make a more progressive presidency possible.  Keywords: President; race; gender; class; structural limits, policy

Cigdem V. Sirin   From Nixon’s War on Drugs to Obama’s Drug Policies Today:  Presidential Progress in Addressing Racial Injustices and Disparities   (p 82-99)

Abstract: This study investigates presidential progress in addressing racial injustices and disparities within the context of the war on drugs. I argue that racial inequalities emanating from the war on drugs have been largely overlooked and at times aggravated by previous administrations. Although there have been some improvements in this regard since President Obama took office, more extensive policy reforms are needed to better remedy such inequalities. I also argue that the viability of a progressive presidency for racial justice vis-à-vis U.S. drug policies depends not only on the personal agenda of the president but also on a supportive public as well as a progressive legislature and judiciary that share the ideals for engendering a more egalitarian system.  Keywords:war on drugs; racial disparities; progressive presidency; Barack Obama

Tom Olds   Marginalizing the President.  “The Concerted Effort to ‘Other Obama’”   (p 100-109)

Abstract: This paper looks at a phenomenon that has been referred to as the new racism, racial micro-aggressions. Dr. Chester Pierce created the phrase to describe this phenomenon where blacks are assaulted, insulted and invalidated in a manner that they perceive as racist although the source of the attacks may or may not see the racial discrimination of their actions or deeds. Some of the ways in which these attacks are used to “other” President Obama will be examined.  Keywords: micro-aggression; racial micro-aggression; micro-insult; micro-assault; micro-invalidation; marginalization; new racism; President Obama

Todd ‘RhoDess   From Hope to Change?  Obama’s 2008 Deracialized Campaign in the Context of the African American Struggle   (p 110-122)

Abstract:  Barak Obama executed one of the most masterful presidential campaigns in modern history. In addition to being one of the most well-funded and sophisticated campaigns ever, the Obama phenomenon was also a textbook case of a deracialized one. This paper sets out to critically assess the likelihood of substantive gains in the context of a race-neutral strategy. The key question addressed is whether or not committing to deracialized campaigns, makes African American politicians indistinguishable from their white peers? A thorough look at the dynamics behind such strategies in the context of the 2008 election campaign shows the answer is in the affirmative. Once rhetorical bargains with the white voting populace and conservative corporate donors were struck—the sticky promise to stay clear of affirmative action, welfare spending and other ‘racially charged’ issues was virtually impossible to dislodge. While the race-neutral strategy may have paved the way for the first African American ever in the Oval Office, the paper argues that deracialization is ultimately a Faustian bargain subsuming black demands for concrete racial progress and leaving them permanently off the presidential agenda.  Keywords: deracialization; majority-minority districts; objective interests; presidential elections; race-specific agenda

Keffrelyn D. Brown   Race, Racial Cultural Memory and Multicultural Curriculum in an Obama “Post-racial” U.S.   (p 123-134)

Abstract:  Since the 2008 election of President Obama, the first U.S. African American president, social critics suggest the country has entered a “post racial” era. This perspective assumes that race no longer plays a role in societal relations in the U.S. This conceptual paper starts from this claim and explores how race operates in U.S. social practice and discourse and in official K-12 school curriculum/knowledge. I argue that universities and colleges—particularly those working in the area of teacher education—face the challenge of providing students with more targeted critical sociocultural knowledge, or what I call racial cultural memory, about race.   Keywords: curriculum; race; multicultural education

Tekla Ali Johnson, Pearl K. Ford Dowe, and Michael K. Fauntroy    One America?  President Obama’s Non-Racial State   (p 135-149)

Abstract:  The historic campaign and election of President Barack H. Obama is an unparallel journey of race, politics and identity.  During Obama’s campaign, he was characterized as a race-neutral candidate, but when necessary emphasized his blackness to maintain the support of the African American community.  The success of this strategy has raised new questions about America’s capacity to transform the racial divide, new forms of racism and a new understanding of party politics.  How do these complexities transcend into an administration that is responsive to the needs of minorities.  This essay will assess the complexities of the Obama Administration and its policy implications for African Americans.  Keywords:   Barack Obama; economic policy; race-neutral politics

Joan Marshall Wesley, Ercilla Dometz Hendrix, and Jasmine N. Williams   Moving Forward:  Advancing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights under the Obama Administration through Progressive Politics   (p 150-168)

Abstract:   Race, gender and class are routinely exposed for the ways in which they intersect to create a kind of triple oppression (Belkhir, 1994). However, the same dynamic, which occurs in the parallel oppression of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgenders (LGBTs) may be dismissed or ignored. This research examines the role of the Obama Administration in advancing the rights of the LGBT community in the areas of marriage and family rights, military service and housing. We conclude the research by revisiting the question of progressive politics and issuing President Obama a report card that evaluates actual outcomes against campaign statements made to the LGBT community.  Keywords:   LGBT discrimination; sexual orientation discrimination; social equity; gender identity discrimination; gender equity; LGBTs; discrimination

Anthony I. Igiede    Sociopolitical Integration as a Mode of Progressive Race, Gender and Class in United States    (p 169-176)

Abstract:  This paper reassesses the tension between minority sociopolitical integration and differences in sociopolitical trust within the framework of conflict theory. Conflict theory posits that in the United States system of government, political systems are used by elites to solidify and/or maintain their relative social advantages over the less fortunate. Minority groups have been shut-out of the sociopolitical nexus until fairly recently, and available evidence of the long-term effects of the sociopolitical integration suggests that continuation of sociopolitical trust may reduce the socio-political gap between minority and majority population. Yet even conflict theory predicts that minority sociopolitical upliftment, and corresponding occupational gains, are threats to the status quo and therefore, be opposed by those who are threatened by such gains. Similarly, shifting and multilayered levels of what is sociopolitical integration and what is sociopolitical trust in a particular context are addressed in the explication of this work.  Keywords: race, gender and class; political integration; ethnic policy; social change

Nicolette Sheridan and Jennifer Hand   Inequity, Indigeneity and Progressive Politics in Aotearoa / New Zealand   (p 177-190)

Abstract:   Debates over issues of race, gender and class in Aotearoa / New Zealand, a small, relatively new nation located in the South West Pacific, reflect the racial complexity of its population and the fundamental allegiance of most of its people to ideas of fairness. We will discuss three major debates of particular relevance to Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand: governance of health services, the governance of the largest city—Auckland / Tamaki Makaurau, and ownership / governance of the marine and coastal area. The contribution of Māori nurses who have worked with the most underserved in their own communities since European settlement in the early 1900s is not fully recognized and though they are acknowledged as a key workforce they struggle for institutionalized leadership and governance status. Ongoing controversy over Māori representation in the governance of Auckland illustrates the challenges attending Māori participation at the regional level. Just as both progressives and conservatives find the tax deal Obama struck in December 2010 with the Republicans unpalatable so in New Zealand two ideologically opposed groups, the Māori party and ACT, a conservative party, find themselves united against the Marine and Coastal Areas Bill / Takutai Moana Bill proposed by a centre right party. These current debates raise issues of equity, of the value of Treaties between settlers and indigenous peoples and related governance, and of property rights over public and natural resources. The New Zealand experience demonstrates a “backwards and forwards progression” in racial relations and partnership reflected in public sentiment and in unusual political alliances. We present data on the health system including the perspectives of Māori people with chronic conditions and assert the need for shared governance. We argue that New Zealand’s approach to racial, gender and health equity has a basis in historic actions and pioneering attempts to create a fair society. These challenges, particularly in achieving equity for tangata whenua (indigenous Māori) are ongoing.  Keywords:  South Pacific; health and social inequalities; indigenous nurses; chronic disease; community voice in policy; governance

Mary Ann Bodine Al-Sharif   The Need for Change:  Educational Reform   (p 191-197)

Abstract:  Diversity in education is becoming more and more evident based on current and projected demographic population shifts within the United States. Unfortunately, education in its current state cannot support society’s need for equity or equality amongst such a diverse population shift. Therefore, we need to take a closer look at whom all people are, and move toward an educational reformation that will restructure all that we now know as the norm in education. In doing so, there must be full acceptance from both the privileged and the oppressed led by a governing body that is progressive enough to understand the efforts that will be required for such a bold shift in societal thought and the tenacity to follow it through.  Keywords:  Progressive education; educational reform; identity in education

Tiisetso Russell   I am a Lawyer!  Am I a Lawyer?  The Experience of Foreign Trained Black Lawyers in Ontario   (p 198-216)

Abstract:  This paper will introduce my thesis examining of the experiences, practices, perceptions and celebrations of foreign trained black lawyers navigating the Canadian legal credentialing process in Ontario, through the National Committee on Accreditation (NCA), and the Law Society of Upper Canada (LSUC). In many Societies lawyers are looked to as teachers, advisors, someone people look to for help to advocate, defend and protect human rights. Canada as a world moral leader strongly advocates for human rights, yet ironically the basic right to work is effectively denied because newcomers lack “Canadian Experience.” This paper will examine issues of social justice and how foreign trained black lawyers’ lives are regulated by immigration policy, licensing processes and the justice system and how that impacts foreign trained lawyers’ lives. The research will use a discursive framework, critical race theory, anti-colonial theory and integrative anti-racist theory as theories of contextualizing, examining and analyzing the paradigm shift from being a lawyer in different foreign legal system to the experiences and perspectives of and on the process of becoming and being a lawyer in the Canadian context.  Keywords:  black lawyers; foreign trained lawyers; legal education; legal credentialing; lawyer licensing; de-skilling and re-skilling; internationally trained lawyers

Ahmed Ilmi   The White Gaze vs. the Black Soul   (p 217-229)

Abstract:  My aim for this paper is to interrogate Black youth sub-culture as a crucial form of resistance in the school system. I aim to share with the readers my own struggles with colonial education within the Canadian context as a means of offering hope and the possibility of survival for both current and future generations of African youth. I also examine how instrumental Black/African male role models were in my upbringing and in my life as a Black male. I will also draw on the role the Somali community played in my life with the intention of rupturing the myth of Black communities not getting involved in the lives of Black youth, by showing how the Somali community has instilled in me an excellent work ethic and values encompassing communal social responsibility.  Keywords: Diaspora; Black/African; community; dhaqan [ancestral way of life]; Ingenious Knowledges

Michael D. Forster and Tim Rehner   The White Male Southern Democrat:  Endangered Species or Already Extinct?   (p 230-237)

Abstract:  Victim of a successful race-driven Republican “Southern strategy,” the Democratic party has steadily declined in the American South for decades. As a progressive voting demographic, the white male Southern Democrat in particular seems to be fast approaching the disappearing point. A review of the current situation and its roots in right-wing electoral strategy is followed by a suggested economics-focused strategy for reviving Southern progressive politics.  Keywords: Southern politics; 2010 congressional elections; Democratic white male voters; progressive strategy

Andrea Wilbon Hartman   The Evolution of Erykah Badu:  From Musician to Third Wave Feminist?   (p 238-252)

Abstract:  Today’s popular music broadcasts themes of love and sexuality over radio waves, but unlike Bubblegum pop’s Britney Spears or Rap’s Lil’ Kim, Erykah Badu rivals images of scantily clad women typically seen in music videos defying myriad stereotypical messages directed at black women. The following paper, framed within the context of black feminist thought, attempts to further our understanding of how objectification is challenged within new spaces. Badu’s life not only informs the music she creates, but she is comfortable in using her voice to creatively disseminate black consciousness and female empowerment—central notions to the third wave of feminism. Keywords:  race; gender; third wave feminism; black feminist thought; popular culture; neo-soul

Ruby C. Lipscomb   Strategies to Improve Father’s Involvement with their Children’s Development and Academic Achievement   (p 253-267)

Abstract:   The goal of this article is to explore research on the effects that fathers’ involvement plays in the overall well-being of their children with a review of the effects that this involvement has on their children’s educational achievement. In the first section of this article, three issues will be addressed related to research on the importance of father involvement. First, the benefits of family involvement in general will be explored. Next, this article will examine the special roles fathers perform in the lives of their children to include a look at the particular roles African American fathers play in the academic success of their children. Third research on the barriers to fathers’ involvement will be reviewed. The second section of this article will communicate research on strategies to improve fathers’ involvement in the lives of their children, including Obama’s policies and strategies. Finally, examples of model programs that engage fathers in children’s learning will be highlighted. Keywords:  child development; academic achievement; father, parental involvement; African American; model programs; best practices

Michelle Panazzolo and Ritchlyn Mohammed   Birthing Trends in American Society and Women’s Choices   (p 268-283)

Abstract:  In America, childbirth has been an essential part of many women’s lives. Throughout the history of this country, there have been numerous birth practices that have revolutionized and deteriorated this unbelievable life process. At the turn of the 20th century, while the Industrial Revolution was taking place, birth in the United States transformed into a medical business. Since midwives and home births were associated with the old country, they were viewed as dirty and outdated. The original conventions were replaced by revolutionary, but detrimental, practices performed by Gynecologists and Obstetricians. Today, the most popular birthing practices in the United States reflect our capitalistic society, having the main focus not on the health of women and their offspring, but instead on monetary profits and efficiency. The notorious birthing techniques currently utilized allocate almost total power to doctors, leaving women in the dark. The false notion that America is filled with high-risk women that are unable to achieve childbirth naturally is used to justify the numerous medical and surgical interventions that occur in American childbirth. The media’s portrayal of “designer birth” has glamorized medical interventions and surgical births, while at the same time desecrating the natural birthing abilities of American women. Although there are a variety of birthing options available to American women, most women are not educated on these opportunities and allow physicians to make major decisions for them. In the era of the Obama presidency with the prospective changes in the American health care system, we have to ask the question whether birthing practices in American society will change.  Keywords:  natural birth; birthing trends; good birth; twilight sleep; pitocin; epidural; episiotomy; cesarean section; home birth movement; augmentation; childbirth education; patient satisfaction; midwives; minority birthing; affordable care act.

James W. Russell   The 401(k) Retirement Crisis, Capital, and Neoliberal Ideology   (p 284-290)

Abstract:  The thesis of this article is that the transformation of private sector retirement plans from traditional defined benefits pensions to 401(k)-like defined contribution stock market investment schemes, attacks on public worker pensions, and attempts to privatize and reduce the benefits of Social Security represent a massive capitalist class expropriation of the collective retirement savings of labor.  Keywords:  retirement; 401(k); pensions; Social Security; neoliberalism

Rose Sabina Hunte and Ashraf Esmail   Learning to Change:  Does Life Skills Training Lead to Reduced Incident Report among Inmates in a Medium/Minimum Correctional Facility?   (p 291-314)

Abstract:  There have been numerous research on the effect of education on behavior as it relates to recidivism. However, the base of knowledge is lacking in research discussing the effect of education on the behavior of inmates as demonstrated in a research project conducted in an Omaha correctional institution. This study hypothesized that inmates engaging in life skills training would demonstrate a reduction in institutional misconduct in comparison to inmates who chose not to attend life skills training. It addressed the problem of a lack of information on the effects of education in prisons and added to the limited base of knowledge in this area. This study was a quantitative pilot study, which used a causal–comparative ex post facto design to determine the effects of life skills education based on the misconduct reports received by inmates in a medium/minimum prison in Omaha, Nebraska. The results demonstrated no significant relationship between the independent variable of life skills attendance and the dependent variable of misconduct reports. However, the results did reveal that other variables were more significant factors in the generation of misconduct reports. This study added to the base of knowledge on institutional behavior and demonstrated feasibility for future research on this subject.  Keywords:  life skills; education; prison behavior; penal institutions

Sarah Fouts   Presumed Palates and the Problems Perceived:  Exploring the Importance of Latin American Food and Food Establishments in the U.S. and New Orleans   (p 315-328)

Abstract:  From chimichangas to pupusas, Latin American food and restaurants continue to contribute to the ways in which globalization shapes the diverse Foodscapes of the United States. Some of these restaurants cater to Latino consumers providing more traditional dishes. Some indulge the elite by marketing expensive dishes with exotic ingredients. Meanwhile, other restaurants have adopted standardized menus appealing to the presumed cheese soaked, sour cream dolloped palates of mainstream consumers. Regardless of the changing tastes of these Latin flavors—due to factors like availability of ingredients and penchants of the dominant culture—these restaurants play a vital role in representing the diversity within the Latino population and in the assimilation and acculturalization of the Latino migrant into their new community.  Keywords: assimilation; acculturalization; Foodscapes; immigration; globalization; food; Latin America.

Cory Blad   The Paradoxical Return of National Culture in the Globalization Era:  Theorizing Present and Future State Legitimation   (p 329-347)

Abstract:   The current era of neoliberal globalization has created a quandary for many traditional states. On the one hand, the basic ideology of neoliberalism understands the state to be an unnecessary regulatory institution that commonly places “undue” pressures and restrictions on national economic entities and hinders global trade. On the other hand, sustained legitimate state authority is a requisite of national socio-economic stability and systemic global financial health. The emergence of “neoliberal states” has meant sustained authority although with less capacity for economic regulation, which has traditionally been the cornerstone of state legitimacy in the postwar era. The question then becomes: How can neoliberal states maintain legitimate authority with a decreased economic regulatory (protectionist) capacity? I argue that the management and control of national cultural definitions has become increasingly important as a state legitimation strategy in lieu of decreased economic protectionist strategies. The essay first details this theoretical claim then posits several future implications and outcomes, as national culture becomes an increasingly efficacious legitimation strategy in the neoliberal era.  Keywords:  nation-state, legitimacy, neoliberalism, cultural politics, globalization

Kimberly L. (Stephenson) Triplett and Glenn S. Johnson   Environmental Justice and Transportation:  An Analysis of Public Involvement at Pennsylvania Department of Transportation   (p 348-371)

Abstract:  Transportation plays a vital part in the history and development of the United States. It is defined by millions of Americans as a basic right. Transportation equity is part of the comprehensive goals and objectives of the civil rights movement. Urban transportation systems connects all individuals to jobs, schools, medical clinics, childcare, place of residence and many other vital social services in our communities. Environmental Justice advocates raise the question, why do government agencies exclude people of color, the poor, and working-class individuals from the transportation planning process? Increased Public Involvement and community participation will result in widespread community acceptance and support of transportation projects. The public and impacted community feels more informed and have a better understanding of the transportation decision-making process when they are included from the initial beginning of the project. A process for seeking out and considering the needs of disadvantaged populations, low-income populations, marginalized groups, and the poor of existing transportation systems, especially minorities, elderly, disabled, and car-less households which may face challenges accessing employment, medical care, recreational activities, entertainment, and other public services. This article examines Public Involvement at the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. The article also analyzes transportation and Environmental Justice, transportation and social policy, and Environmental Justice and Public Involvement in transportation decision-making.  Keywords:  Environmental Justice; transportation policy; Social Justice; disadvantaged populations; public involvement; marginalized groups; U.S. Department of Transportation; Federal Highway Administration

Kristi Stricker   Class Consciousness and Critical Mass; Exploring the Practice and Scholarship of Academics from the Working Class   (p 372-384)

Abstract:  While most universities are committed to having a racially diverse and gender balanced faculty, little attention has been paid to diversity as it relates to the social class background of faculty members. This qualitative inquiry highlights the ways in which class background has influenced the scholarship and pedagogy of academics who hail from the poor and working classes and discusses the importance of social class diversity within the professoriate.  Keywords:  class consciousness; social class; working class academics

A) Reparations
B) Human Rights, Sexuality, Health, Religion, Music, (Others)
Volume 18, Number 1-2, 2011, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editor:  Daudi Ajani ya Azibo

Daudi Ajani ya Azibo   Reparations:  Introductory  Remarks    (p 5-6)  

Abstract: Despite the current lull in reparations activity, the persistence of activists and righteousness of the cause is reasserted. The question What to do next? is posed.

Daudi Ajani ya Azibo    The Psycho-cultural Case for Reparations for Descendents of Enslaved Africans in the United States    (p 7-36)

Abstract:  The psycho-cultural decimation of African-U.S. people descended from enslaved Africans at the hands of Caucasian Americans and American civilization itself is described. The processes employed in effecting this decimation are mentacidal and amount to psychological warfare. The results have inferiorized African-U.S. people and as a consequence placed them in extremis. This state of affairs is seen as warranting the crimes against humanity label. The fully 40 psycho-cultural perpetrations visited on the victims are identified and analyzed. Reparations in the domain of psycho-cultural destruction are seen to be in order and must be included in any costing formula along with reparations down payments advocated by the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N’COBRA) in the domains of economic development, political prisoners, prisoners in general, education, and individual reparations (payments to individuals). The mental health and social science professions, especially psychology and psychiatry, are entreated to advocate for and participate in reparations payments.  Keywords:   Reparations; African descent people; psychological misorientation mentacide                           

Daudi Ajani ya Azibo     A Critique of Reparations Nay Sayers Who Pooh-pooh Psycho-cultural Damages Perpetrated on African-U.S. People    (p 37-51)

Abstract:   The Eurocentric position against reparation for African-U.S. people is juxtaposed to the African-centered position for reparation. Nay saying psycho-cultural damage caused by American civilization to African descent people by a racial identity scholar is critiqued. The question Will violence be necessary to bring reparations about? is discussed.  Keywords:   reparations; intergenerational psychological trauma; African Americans; critical race Fanonianism

Karanja Keita Carroll and DeReef F. Jamison    African-Centered Psychology, Education and the Liberation of African Minds:  Notes on the Psycho-Cultural Justification for Reparations   (p 52-72)

Abstract:   One means through which reparations can be provided to communities of African descent within America is through the creation and institutionalization of culturally enriching after-school programming, African-centered Saturday schools and independent Black educational institutions. Rather than looking to reparations as merely financial compensation for the descendants of the formerly enslaved, we can look to reparations as they relate to the building of educational infrastructures that will impact future generations of African descendants in America. This essay outlines the psychological and epistemological consequences of miseducation that many students of African descent experience within the Eurocentrically orientated education institutions they attend. The reclamation and revitalization of an African epistemology situates African people within their own cultural reality and allows them to stand firmly grounded in their cultural truth. We propose that reparations allocated through African-centered cultural enrichment programs that refute, counter and correct historical and cultural amnesia are critical as viable means for providing African descended people with the necessary tools needed in order to exist and flourish within the 21st century and beyon.  Keywords:   African-centered psychology; reparations, education

Regina Jennings      From Slavery to Contemporary Genocide: A Literary and Linguistic Analysis of Why American Blacks Deserve Reparations     (p 73-94)

Abstract:   Literary and linguistic investigations reveal that people of African descent continue to suffer a plethora of psychological damage from historic and contemporary White racism and terrorism. Consistent police killings of young Black males and females and the horrific spike in Black-on-Black homicides together show a community in terrible distress. The culprit of multiple centuries of enslavement is the primary reason that Blacks deserve reparations. Yet, a study of literature proves the mental debilitation that continues within the collective Black community, making it plain that reparations are long overdue.  Keywords:  slavery; genocide; African-American; reparations; racism

Na’im Madyun    The Impact of the Reparations Discourse on the Achievement Gap     (p 95-110)

Abstract:   For many, the achievement gap is considered the social justice issue of the 21st century. What the average Black student knows upon graduation, the average White student mastered in the 8th grade. Ironically, resolving this issue might begin by addressing one of the more controversial unresolved issues in American history—reparations. Within the Black community alone, there is noticeable variation in how to address the issue of reparations that tend to evoke feelings of anger and morose regardless of the individual position. Outside of the Black community, feelings of guilt sometime accompany the aforementioned feelings. By using the concept of forgiveness and the theory of stereotype threat, it will be argued that the resulting climate created by the current discourse on reparations has a negative impact on the achievement gap. Recommendations for how to address reparations to reduce the achievement gap will be provide.  Keywords: Black student outcomes; stereotype threat; forgiveness

Amani na Uwezo ya Ukombozi (Michael McMillan)     Reparation for the Descendants of Enslaved Africans: What’s Psychology got to Do With It?    (p 111-124)

Abstract:   The social movement for reparation for the enslavement of Africans in America is examined, as well as conceptions regarding lingering effects of enslavement. The concept of co-dependency and its relation to racism and racists is explored, in the context of criticism of reparative efforts by the descendants of enslaved Africans, and the absence of comparable criticism and negativity regarding reparative pursuits by other groups. Particular attention is given to criticism of reparative actions by descendants of enslaved Africans.  Keywords:  reparations; Trauma Legacy

Tommy J. Curry    The Political Economy of Reparations: An Anti-Ethical Consideration of Atonement and Racial Reconciliation under Colonial Moralism    (p 125-146)

Abstract:   Over the last several decades, reparations theorists have continued to justify reparations as an amelioratory policy that fulfills America's democratic potential. Most recently, Roy L. Brooks has developed this optimism in America's democratic reformism into a theory of atonement. Unlike previous models, Brooks holds that reparations is justified solely by its ability to make America a racially reconciled society. This article argues that such hopes in America are illusory. Following the structural-colonial analyses of racism laid out by W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., and contemporary social scientists, I argue that America is not capable of moral transformation concerning racism, because racism is a permanent and necessary feature of our American society. While it is the position of the author that reparations is justified politically, it cannot be justified as a moral charge to an immoral white supremacist society. As such, I call for an anti-ethical deliberation on the issue of reparations—a consideration I hope will continue future debates on the subject. Keywords:   Anti-Ethical Theory; atonement; (racial) reconciliation reparations

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine     Introduction. Human Rights, Sexuality, Health, Religion, Music, (Others)    (p 147-150)

José D. Villalobos     Promises and Human Rights:  The Obama Administration on Immigrant Detention Policy Reform    (p 151-170)

Abstract:   This article evaluates the Obama administration’s efforts towards reforming U.S. immigration detention policies. Over the past decade, immigrant rights advocates have increasingly criticized certain policies of the U.S. Immigration and Custom Enforcement (ICE) system of immigration detention, including the widespread use of private contractors, lack of proper oversight, grouping of violent criminals and non-violent undocumented immigrants (particularly minority women and children) in holding cells, and neglect of detained immigrants in need of medical attention. In reviewing these developments, I contend that the Obama administration must take substantive steps towards reforming the existing system, particularly by instituting legally enforceable standards with penalties for performance failures, moving away from privatization, and applying more effective rulemaking for better management and monitoring of U.S. detention facilities. Keywords:   immigration; detention policy; human rights; managerial performance

Tiffany Taylor, Sarah Samblanet, and Elizabeth Seale    The “New Lazy”: Structure and Agency in Managers’ Discussions of Welfare Clients’ Motivation   (p 171-188)

Abstract:   This study examines how welfare-to-work program managers make sense of failures to the organization goal of self-sufficiency. Using data collected from semi-structured telephone interviews with all 100 North Carolina county welfare-to-work managers, we find nearly half of managers describe clients’ lack of motivation as a major barrier to reaching self-sufficiency. Of the managers using “motivation rhetoric” some managers use it in combination with discussing structural barriers clients’ face, while other managers focus their blame solely on the clients. We argue that managers draw on race-neutral, but class-focused motivation rhetoric as a way to cope with, and make sense of, their highly constrained work environment in which they are constantly faced with failure.  Keywords:   agency; lazy; motivation; poverty; structure; welfare

Antoinette M. Gomez, Fatemeh Shafiei, and Glenn S. Johnson   Black Women’s Involvement in the Environmental Justice Movement: An Analysis of Three Communities in Atlanta, Georgia    (p 189-214)

Abstract:   Black women grassroots activists are on the frontlines in toxic fence line communities facing environmental injustice and fighting for the enforcement of environmental laws and regulations. They insist that environmental laws on the books to be enforced by regulatory agencies. This study explores the environmental justice leadership of Black women who live in communities where toxic facilities are in their backyards. The health and well being of these communities are increasingly affected by these environmental hazards. As a consequence, African-American women have organized grassroots environmental groups that oppose siting of the locally unwanted land uses in their backyards. This study was motivated by the need to understand the vital role that African-American women play in the mobilization of the Black community around environmental justice issues. This research contributes to the growing body of literature on environmental justice by presenting a new perspective on women environmentalists in the field. Very few studies have investigated the organization of women, more specifically women of color around environmental issues. The environmental justice framework is used to analyze the motivation of African-American women leaders in the environmental justice movement. The scope of this study is limited to the analysis of African-American women who have been environmental and social justice activists. Thirty interviews with African American women who resided near toxic facilities in Southeast Atlanta were conducted. Personal and social networks in the community were used to analyze Black women activism around environmental justice issues.  Keywords:   African-American women activism; environmental justice; environmental justice movement; African American women in environmental justice movement; women movement

Jennifer Fagen, Laura J. McCornick, Anthony Kontos, Riley H. Venable, and Peter B. Anderson     The Influence of Gender and Race on Sexual Assault among High Risk Drinkers    (p 215-229)

Abstract:   Do gender and race interact with high risk drinking to impact the risk for being sexually assaulted and for sexually assaulting others? The responses of students attending a Predominately White Institution (PWI) were compared to the responses of students attending a Historically Black University (HBCU) to selected items on the CORE Drug and Alcohol Survey to measure frequent high-risk (or binge) drinking and sexual assault. At both institutions frequent high-risk drinkers were more likely to have been sexually assaulted (ANOVA, p<.05.), and to have sexually assaulted others (ANOVA, p<.05). These results were consistent regardless of race, gender, or campus. Overall, the incidence of frequent high-risk drinking was much lower among the HBCU students than the PWI students. The prevention of sexual victimization is discussed and recommendations are provided. Keywords:   sexual assault; gender; race; high risk drinking

Shyamal K. Das, Lisa A. Eargle, & Ashraf M. Esmail    Cross-National Sex Trafficking Network in Developing Countries:  A Theoretical Overture Using Global Commodity Chain Approach     (p 230-253)

Abstract:   Using Global Commodity Chain (GCC) approach, the present study investigates the factors that influence the positions of developing nations within the governance structure of the international sex trafficking network. Previous research focuses on the influences of economic reforms or culture on countries’ positions within the network, for both developing and developed nations. The present paper focuses on developing nations to avoid biasness, and to address contextual differences. We argue that in addition to economic reforms, other factors such as political conditions reflected in the level of corruption, and values pertaining to gender discrimination can influence a nation’s position within the governance structure of the network.  Keywords:   sex trafficking; Global Commodity Chain; criminal network; culture

Assata Zerai     An Assessment of Afro-Centricism, Color-Blind Ideology, and Intersectionality     (p 254-272)

Abstract:   Some have argued that multiracial/multicultural congregations are the fastest growing types of large Christian churches in the United States today (Yancey 2003). In this multi-sited unobtrusive ethnography, I compare three churches to explore diverse meanings of church unity in the context American color-blind society (Bonilla-Silva, 2007). Site 1, an African American Protestant evangelical congregation is distinguished by its coherence around black liberation theology. Site 2, a largely white Protestant evangelical leadership and multiracial congregation practices a color-blind approach. Finally site 3, an inclusive multi-racial church and pastoral staff works hard at maintaining its multi-racial/multi-cultural identity through a more intersectional approach to unity. The availability of resources for understanding, expressing, and mediating racial identity shapes the choices of members in these church settings concerning addressing cultural difference. And local context, educational attainment, and exposure of ministers and parishoners, all indicators of social isolation (as discussed by Emerson & Smith, 2000), contribute to this resource base. Despite efforts to build internal cohesion, some analysts may continue to criticize multiracial churches’ slow progress toward eradicating color blind racism.  Keywords:   multiracial churches; color blind racial ideology; intersectionality; Protestant evangelicalism

Sandra E. Weissinger    “We Will Not Sell God Out!” Boundaries and Agency in the Heart of Black Metropolis    (p 273-294)

Abstract:   The differences between Black churches of today have much to do with the varied effects discrimination plays on the lives of those who serves as these institutions leaders. There is not a Black church; rather there are several Black churches which at times market drastically different messages concerning empowerment because of the privileges of leaders and adherents. A sociology that does not account for biography, socialization, and context does little to expand our knowledge about the lived experiences of those affected by these institutions. This ethnographic account speaks to the rich diversity of Black churches today, highlighting the plight of those at a storefront, bouncing church in a heavily populated urban city. Accounts from this church serve to highlight the diverse ways in which Black churches take form due to the effects of poverty. More than race or place, I argue that the background and socialization of clergy also are helpful in predicting Black church variations.  Keywords:   Black churches; Black church leaders; bouncing churches; community activism; ethnography; socialization; race; poverty

Monica L. Melton    Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes: HIV Positive Black Women’s Perspectives on HIV Stigma and the Need for Public Policy as HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention     (p 295-313)

Abstract:   Despite startling rates of HIV among African American women—it is the leading cause of death among women ages 25-34 years old—HIV positive Black women’s perspectives on prevention remain understudied. HIV Positive African American women’s perspectives and stated concerns about effective HIV prevention, as informed by their lived experience and situated knowledge, were obtained in this study. Learning from these women, and giving attention to their lived experience and situated knowledge could help us improve and better understand HIV prevention challenges. Interview data was drawn on 30 HIV positive Black women in a Florida inner-city. The major finding suggest, that in addition to gender, race, and class oppression, stigma, stereotypes and ineffective public policies shape HIV prevention efforts. Another finding was relatively novel: Black women’s strategies to subvert oppression can be dismantled by HIV/AIDS stigma, which alienate them from their symbiotic (sometimes life sustaining) “sista” circles; and the threat of being marginalized within a minority group can elicit a decision to forego HIV/AIDS prevention. Participants’ experiences advocate for holistic social and structural prevention intervention (non-behavioral approaches) to HIV/AIDS.  Keywords:   HIV; AIDS; prevention; black; women; stigma; marginalization; public policy; intersectionality

Kris Marsh and Niki Dickerson von Lockette     Racial and Ethnic Differences in Women’s Marriage, Household Composition and Class Status:  1980-2008    (p 314-330)

Abstract:   The gender literature has demonstrated that marriage is an important economic context for and predictor of women’s class status; however, with regard to this finding, the literature has paid less attention to racial/ethnic differences among women. This paper raises important questions about the presumption of marriage as a route to the middle class for all women. Using 1980, 1990, and 2000 IPUMS and 2008 ACS data for Asians, blacks, Hispanics, Whites we derive a middle class index (MCi) based on education, homeownership, per person income, and occupational prestige factors. By 2008, all groups have increased their share of SALA households, but black female SALA middle-class households comprise the highest percentage of their middle-class than do the other racial/ethnic groups. We also construct synthetic cohorts to determine if these women are simply marrying later and find that more SALA middle-class households are maintaining their status over time, but that again, this trend is most pronounced for black women.  Keywords:  middle class; race; marriage; women; single and living alone (SALA), households

Leslie Baker-Kimmons and Pancho McFarland    The Rap on Chicano and Black Masculinity:  A Content Analysis of Gender Images in Rap Lyrics      (p 331-344)

Abstract:   Hip hop provides an arena in which Blacks and Chicanos exchange culture, ideas, and intimacies and create new identities and cultural practices. An examination of rap lyrics can give us a measure of how these groups of working-class men understand masculinity and how similar their conceptions of ideal manhood are with each other as well as with the U.S. hegemonic masculine ideal. An analysis of lyrics to popular rap music from 1990 to 2002 shows that these rap artists both challenge and affirm the dominant constructs of male power and privilege. Through historical analysis we develop a framework for understanding why they often affirm hegemonic masculinity and argue for the need to develop an “alternative” masculinity.  Keywords:   Black; Chicano; rap; masculinity; gender; race; class; intercultural exchange

Ryan Patten and Lori Beth Way    White Men Only?:  A Nationwide Examination of Diversity Courses in the Criminal Justice Discipline     (p 345-359)

Abstract:   This research sought to understand whether race, gender, and class (RGC) issues are being taught in the curriculum of American undergraduate Criminal Justice programs. Using the American Society of Criminology website, 321 programs were identified for analysis. The programs were compared based on the type of disciplinary focus, the region of the country, whether the university granted doctoral degrees, whether the university is public, and the percentage of non-White students to explain whether RGC courses are offered or required in the curriculum. The results indicated 67 percent of programs offer and 14 percent require RGC courses, but analysis through logistic regression found uneven results. Further research is necessary to understand whether instructors incorporate RGC issues into preexisting coursework.  Keywords:   Criminal Justice curriculum; race; gender; class

Richard Cooney, Karin De Angelis, and Mady Wechsler Segal    Moving with the Military:  Race, Class, and Gender Differences in the Employment Consequences of Tied Migration    (p 360-384)

Abstract:   Drawing on past theory and research, this paper addresses two questions: "How does geographic mobility affect the employment situation of civilian spouses of military personnel?” and “Under what conditions and in what ways does the impact of geographic mobility differ by the gender, race, and class of the spouse?". Using data from the 1992 Department of Defense Surveys of Officers and Enlisted Personnel and their Spouses, we analyze military spouses’ satisfaction with job opportunities, whether or not a respondent is employed for pay, and earnings. Using logistic regression (and many control variables), we find major negative effects on employment outcomes, with important gender, race, and class differences.  Keywords:   geographic mobility; employment; military families

Volume 17

Race, Gender & Class 2010 Conference
Volume 17, Number 3-4, 2010, ISSN 1084-8354

Guest Editor:  Jean Ait Belkhir, Christiane Charlemaine, and Maxine Leeds Craig

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine    IntroductionRace, Gender & Class 2010 Conference  (p 5-7)

Barbara Antoniazzi    “(Un)forgivable Blackness” and the Oval Office.  Jack Johnson and Henry Louis Gates at the Postracial White House   (p 9-18)

Abstract:   This article sets out to discuss the concept of postraciality as emerging in Obama’s 2008 speech “A More Perfect Union” and subsequently offers a comparative analysis of two events that in 2009 provided critical tests in this terrain: the arrest of professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. and a request for granting posthumous pardon to Jack Johnson, the first African-American heavyweight world champion. I am suggesting that President Obama handled the cases as opportunities to re-establish a distance from stereotypical features anchored to the notion of blackness, namely anger and promiscuity.  Keywords:   race; gender; class; postraciality; postethnicity; descent; consent; law enforcement; racial profiling; posthumous pardon; boxing; Mann Act; masculinity; Obama; Gates; Johnson

Bettina L. Love and Brandelyn Tosolt   Reality or Rhetoric?  Barack Obama and Post-Racial America  (p 19-37)

Abstract:  President Obama’s election has been termed “historic.” Dominant discourse holds that Obama’s election proved the end of racism. However, an alternate view is possible. Using the lens of Critical Race Theory and the voices of 57 adults, we interrogate the possibility that Obama’s election reveals less about the end of racism and more about the public’s view of racism as a changing construct. Two competing themes emerged: the permanence of racism in U.S. society as well Obama’s election signaling the end of racism. A third theme, cognitive dissonance, grows directly out of these competing ideas. The current dissonance may be resolved by entering a post-racial period; however, we argue that continued inequities reveal this to be rhetoric rather than reality. Keywords: Critical Race Theory, race; racism; cognitive dissonance

John W. Miller, Jr.    Beyond Skin Deep:  An Analysis of the Influence of the One-Drop Rule on the Racial Identity of African American Adolescents    (p 38-50)

Abstract:  This article is a follow-up to my previous study (Miller & Combs-Orme, 2008) that critically examined the influence that environmental racial composition had on the preferred racial classification of African-American adolescents. What that study discovered was that environmental racial composition of the town did factor into the overall racial identity of study participants. Specifically, AA adolescents that lived in the predominantly AA town had statistically significantly higher self-importance scores than AA adolescents that lived in a predominantly White town. In addition to finding that environmental racial composition had a significant effect on the self-importance of study participants, further analysis of study data also found that 20% of study participants from the predominantly white town racially classified themselves as mixed. This article examines reasons behind the sharp contrast in preferred racial viewpoints and argues that the reason may be attributed to the influence that the “one-drop rule” has on perceptions of racial identity of AA youth.  Keywords:  African American; self-importance; identity; one-drop rule

Joelyn K. Foy    I Hear You Now:  How the Obama Presidency Has raised Expectations and Inspired Truth-Telling    (p 51-63)

Abstract:   Although electing an African-American president in 2008 did not mark the end of racism in the United States (ASHE, 2009; Carter, 2009; Fluker, 2008; Wise, 2009), African-American children now know that it is possible to become President. As a White female, I expected that having a man of color holding the highest political office in the land would send a message of empowerment. There is an opening up, a bringing to light, conditions like poverty and incest, but there is also dissent. Foucault’s themes of power, knowledge, and self clarify voices that have previously been silenced within the dominant White majority.  Keywords:   Foucault; theoretical; power; knowledge; self; Precious

Bernadette Kwee Garam and Jeneve Brooks   Students’ Perceptions of Race and Ethnic Relations Post Obama’s Election:  A Preliminary Analysis   (p 64-80)

Abstract:   Seventy-three students, who attend a predominantly white, Northeastern college, participated in this 2009-2010 pilot study that drew from Bonilla-Silva’s previous research. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, we examined students’ exposure to diversity and their views on affirmative action, interracial marriage, intergroup contact, minorities’ cultural values and life chances, racial discrimination, and their perceptions of race issues in the U.S. since Obama’s election. Although some students employed Bonilla-Silva’s four frames of color-blind racism, students also acknowledged structural factors of racism and exhibited a deeper understanding of race and ethnic relations than was previously suggested in Bonilla-Silva’s work. We explore varying reasons for this as well as analyze students’ identification with the value of post-racialism as symbolized by Obama’s presidency.  Keywords:   color-blind racism; college students; racial attitudes; race and ethnic relations; post-racial society; Obama presidency

Ginny G. Lane and Amy E. White   The Roots of Resegregation:  Analysis and Implications   (p 81-102)

Abstract:   As political pressure mounts to increase school performance, this article takes a timely look at the role of resegregation in perpetuating school inequity. Data are presented to demonstrate the social, educational and political forces currently shaping both policy and progress in America's pubic schools. The implications for a new Executive administration are also discussed.   Keywords: resegregation; segregation; educational policy; civil rights

Michael D. Forster and Tim Rehner   Race, Gender and Class at the Grassroots:  Lessons from 14 Years’ Work with Low-Income African American Youth    (p 103-110)

Abstract:   “Family Network Partnership,” a community-based agency affiliated with the University of Southern Mississippi School of Social Work, has done grassroots delinquency-prevention work for 14 years with poor African-American youth in resource-deprived communities on the east side of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Following a description of the background, goals and theoretical orientation of the agency, six “lessons learned” for successful grassroots work are offered. Lessons include acknowledging race, gender, and class issues, sustaining a continuous presence, and pressing universities for resource sharing, among others.  Keywords:  community social work; delinquency prevention; university-community collaboration

Anthony L. Brown and Keffrelyn D. Brown   “A Spectacular Secret:”  Understanding the Cultural Memory of Racial Violence in K-12 Official School Textbooks in the Era of Obama   (p 111-125)

Abstract:   Drawing from the theoretical lenses of critical race theory and cultural memory, this study explores the findings of an extensive analysis of the most recent elementary and secondary Texas state-adopted social studies textbooks. This paper examines the knowledge constructed about racial violence and African Americans in the U.S. The authors show how historic acts of racial violence toward African Americans receive minimal and/or distorted attention in most K-12 texts. The findings from this study illustrate that while narratives of racial violence were present throughout the texts—they often rendered acts of violence as the immorality of single actors or “bad men doing bad things. ” The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these narratives of race and racism to how individuals are able to conceptualize and make sense of contemporary meanings of racism, particularly in the era of Barack Obama.   Keywords:   race; curriculum; African Americans; textbooks

Gautam Nayer, Crystal D. Hadnott, and Riley H. Venable      Patient Satisfaction among Native Americans and other Minority Groups:  Effects of Patient Physician Match on Ethnic Origins & Cultural Similarity   (p 126-141)

Abstract:   As this country witnesses the most sweeping changes to health care delivery in over forty years, little attention has been paid to the wants and needs of minority ethnic groups, and arguably all proposed solutions have targeted middle and upper class Caucasians. With this study, the authors present the attitudes of a frequently forgotten group related to their choice of an "ideal" physician. A survey instrument measured four variables (professionalism, competence, cultural similarity, and humaneness) representing what minorities looked for in a physician. For the purpose of this study, researchers studied Lumbee Indians in the particular. The results were similar to those in other minority ethnic groups. Keywords:   Lumbee; Native American; physician; patient; satisfaction; health care; cultural competence; physician-patient match; health disparity; physician-patient relations

Mary White Stewart and Rosemary Dixon    Speaking Race/Hearing Racism   (p 152-158)

Abstract:  Prior to Barack Obama declaring his intention to seek the presidency of the United States, Harry Reid, in apparent support of Obama’s aspirations, claimed that Obama could win because he was a “light-skinned African American with no Negro dialect unless he wanted one” (Halperin & Heilemann, 2010:38). When this statement became public in the 2010 book Game Change, a political and media-driven firestorm erupted. Reid’s words were debated in major news outlets, and his political friends and adversaries chimed in to either castigate or support him. Utilizing a thematic analysis of linguistic interpretations, this research explores the ways public language frames, obscures, and manipulates the realities of race and racism in this country.  Keywords:  Barack Obama; Harry Reid; language; media; political discourse; politicization; race; racism; social construction

Brandelyn Tosolt      “He is a Terrific Man to People Like me”:  African American Students’ Responses to President-Elect Obama    (p159-172)

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to explore African American sixth graders’ (n=34) reactions to the election of President-Elect Obama. A phenomenological approach was used to understand the meanings the students attached to this election. Based on the students’ comments, five broad themes were located: an emotional moment, a historic victory, new horizons, an inspirational and positive figure, and impact on African Americans. These findings are grounded in role model literature and theory. Implications of the findings are discussed.  Keywords:   middle grades; perceptions; urban, race; students

Shirley Rombough and Diane Keithly      Women in Politics:  An Analysis of Personal Characteristics Leading to Success in Gaining Local Elective Office   (p 173-188)

Abstract:   Women are underrepresented in political office at every level of the government in the United States. This study examines the reasons so few women occupy elective offices including structural obstacles as well as personal factors. Initially a brief questionnaire was mailed to all female members of Congress and all women governors but responses were too few to be useful for analysis. After a second mailing with a revised and even briefer questionnaire the authors turned to a more qualitative methodological approach which was facilitated by the community work of one of the authors in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas. Through a network of Latina or Hispanic local leaders a number of female elected office holders granted extensive interview time and considerable interest in the research investigation. The study analyses the qualitative findings drawn from these open-ended interviews.  Keywords:   politics and women; female elective office holders

Jennifer Hand and Nicolette Sheridan    National Political Representation and Health Inequalities in Aotearoa/New Zealand:  Could a Pacific Woman be our Obama?   (p 189-200)

Abstract:   From a South Pacific perspective we see the Obama presidency as a symbol of optimism for public engagement and grassroots movements and as a model for new found power for marginalized peoples. New Zealand shares in the global issues of political representation and accountability, growing economic and social inequalities and increasing rates of chronic disease. We will describe the history and current situation of national political representation and discuss major current social and health issues. The discussion is illustrated by a case study and verbatim quotes from people with chronic disease drawn from research on consumer perspectives on the services provided by the health system in one New Zealand city. We conclude by advocating for community organizing and empowerment resulting in many Obamas supporting the social and economic policies necessary to address the inequalities we hold to be fundamental to current social and health crises. Given the racial, social and political context of Aotearoa/New Zealand, yes, our Obama could be a Pacific woman.  Keywords:   political representation; South Pacific; women; health inequalities; chronic disease; community empowerment

Meghan S. Sanders and Jas M. Sullivan     Category Inclusion and Exclusion in Perceptions of African Americans:  Using the Stereotype Content Model to Examine Perceptions of Groups and Individuals   (p 201-222)

Abstract:  The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) framework is used in the present study in two ways: 1) to examine group perceptions and 2) to examine individual/exemplar perceptions. By bringing together findings from a variety of frameworks, this study attempts to answer the following research question: How will perceptions of social groups within the SCM framework differ from those of individuals (both liked and disliked) representing those groups? Survey results for this exploratory study suggest there is a difference of perception for African American groups and African American individuals. Specifically, respondents possess negative perceptions of African Americans subgroups; however, more variability exists in perceptions for African American individuals. Keywords:   stereotype content; African American stereotypes; person perception; social categorization

Anjel Stough-Hunter and Joseph F. Donnemeyer   When Health Involves Hunting and Peeing in the Front Yard:  Obama’s Health Reform and the Importance of Rural Masculinity   (p 223-240)

Abstract:   Debate concerning healthcare reform under the Obama administration has brought attention to health disparities and health promotion within the U.S. Within this debate, it is crucial to examine areas in which structural inequalities persist, but which have received little focused effort, such as the health of rural men. This ethnographic study of an Appalachian community explores how rural men define and reflect upon their own health practices. In-depth interviews and participant observation were used to examine men’s perceptions of healthy living. The findings suggest that men in this community not only relate “real” masculinity to a way of approaching health, but also juxtapose their position to health and real masculinity to living outside of rural areas.  Keywords: masculinity; rural; men’s health; Appalachia; hegemonic masculinity

B.J. Bryson    The Promise of Obama:  Public Policy, HIV/AIDS, and African American Women    (p241-254)

Abstract:   African Americans are disproportionately represented in every reported HIV/AIDS surveillance category with African American women being at special risk. HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death for African American women between the ages of 25-34 (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2009). Disease status, gender disparity, racial inequities and socioeconomic barriers are factors effecting African American women as multiple forms of oppression and disparity impact life outcomes. This paper reviews President Obama’s movement of the 2008 presidential election HIV/AIDS campaign promises into year one policy initiatives with final comments on their ability to address the unique needs of African American women living with and affected by HIV/AIDS. Keywords:   African American women; campaign promises; HIV/AIDS; policy; President Obama

Carol F. Black     Doing Gender from Prison:  Male Inmates and their Supportive Wives and Girlfriends   (p255-271)

Abstract:  This paper investigates the process of doing gender, as defined by West and Zimmerman (1987) for male inmates and their female wives and girlfriends. In their visits, phone calls and letter writing, all done under the gaze of the correctional system, these couples act out and sometimes reproduce traditional gender roles, while in other ways they are forced to change, role-switch, or re-invent new definitions for what they define as masculine or feminine activity.  Keywords:   doing gender; inmates; prisoners; gender roles; role switching; feminine role; masculine role

Janis McWayne, Jennifer Green, Ben Miller, Matthew Porter, Clay Poston, Gilberto Sanchez, Kimberly Turner, and Jeremy Rivers    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Disparities, and President Obama’s Commitment for Change in Health Care   (p 272-287)

Abstract:   Health care services in America are evolving. However, the state of sexual minority health is fraught with individual and institutional health disparities. The Obama Administration and other health organizations are beginning to develop the infrastructure needed to provide quality medical care to all Americans including sexual minorities. In this paper, we review the current state of health for sexual minorities including prevalent health disparities, access to quality care, communication, disclosure, current health issues and disparities. Finally, we will discuss the Obama Administration’s role, and how medical and public health professionals can assist through better data collection, health communications, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. A reduction in health disparities will benefit all Americans.  Keywords:   gender; sexual minorities; health disparities

Anthony I. Igiede    Health Care Reform:  Sociopolitical Perspectives p 288-297)

Abstract: This study reexamines the national focus on health care reforms in the United States. Literature on health care reforms suggests that Mass public in the Unites States is not enthusiastic about free public health care insurance to improve the access for poor and vulnerable populations. Different opinions for attitudes toward health care reforms are presented using both classical and contemporary related literatures. Current literatures suggest that forty seven million including non-citizens are uninsured. That is, 16% of the total United States population has no health care. The four perspectives of this article evaluate the roles of Insurance Underwriters, Pharmaceutical Companies, American Medical Association, and the United States Government.  Keywords: healthcare reform; healthcare policy; insurance reform; Medicare; Medicaid.

Betty Fomby-White    Enhancing Health Education by Including Choice Education Intervention and the Theory of Choice into the Teaching Plan   (p 298-306)

Abstract:   An important role for all health educators is to positively influencing the health behavior of individuals and communities as well as the living conditions that influence their health. Yet many health educators have found that despite their many efforts to educate individuals and communities to change unhealthy behaviors individuals after leaving a health education program go home and make choices to either do what has been taught or to continue to do what is expedient for the individual at the time.. Often what is expedient for the individual is not a healthy choice. Based on this reality it is necessary for health educators to include in their health education teaching plans an intervention that will teach learners how to better understand the choice process and how to correctly use the information given to make healthy choices at home. This intervention named “Choice Education Intervention” is guided by a new nursing theory entitled “The Theory of Choice”. The new theory proposes the following assumptions. Many factors determine health which, include choice, gender, race, social class, work environment, employment status, income, housing conditions, spirituality, stability of the environment, transportation, diet, lifestyle and education. Further, in the Theory of Choice it is proposed that individuals use choice to exert a relatively high degree of control over their health by their adherence to medical advise, personal health choices made, and their health care utilization. Also to increase the effectiveness of health education provided learners need to be guided to make healthy choices after receiving the specific health information. It is therefore important for health educators to learn how to guide learners in making positive health choices. Keywords:   Choice Education Intervention

Susan Hrostowski    Diversity in Aging America:  Making our Communities Aging Friendly    (p 307-313)

Abstract:   Barak Obama was inaugurated President of the United States on the brink of a cultural explosion. The demographics of this country and virtually every country in the world are transforming societies in unprecedented ways. Accommodations for this burgeoning aging population must be made, not only at the federal level, but most especially at the community level, where the strain will be most keenly felt on social and physical infrastructures. Further, the health and well-being of older adults and the community large will be assured only with enhancements made with the input of community members. Focus groups, forums, public hearings, and/or workshops and conferences should be held to provide opportunities for input. This article describes the aging friendly community movement and outlines the process and outcomes of one community’s “Issues on Aging” conference, its first attempt at garnering the input of its experts and lay people in the effort to become more aging friendly.  Keywords:  aging friendly communities; housing; transportation; civic engagement; access to care

Gokhan Savas    Social Inequality at Low-wage Work in Neo-Liberal Economy:  The Case of Women of Color Domestic Workers in the United States      (p 314-326) 

Abstract:   This paper is a sociological overview and critique of complex relations between race, class, and gender in today’s neo-liberal economy. The main aim of the study is to examine some important dynamics of social inequalities in this era by looking at women of color domestic workers. Domestic workers in the United States were predominantly African-American women, but in time other immigrant women of color also began to fill those jobs. This is why I mean Black women and Latinas by women of color. I have chosen women of color domestic workers case because being working class women of color reflects the intersectionality of race, class and gender. The case of domestic work does not only indicate racial inequality in the United States but also the interrelations of race with gender and class in today’s neo-liberal economy.  Keywords:   social inequality; domestic work; women of color; neo-liberal economy

Tingting Qi    Transforming Sisterhood to an All-Relational Solidarity    (p 327-335)  

Abstract:  The aim of this essay is to address the issue of how to accommodate differences among women without giving up feminist coalitional solidarity. In this essay, through analyzing the assumptions within the concept of sisterhood, I demonstrate the limitation of traditional sisterhood when applied to women who are neither White, nor middle class. I suggest an all-relational approach to feminist coalition. I show how the all-relational solidarity differs from other modes with its focus on the situatedness and contextuality of each woman and how the enlarged empathy contributes to this solidarity which accommodates and affirms differences among women. Keywords:   sisterhood; all-relational solidarity; enlarged empathy

Assata Zerai     To be Politically Relevant and Tolerant:  A Comparative Analysis of Christian Evangelical Internal Discussions of the 2008 Presidential Election     (p 336-348)

Abstract:   During the 2008 election season, evangelical Christians, their denominations and individual parishes were active participants in the public debate and outcomes. There were clear divergences in political opinion among church-goers that diverged by race. In this unobtrusive multi-sited ethnography, I compare three churches: (1) a predominantly African American Protestant congregation, (2) a progressive multiracial church and ministry team, and (3) a predominantly white Protestant evangelical leadership and multiracial flock, examining the extent to which they address issues of political salience, and in particular the 2008 election. Was the election discussed in the pulpit, newsletters or web presence among church members? What political activities were encouraged in the name of religious values? The operation of the intersection of race, class, and gender in the U.S. begins to explain these distinctions.  Keywords:   evangelicalism; intersectionality; Christianity; multiracial congregations; 2008 U.S. presidential election; race; black liberation theology

Guadalupe Taylor    The Abject Bodies of the Maquiladora Female Workers on a Globalized Border   (p 349-363)

Abstract:   The topic of the body has been analyzed from a variety of perspectives. Although biology does not define women, it cannot be denied that women’s bodies play a major role in determining their lives. This paper will question the universalism of materialist feminist theories to explain the violence against the bodies of female maquiladora workers. First, I will present Simone de Beauvoir and Judith Butler’s conceptualizations of the female body. Second, I will analyze if the Socialist feminist theory is broad enough to encompass the bodies of maquiladora workers in its analysis. Finally, I will advocate the need for conceiving a transcultural-transnational feminist approach that includes class, gender, culture, state, globalization, free-trade agreements, and phenotype of women who work in the maquiladora industry. It seems necessary to formulate an approach that considers a broad scope of issues that affect maquiladora workers who form part of the proletariat on the border between the United States and México. Since the Mexican government exempt of taxes to US companies that opened factories on the border, NAFTA has turned Mexico in an excellent source of profits for transnational companies based on the exploitation of Mexican workers, mainly female workers. The patriarchal state and capitalism have reinserted women in a space where they have lost citizenship and where their bodies have become abject objects for the benefit of globalized industrial production. I suggest that a transcultural-transnational feminist approach is needed to explain and to foster an agenda for improving the plight of the maquiladora workers. This approach is suitable for this population because it includes class, gender, culture, State, capitalism, free trade agreements, and the phenotypes of all women.  Keywords:   abject; maquiladora workers; border; body; ethnic; social class; patriarchal; gender; race; oppression; capitalism; feminism; materialism; Marxism; feminist theory; indigenous; praxis; dispora; transcultural; transnational; western; México; Mexican

Tom Olds   New Dawn on an Old Empire   (p 364-368)

Abstract:   The Obama election effort was supposed to be more about change than it was anything else. The question posed to me by a tearful student the morning after the historic election was exactly “What Changed?” This country still had all the same problems as before the elections, racism, sexism, and discrimination of multivariate dimensions; but now we also had a reason to hope. If we as a people could set aside our differences and elect a person based on the content of their character and the strength of their message then there is hope that we as a people can overcome discrimination of all types along with the hateful nature of oppression that it creates. Keywords:   election; president; change, hate; politics; race; acceptance

A) Multicultural Education and Race, Gender & Class
B) Other Race, Gender, and Class Issues
Volume 17, Number 1-2, 2010, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editor:  Marlene S. Munn-Joseph and Alan Singer

Marlene S. Munn-Joseph and Alan Singer   The Meaning of Multiculturalism in the 21st Century:  An Introduction   (p 6-9)

Alan Singer    Why Multiculturalism Still Matters   (p 10-22)

Abstract:  The author argues that an examination of events during the past decade in the United States and other parts of the world, some of which have been used to argue for a post-multicultural world that deemphasizes cultural difference, support the idea that multiculturalism, a philosophy committed to respect for diversity as part of a commitment to social justice, remains a vibrant and necessary force in the progressive transformation of societies.   Keywords:  post-multiculturalism; history

Michael Pezone   Multiculturalism is NOT Enough   (p 23-30)

Abstract: The author revisits Lisa Delpit’s seminal book, Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom, and uses it as a starting point for identifying inadequacies in calls for multicultural education as the basis for significant educational reform.   Keywords:   progressive pedagogy; socioeconomic analysis; structural inequality

Jonathan Lightfoot   Race, Class, Gender, Intelligence, and Religion Perpsectives   (p 31-38)

Abstract:  The author employs Critical Race Theory to explore what he identifies as race, class, gender, intelligence, and religion perspectives on education, society, and the nature of humanity. He argues that these classification schemes are all socially and politically constructed.  Keywords: Critical Race Theory; race; class; gender; intelligence; religion

Thandeka K. Chapman and Carl A. Grant   Thirty Years of Scholarship in Multicultural Education   (p 39-46)

Abstract:  The article uses journal publications from the past thirty years to illustrate how conceptualizations of multicultural education evolved and changed. Changes in language and focus are connected to social movements, demographic changes, and other forces that impact the field of education. Debates among advocates and opponents of multicultural education are discussed. Keywords:  conceptualization of multiculturalism; curriculum content

Erica D. McCray and Patricia   Alvarez McHatton Current Demographics and Challenges:  The Education Imperative   (p 47-50)

Abstract:  Demographic changes are transforming the United States, but disparities continue to exist along ethnic, racial, and gender lines. This essay explores possibilities and challenges of the diversifying school population and preparing teachers to promote broader societal change. Keywords: demographics; educational disparities; teacher preparation

Eustace G. Thompson   Addressing Institutional Structural Barriers to Student Achievement   (p 51-57)

Abstract:  Employing gap analysis, the author examines the structural causes of unequal school performance, especially poorer showing by African American students, and proposes ways to address this and related problems.  Keywords:   racism; institutional and structural analysis; gap analysis

Jacquelyn A. Lewis-Harris   Making Sense in a Chaotic Space   (p 58-71)

Abstract:  This paper discusses the success and limitations of a project designed to reduce student aggression among multiple nationalities. It was carried out through the Center for Human Origin and Cultural Diversity’s (CHOCD) applied anthropology and cultural awareness curriculum in conjunction with the YWCA’s conflict management program. The CHOCD curriculum was based upon anthropological, social justice, and multicultural-based concepts and used the students’ need to voice their concerns and needs. The project also used technology, the fine arts, role-playing and Socratic discussion to achieve its ends. This analysis also addresses teacher cultural misconceptions and how the lack of good multicultural pedagogy contributed to student misbehavior and the reinforcement of racial, ethnic and class-based stereotypes.  Keywords:  social justice; cultural misconceptions; conflict management

Earnestyne Sullivan, Patricia J. Larke, and Gwendolyn Webb-Hasan   Using Critical Policy and Critical Race Theory to Examine Texas’ School Disciplinary Policies   (p 72-87)

Abstract:   This paper examines the results of a study that focused on the disciplining actions given to students of color after the implementation of a zero tolerance (ZT) policy in Texas public schools. This critical quantitative (CritQuant) investigation was conducted during the 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 academic school years. Suspension and expulsion data and a modified critical policy analysis, employing specific tenets of critical race theory were used to uncover trends across school levels, gender, and race/ethnicity.   Keywords:   Critical Race Theory; zero tolerance; disciplinary policies

Lynda Costello-Herrera   Diverse Schools Without Multicultural Curriculum   (p 88-92)

Abstract:   This essay examines the experience of Salvadoran middle school students as they grapple with findings themselves in new cultural settings and schools that largely ignore their needs.  Keywords:   immigration; ESL; social justice, classrooms

Amanda L. Sullivan and Kathleen A. King Thorius   Considering Intersections of Difference among Students Identified as Disabled and Expanding Conceptualizations of Multicultural Education   (p 93-109)

Abstract:   Special education is a field formed in the wake of the civil rights movement and built on the ideals of equitable opportunity for students with disabilities; yet, it has been criticized for its marginalization of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds since its inception. In this article, we examine common conceptualizations of multiculturalism with a focus on students identified with disabilities. We offer a critique of how culture and multiculturalism have been defined, as well as the implications for the field of special education, and more broadly, for teaching, learning, and educational equity. Moving beyond simplistic notions of race or culture, we analyze the complex relationships between culture, race, class, gender, and disability in order to apply a more integrated approach to examining the school experiences and outcomes of students with disabilities. We offer suggestions for building a model inclusive education that supports equitable educational systems.    Keywords: special education; disability; intersectionality; multiculturalism 

Katherine Wiesendanger and Peggy Tarpley   Developing Cultural Awareness through Implementing Literature Circles in the Classroom   (p 110-113)

Abstract:   Multicultural education must be integrated into the curriculum and focus on the appreciation of all cultures and ethnic differences. One way to help achieve this is through the inclusion of high quality multicultural literature. Literature circles afford teachers the opportunity to include in the curriculum high quality books, incorporating themes that develop one’s awareness of different people.  Keywords:  multicultural children’s literature; literature circles; cultural awareness

Harry Morgan   Young White Children See Race   (p114-117)

Abstract:   While all public schools in the United States are bound by the 1954 Brown decision, the goal of educational equality has not been achieved. This is partly a result of deep-seated resistance by White people who act on racial stereotypes while denying that these stereotypes exist. To explore the origins of racial stereotyping in young children we examined the way four-year old White children are influenced by the attitudes of their general social networks toward individuals of dark skin color. Keywords:   educational equality; stereotypes; race; young children

Rona M. Frederick and  Jenice L. View   Re-examining the Delivery of a Diversity Course in the 21st
Century: Rethinking our Roles as Teacher Educators
   (p 118-127)

Abstract:   The purpose of this article was to examine the experiences of two teacher educators as they taught courses focused on race, class, gender and disability. Utilizing culturally responsive theory as a framework, both teacher educators collaboratively explored their experiences in teaching classes intentionally designed to transform thinking. As a sub question they were interested in what activities influenced student thinking throughout the courses. Data were collected from two different courses. Data sources included pre- and post-surveys, informal interviewing to gain a sense of student’s understandings, and journal writings, as well as observational data collected in order to capture pivotal moments throughout the course. The authors found that through the arts, students were able to develop deeper understandings of issues related to race, class and gender. In addition, students began to recognize the important role that race and racism played in their lives and the lives of their students. Second, more attention must be paid towards grounding diversity courses in history in order to counter present day notions of “colorblindness”. Finally, explicit instruction for those students of color who enter into the course with varying levels of consciousness must be considered in order to address student concerns that are not formally address in an introductory level diversity course.  Keywords:   diversity course; teacher education; arts integration; culturally responsive teaching; reflective practice

Andrea Honigsfeld and Charlotte Allen   Self-Reflection and Life Review Theory: A Cross-Cultural, Interdisciplinary Experience for Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers   (p 128-134)

Abstract:   This paper will discuss a reflective approach to multicultural teacher education at a liberal arts college in the North East of the U.S. In addition to various reflective multicultural learning experiences utilized in the curriculum modules, several guest speakers use personal narratives that create cross-cultural, interdisciplinary experiences. One presentation is developed through the autobiographical reminiscences of an African American professor of social work and gerontology. This life reflective model enriches the observations and enhances the self-reflections of students and teachers.  Keywords:  self-reflection; teacher education; autobiographical reminiscences

Judith S. Kaufman and S. Maxwell Hines   Cultivating an Understanding of Privilege among Teacher Candidates   (p 135-147)   

Abstract:   The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a film, with likely personal relevance, for developing diversity-sensitive dispositions in teacher candidates whose culturally insular life experiences may serve to narrow their approaches to teaching. Teacher candidates’ written responses to the film, Race: The Power of an Illusion (Adelman, 2003), were qualitatively analyzed with all responses falling in one of four categories. Among the results reported, we found that 80% of teacher candidates had developed a deeper understanding of institutional racism, and half of those were able to relate personal experiences relevant to institutional racism. Additionally, 14% of the students directly addressed their own privilege, situating their own understanding of their social class. Recommendations for further study are included.  Keywords:   privilege; teacher education; identity; institutional racism; culturally responsive pedagogy

Jonathan Lightfoot   Classroom “Race” Talk   (p 148-153)

Abstract:   Author explores a Black professor’s strategies for addressing race in a predominantly White university (PWU) where students resist thoughtful examination of key concepts and empirical practices. In the introductory section of this issue, Dr. Lightfoot provides a theoretical explanation for his classroom practice.  Keywords:   race; predominantly White; University (PWU); socially constructed identity

Blidi S. Stemn   Teaching Mathematics with “Cultural Eyes”   (p 154-162)

Abstract:   Mathematics is a dynamic, living, cultural product and the curriculum and instructional practices should reflect this. It should be taught in a living context that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of the learner. This article describes an approach for helping teachers develop skills in teaching mathematics with “cultural eyes.” This involves knowledge of the subject matter and the ability to connect school mathematics to our multicultural society. Specific examples of how teachers can achieve this are discussed using a framework that is an adaptation of Banks’ dimensions of multicultural education and Friere’s work on education for liberation. The framework seeks to develop critical cultural consciousness, content integration, prejudice reduction, and equitable mathematics pedagogy.  Keywords:   mathematics; teacher education; critical cultural consciousness; multicultural education

Irma M. Olmedo   Hoy Marchamos, Mañana Votamos: Teachers Address Immigrant Rights’ Mobilizations in their Classrooms   (p 163-179)

Abstract:  This article examines how teachers address controversial issues in the classroom using these recent immigrant rights’ mobilizations as an example of teacher decision-making. The issue of immigration reform became especially charged after the passage of HR 4437, with its criminalization of those who provided any assistance to undocumented immigrants. As public reports of planned and actual deportations of the undocumented were circulating, especially in communities in urban areas with high proportions of these populations, many families were gripped with fear about their status. This research involved exploring the classroom based activities of teachers to engage their students in inquiry on the issues, and the participation and perspectives of children as a result of these activities. The research was part of a broader number of studies carried out by faculty at our university, including surveys of participants on the May 1, 2006 and July 19, 2006 marches and more detailed interviews with march leaders, clergy, educators, families, youth, and others.  Keywords:  immigrant rights; teaching; activism

Valerie Ooka Pang, Tamiko Stratton, Cynthia D. Park, Marcelina Madueño, Miriam Atlas, CindyPage, and Jennifer Oliger   The American DREAM and Immigrant Students   (p 180-193)

Abstract:   The purpose of this article is to contribute to the national debate on immigration by providing in depth understandings of the potential and context of immigrant children and their families. Our focus is on students. We describe the experiences of legal, refugee, and undocumented young people as well as children of immigrant parents. The lives of these young people are intimately tied in negotiating their place in society.  Keywords:   immigration; social mobility; school success

Pamela Anne Quiroz   Transcultural Adoptive Parents: Passing the Ethnic Litmus Test and
Engaging Diversity
   (p 194-205)

Abstract:   Potential adoptive parents, especially if it is a transcultural, transracial, or transnational adoption, can expect to be asked, “How are you going to assure that the child’s culture and ethnicity will be maintained?” Using excerpts from a larger study of parents participating in three adoption on-line forums over a period of 1-2 years, this paper examines how adoptive parents address the question of cultural and ethnic literacy. Adoptive parents tend to look to adoption agencies, professionals, and each other for guidance on how to engage in cultural socialization. Therefore, these discussions are situated within a discursive analysis of how transcultural adoption is addressed in popular adoption books. Together these examinations illustrate both the changes in constructions of adopted children, specifically, constructions involving race, ethnicity, and culture, as well as the limitations of our post-racial discourse. As exemplars of alternative family structures, transcultural adoptive families advance new ways of understanding diversity in the 21st century. Keywords:   adoption; transcultural; ethnicity; alternative families

Sherick Hughes   Promoting Multiculturalism through a Revised Declaration of Interdependence and Intersection Day on American College Campuses  (p 206-216)

Abstract:   This essay discusses challenges in teaching and learning about race, class, and gender in U.S. colleges and universities. A “post-ism” vs. “anti-ism” public dichotomy is growing. “Post-ism” refers to the idea that we are in a post-racial, post-class, and/or post-gender moment in society where race, class, and gender are no longer barriers to educational achievement. The post-ism argument is that if race, gender, and class conversations are muted, then race- class- and gender-related problems would subside. Strong counter-evidence suggests that we are far from this moment with regards to race, gender, and class. The theory of intersectionality provides a useful possibility to engage this debate and bridge differences on campuses. Moreover, a revised Declaration of Interdependence and an Intersection Day on American college campuses can be promising vehicles for promoting multiculturalism and intersectionality.  Keywords:   post-racial; dysconsiousness; racialization; sexualization; intersectionality

Marlene S. Munn-Joseph   The Hip Hop Generation and Parent/School Relations   (p 217-223)

Abstract:   Research on parent/school relations within the Black community rarely examines how parents have to deal with the challenges embedded in the shifting socio-historical context when it comes to their own and their child’s identity or the way they draw on the strengths of African American cultural manifestations. This study examines the way hip hop and hip hop culture helped a generation of African American parents developed a transformative ideology that supports their ability to negotiate around institutional biases and defend the rights and integrity of their children. Keywords:   hip hop; culture, transformation

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction: Other Race, Gender, and Class Issues   (p 224-225)

George Ansalone and Frank A. Biafora   Tracking in the Schools: Perceptions and Attitudes of Parents   (p 226-240)

Abstract:   As American concludes the first decade of the new century, significant income and educational disparities based on race and social origin continue to persist. For many, the root cause of this disparity is an educational system that lacks equity and excellence—especially for children of disadvantaged populations. By examining the overall impact of one common educational practice—tracking- this research attempts to shed light on how education can contribute to the ever widening achievement gap. Tracking, a controversial form of educational differentiation which involves the separation of students by perceived academic ability and curriculum, is pervasive in American schooling. Research on tracking is extensive and occupies a significant place in the sociology of education. In general, the research has evolved along two distinct lines of inquiry. The first considers the overall impact of this educational practice on student academic achievement while, the second, explores how student academic outcomes are mediated by teacher expectation. The current research examines another interesting dimension of this controversial issue. It attempts to uncover the reasons why tracking remains pervasive in schooling despite the large body of research evidence highlighting its negative impact on student outcomes. Earlier phases of this research, conducted by the authors, have examined the perceptions of two key stakeholders in the tracking debate, teachers and principals. This current study examines the views and perceptions of parents whose children have been tracked in order to provide additional insights as to why tracking remains widespread in American schooling. The findings reveal parents to be are among the strongest supporters of this educational practice.  Keywords:   achievement gap; social inequality; tracking

Paul Green   Racial Politics, Litigation and Mississippi's Public Historically Black Colleges and Universities   (p 241-269)

Abstract:  Race remains intertwined in both the process and substance of pre-and post secondary education in the state of Mississippi. Southern legislators, municipal and civic leaders established dual systems of schooling for African American and White students ensuring limited educational and social opportunity. African American education represented a threat to white economic and political in the south. Education conferred the right of suffrage on the Black community and his equality before the law. Black leaders attacked the unconstitutionality of the segregated schools. The Courts have been reluctant to address how neutral educational policy may in fact be discriminatory. This reluctance to remedy racial discrimination in Mississippi’s lower and postsecondary schools has produced desegregation and not educational opportunity.  Keywords:   law; race; politics and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Jennifer Schoenfish-Keita and Glenn S. Johnson   Environmental Justice and Health: An Analysis of
Persons of Color Injured at the Work Place
   (p 270-304)

Abstract:   Occupational and environmental hazards have a direct impact on people of color lives. People of color are disproportionately employed in the dirtiest and low-paying jobs in the United States. This study investigates workplace safety for persons of color from the analysis of three personal injury cases. These personal injury cases include two African-American females and one African American male who were killed or severely injured as a result of their job or the type of transportation they used trying to get to their place of work. The authors use the Environmental Justice Framework to examine how persons of color are affected by injuries caused either by using public forms of transportation trying to get to work and injuries sustained within the job they do at their place of work. A qualitative analysis was applied to the three personal injury cases. Results are reported by each individual case situation. The authors present five policy recommendations for workplace safety for persons of color.  Keywords:   environmental justice; workplace safety; persons of color; personal injury; Environmental Justice Framework; environmental racism; Health

Volume 16

A) Socio Cultural and Economic Influences on Nutrition and Health Status
B) Other Race, Gender, and Class Issues
Volume 16, Number 3-4, 2009, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editors:  Alma Thorton, Bernestine B. McGee, and Glenda Stein Johnson


1) In “Religion and Body Weight in an Underserved Population,” by Karen H. Kim Yeary, Chan-hee Jo, Pippa Simpson, Jeffrey M. Gossett, Glenda Stein Johnson, Beverly J. McCabe-Sellers, Alma Thornton, Elaine Prewitt, and Bernestine B. McGee (Race, Gender & Class, 2009, 16(3-4):82-98), a part of the last paragraph was missing on page 88:

“Associations between religion and body weight were examined by bivariate analyses. BMI was then regressed on the demographic variables to account for demographic variation in BMI. Religion variables were each entered separately in assessing their relationship to BMI; the relationship between BMI and individual components of religion were assessed in separate regression analyses (rather than all of the components of religion included in one regression analysis) because of the complex nature of religion. Different dimensions of religion have different pathways in their effects on health (Koenig, Hays, George, Blazer, Larson, & Landerman, 1997; Koenig, Idler, Kasl et al., 1999). Assessing BMI’s relationship with individual components of religion elucidates which aspects of religion may be differentially related to body weight. Entering religion variables separately in assessing their relationship to BMI also eliminates problems of multicollinearity between religion variables. After BMI was regressed on religion variables, demographics were added in Model 1. To test the role of smoking as a mediator between religion and BMI, smoking was added in Model 2. In Model 3, physical activity was added to the religion-BMI model to examine its potential role as a mediator. In Model 4, total calories and fat were added to the model to examine the potential mediating role of nutrition. Model 4 examined religion’s association with BMI after taking into account demographics, smoking, physical activity, and nutrition.”

2) On the back cover of Race, Gender & Class, 2009, 16(3-4), the Guest Editors were Alma Thornton, Bernestine B. McGee, and Glenda Stein Johnson (as indicated on page 2 of Vol. 16, 3-4) instead of Rhonda L. Williams and Heather Powers Albanesi.

Race, Gender & Class regrets the errors.

Alma Thornton, Bernestine B. McGee, and Glenda Stein Johnson   Introduction: Socio Cultural and Economic Influences on Nutrition and Health Status    (p 4-6)

Betty Fomby-White   Changing Poor Health Choices Using the Theory of Choice   (7-18)

Abstract:   "The world is living dangerously—either because of poor choices, or making the wrong choices" (World Health Report, 2002:1). While there have been dramatic changes in nutrition and lifestyle habits, some population of the world remain dangerously unchanged (World Health Report, 2002:1). Changing poor health choices using the Theory of Choice is presented as a salient argument to support a set of principles that can be used as a tool to guide nurses and other health professionals who work with clients in changing poor health choices and achieving improved health outcomes. The Theory of Choice” provides a collaborative client practitioner interaction tool that may allow clients to change, grow, sustain and reach an improved level of health and quality of life. Having theoretical direction available for improving clients’ poor health choices may assist health practitioners in promoting healthy outcomes and providing knowledge designed to improve practice. The Theory of Choice is comprised of one concept: choice. For the purpose of the development of the theory choice is conceptually defined as a mental process of thinking involving the process of judging both external, internal, other outside influences and options and uses these to set goals. Additionally, choice is operationally defined as actions taken that are well thought out, carefully selected, and well chosen that lead to setting of high level goals for achievement and is measured by a committed comprehensive measurable plan of performance or action. The theory identifies this plan as a SAMIC plan which is defined as Simple, Attainable, Measurable, Individually centered and Committed. Two tangible outcomes have resulted from the development the Theory of Choice. These are a theoretical model and an empirically measurable formula for the validation of outcomes. Keywords:   choice; changing poor health choices

Bernestine B. McGee, Jeffrey M. Gossett, Pippa M. Simpson, Glenda Stein Johnson, Kimberly Bardell, Valerie Richardson, Alma Thornton, Crystal Johnson, Jovan Eugene, Karen Kim, and Margaret L. Bogle   Attitudes and Beliefs Affect Frequency of Eating Out in the Lower Mississippi Delta(p 19-30)

Abstract:   Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 African Americans (AA) and Caucasian (C) adults, the aim was to show that the frequency of eating out was lower among residents having a better attitude toward diet in addition to ethnic and socioeconomic differences. A comparison of those who thought it was important to (1) restrict salt (2) eat fruits and vegetables, (3) consume adequate fiber, (4) eat a variety of foods, (5) eat 2 servings of dairy daily (6) maintain a healthy weight, and (7) exercise regularly to those who did not. Those who thought it was important to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables (P< 0.001) ate out less often. Those who also thought that it was important to consume adequate fiber (P<0.005) also ate out less often, in addition to those who thought it was important to eat 2 servings of dairy daily (P <0.05) and have fruit for dessert (P<0.007). Using regression modeling with frequency of eating out as the outcome, religiosity, income, education, ethnicity, gender, food security, knowledge, and age as independent variables, the data showed that all but religiosity, food security and education were significant. Being younger, Caucasian or male or having a lower income or better healthy eating attitude resulted in eating out more. Previous research found diet to be poorer in those with lower income and education, and those residing in food insecure households. This suggests that income, age, ethnicity, and healthy eating perspective are important predictors of how often people eat out. Sensitivity to the beliefs and attitudes is important when planning effective nutrition interventions. Keywords:   eating out; rural; attitudes and beliefs

Janice E. Stuff, Michelle LaCour, Xianglin Du, Frank Franklin, Yan Liu, Sheryl Hughes, Ron Peters,
and Theresa A. Nicklas    The Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Associated Factors among Households with Children in Head Start Programs in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama   (p 31-47)

Abstract:   This study measured food security and hunger of households enrolled in Head Start in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama and assessed factors that could affect food security. Interviewers collected data from primary caregivers on demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and the six-item US food security module. The prevalence of food insecurity of 688 households with Head Start children was 34.9%, or twice that of the national average among households with children in 2004 (17.6%). Moreover, the prevalence of food insecurity for households of White children (34.1%) and of Hispanic children (50.8%) exceeded by two-fold the national averages for the same race/ethnic groups, whereas the prevalence among African American households (24.8%) was similar to the nationwide average. Within the study sample, there were significant differences in the race/ethnicity for food security status. Households with U. S. born caregivers had significantly lower percentages of food insecurity (28.6% food insecure) than households with foreign-born caregivers (50.3% food insecure). This study identified groups most vulnerable to food insecurity, and the continual need to monitor food security among participants in Head Start.  Keywords:   food insecurity; children; Head Start; African American; Hispanic

Valerie Richardson, Alma Thornton, Bernestine B. McGee, Glenda Stein Johnson, and Crystal Johnson   Healthy Eating Perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta Residents Manuscript   (p 49-58)

Abstract:   High rates of nutritional-related diseases have been reported in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States. Poor dietary habits contribute to massive rate of these diseases. The purpose is to examine how the LMD residents perceive healthy eating. Nine Focus groups were conducted in nine LMD counties relative to behavioral change. The residents were asked several questions, one being “What does “healthy eating’ mean to you?” There were a total of 91 persons, 85 females and 6 males (ages 18-60+) 71 African-American, 17 white, and 3 Hispanic interviewed. Seven of the nine focus groups said ‘healthy eating means eating vegetables; using cooking methods such as baking, broiling, grilling; and eating foods that were fat-free, lower in fat or low calorie. Six groups indicated it meant eating chicken, turkey, or skinless chicken. Other responses were drinking more water; eating healthy snacks; eating less salt, beef, pork, sugar, sweets, and calories; and drinking fewer sodas; monitoring portion sizes; eating food from every food group; drinking milk; and using olive oil instead of butter. Results indicate that LMD residents have knowledge of healthy eating; however more interventions are needed to promote healthy dietary practices that reflect the knowledge of these individuals.  Keywords:   healthy; healthy eating; perception

JeffriAnne Wilder, Mirka Koro-Ljungberg, and Regina Bussing   ADHD, Motherhood, and Intersectionality: An Exploratory Study   (p 59-81)

Abstract:   This exploratory qualitative study utilized an intersectional approach to explore the effects of race, class, and marital status upon identity construction and mothering strategies in eight women caring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The following research question guided this study: In what ways do the intersections of race, class, and marital status influence the context of identity construction and parenting practices, including nutritional interventions, for mothers of children with ADHD? Discourse analysis application revealed shared experiences of “good” mothering that centralized around two parallel roles and identities; additionally, mothers described divergent perspectives of mothering strategies related to mothering capital, discipline, and academic buffering. Of note, nutritional interventions were not described as a part of good mothering discourse and dietary management of ADHD symptoms did not emerge as a separate theme. Reviewing mothering experiences through an intersectional lens suggests that race, class, and marital status provide a complex and dynamic perspective on mothering.  Keywords: mothering; intersectionality; race; class; disability; ADHD

Karen H. Kim Yeary, Chan-hee Jo, Pippa Simpson, Jeffrey M. Gossett,  Glenda Stein Johnson, Beverly J. McCabe-Sellers, Alma Thornton, Elaine Prewitt, and Bernestine B. McGee    Religion and Body Weight in an Underserved Population   p 82-98)   

Abstract:   Excess body weight is a prominent public health problem, with underserved groups bearing a disproportionate burden of disease (Ogden et al., 2006; Association AH, 2005; Hartley, 2004). Understanding body weight through examining potential predictors is an important step in addressing the current obesity epidemic. A potential predictor that has not been thoroughly examined in relationship to body weight is religion. Americans are very religious (Gallup Poll GP, 2001; Worldwide DN, 2000), with certain underserved subgroups of the population reporting greater religiosity than others. Those living in the rural South and African Americans report higher rates of church attendance and membership (Scandrett, 1996). Religion’s prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic may play an important role in determining body weight. Data from FOODS 2000, a representative sample of a rural, impoverished area in the lower Mississippi Delta region of the US, were analyzed (total n=1606; 787 African American and 819 Caucasian adults aged 18+). Religion was hypothesized to be associated with higher body weight; with the relationship being more pronounced in African Americans than Whites. Health behaviors (smoking, nutrition, physical activity) were expected to mediate the relationship. In Whites only, those consuming religious media at least once a week or more were 1.37 BMI units heavier than those consuming religious media less than once a week. Smoking mediated this relationship. There were no significant relationships between religion and body weight in African Americans.  Keywords:   religion; spirituality; body weight; obesity; health disparities

Modibo M. Kadalie   The Emergence of Women in the Leadership of a Struggle for Ecological Justice:  The Case of Vieques    (p 99-108)

Abstract:   This article is a critical comparative narrative of the development of the focused political pressure created by a unified population led by women who understood that the perceived results of the long term military activity on the island Vieques could be used to stop the catastrophic ecological damage that was being caused by the U.S. Navy. The narrative reviews the period of struggle in the 1970s and the period of 2000 to 2003 when all of the military activity was brought to an end. These periods are viewed as two distinctive conjunctures. The class and gender dynamics of these periods are comparatively considered along with the critical shift in the role of women as part of an emerging unique cultural identity of the region. During the second conjuncture the movement was driven by a tremendous concern for health, particularly threats to the people’s nutrition and risks of cancer by the imposition of U.S. military technology. This new perspective was brought to this social motion by the involvement of independently organized women. This new dimension allowed the movement to be articulated in the more inclusive terms of environmental health, peace, and human rights which proved to be decisive in its success.  Keywords:   Vieques; Puerto Rican Politics; Ecological Social Movements; Caribbean Politics; ecological damage; effects of military bases

Glenda Stein Johnson, Bernestine B. McGee, Crystal Johnson, and Valerie Richardson    Measuring Aspects of Fruit and Vegetable Availability in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD)    (p 109-119)

Abstract:   Chronic health conditions may be linked to disparities in fruit and vegetables consumption among rural, low-income groups. Grocery stores in underserved settings such as Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) were surveyed for availability of selected fruit and vegetables, with an additional focus on the dimensions style of food and packaging options. In small/medium stores, only 42.4% of the fruit and vegetable items comprising the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) were available compared to 97.5% found in supermarkets. Supermarkets carried a larger percentage of a variety of styles and packages, however the number of supermarkets located in this rural underserved area is very sparse. The results suggest that limited availability of fruit and vegetable purchasing options may be a possible barrier to adequate consumption of these food groups in the LMD.  Keywords:   fruit and vegetable consumption; availability; grocery store survey; rural; low-income population; Lower Mississippi Delta; fruit and vegetable retail industry

Elgie McFayden, Jr.    Key Factors Influencing Health Disparities among African Americans    (p 120-132)

Abstract:   Despite significant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases, African Americans continue to exhibit disproportionately higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke when compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States (Adler & Newman, 2002). A significant body of literature suggests that racism and or discrimination may be a contributing factor in the misdiagnosis, late diagnosis, as well as, the scope and veracity of treatment once African Americans are diagnosed with a chronic illness or disease (Peterson, Wright, Daley, & Thibault, 1994). Additionally, African Americans have a higher mortality rate than white Americans when diagnosed with chronic illnesses and diseases which are curable or at least treatable (Hayward, Crimmins, Miles, & Yu, 2000). This paper examines key factors which may impact disparities in mortality rates observed between African Americans and other racial and ethnic groups in the United States.  Keywords:   healthcare; chronic illness; socioeconomic status; poverty

Beverly J. McCabe-Sellers, Earline Strickland, Dalia Lovera, M. Kathleen Yadrick, and Margaret L. Bogle   Strategies for Promoting Healthy Weight and Healthy Lives for Children in the Delta   (p 133-140)

Abstract:   One in three children in Mississippi have weights that increase their risks for early onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attacks, arthritis and consequent early disability and death. Children in school today are projected to be the first generation of Americans to die at an earlier age than their parents’ generation. Many factors have contributed to this “obesity epidemic” and multiple strategies are needed to counter its impact. A collaboration of Agricultural Research Service and six universities has led to research studies in Washington County, MS and Phillips County AR that have addressed two critical elements in schools, summer day camps, and after-school programs. Major efforts have focused on providing children 1) exposure to new fruits and vegetables to promote willingness to try new foods and healthier diets and 2) encouraging physical activities that are fun and avoid having to be a “winner.” These efforts combined with the promotion of improved literacy skills can lead to a better economic future and reduce the health burdens associated with poverty. Multiple components efforts are essential for longer and healthier lives for the current and future generations of school children in the Delta. All communities need to become involved in health promotion of their youth.  Keywords:   obesity; childhood obesity; summer camps; food exposure; physical activity

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction: Other Race, Gender, and Class Issues   (p 141-143)

Shirley A. Rainey and Glenn S. Johnson   Grassroots Activism: an Exploration of Women of Color’s Role in the Environmental Justice Movement   (p 144-173)

Abstract:   Women of color are the precious jewels of the environmental justice movement because without them the movement would be stagnant, non-existent or similar to other social movements in the United States. Women make up the majority of the Environmental Justice Movement and they are the engine that drives the movement. Women of color view themselves as devoted grassroots social justice activists and environmental justice organizers who use direct and indirect actions to create healthy, sustainable, safe, and livable communities. In general, women of color involvement and participation in the environmental movement are not adequately documented such that their “voices” in the environmental justice movement can be heard from the west coast to the east coast and in many communities in between. Their community organizing model is egalitarian in nature yet women-centered, family-centered, children-centered, equity-centered, community-centered, and health centered to name a few. Women of color organizing are built around their established relationships in the community which include the Black church, civic organizations, voluntary organizations, and community-based organizations. This exploratory article provides the history of how women of color have taken the lead in the environmental justice movement and places their contributions in the broader context of race and class inequalities and social injustice issues. Keywords:  grassroots activism; women of color; environmental racism; environmental justice movement; African American women organizing; environmental degradation; social movement; environmentalism; environmental activism; environmental justice

George Ansalone    Tracking, Schooling and the Equality of Educational Opportunity    (p 174-184)

Abstract:   Historically, American schooling has employed a wide range of strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. One such practice, tracking, is the subject of this research. For more than a half century, schools have assigned students to various ability groups or tracks based on their perceived academic ability. This organizational differentiation continues to this day and its impact on equity and excellence in education has become the center of a contentious debate. On one side are those who believe that tracking results in unequal access to knowledge, inequality of educational opportunity and the differential treatment of students. On the other, are tracking proponents who contend that it facilitates instruction, promotes learning and provides an excellent strategy to address the individual needs of all students. In spite of the research which underscores its negative impact on student outcomes, tracking remains pervasive in American schooling and a number of assumptions continue to enhance its popularity. This article examines each of these assumptions in light of existing research to determine, once and for all, if tracking enhances Equality of Educational Opportunity and facilitates excellence in education.  Keywords:   equality of educational opportunity; inequality; tracking

Karen Christopher   Mother as Provider:  Student Welfare Recipients’ Narratives of Paid and Unpaid Work   (p 185-202)

Abstract:   The “work plan” of welfare reform assumes that any job is better than no job. The intensive mothering ideology assumes that caregiving work is women’s most important work. This paper presents research based on 22 in-depth interviews wherein student welfare recipients draw from both of these ideologies while also challenging the models of paid work and motherhood they impose. These women fashion a unique alternative model of good mothering—the “mother as provider” model—that emphasizes providing for one’s children by getting a good job, not just any job. This paper extends the previous literature on welfare recipients by articulating this model, exploring its implications for gender, racial, and class inequalities, and assessing its prospects for feminist social change.  Keywords:   welfare reform; employment; mothering; student welfare recipients

Byung-In Seo and Dawn Hinton   How They See Us, How We See Them: Two Women of Color in Higher Education   (p 203-217)   

Abstract:   Prejudice and stereotypes have always existed. When one group is perceived as a threat to the majority, exaggerated descriptions and images are formed to describe that threat. Higher education is no exception. Two images of women of color in higher education are the Model Minority Myth and the Modern Mammy. Both images, on the surface, seem benign. However, the reality is that these images marginalize the ethnic group. In this paper, two female professors, one Asian American and one African American, explain the Model Minority Myth and the Modern Mammy, the implications of these images, and how these images are manifested in their professional lives.  Keywords:   African American; Asian American; Model Minority Myth; Modern Mammy; women; higher education

Toby Terrar    The National Teacher Corps and Resistance to Professional Education in the 1960s   (p 218-247)

Abstract:   Among some parents, students and teachers there is opposition to the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.” This article is about the 1960s resistance among the first cycle of Teacher Corps interns to similar professional educational measures. The student-teachers combined civil rights and anti-war activism in the agrarian-dominated communities of Alabama’s Black Belt to enrich both their experience of that of their students and community. The article starts with a description of the Teacher Corps legislative background and of resistance in the four-month pre-service program at western Alabama’s Livingston State College. The second part is about the communities, schools and resistance that characterized the twenty-month in-service part of the program.  Keywords:   National Teacher Corps; educational reform; Alabama history, Civil Rights Movement; Anti-War Movement; Agrarian reform; class struggle

Tamara K. Nopper   The Globalization of Korean Banking and Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurship
in the United States
    (p 248-270)

Abstract:   To challenge the long-held belief that Korean immigrants eschew financial opportunities provided by banks and U.S. government organizations to open their businesses, this study investigates how the globalization of Korean banking informs Korean immigrant entrepreneurship in the United States. Discussed is how Korean banks attract and serve Korean clientele by replicating norms of Korean banking culture while simultaneously working to educate customers about “American” norms of business and banking. Efforts to increase immigrants’ financial literacy, a process that includes collaborations with U.S. government institutions such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), are highlighted. The study also examines how Korean banks practice relationship lending to mediate the economic diversity and financial risk among Korean immigrants. Also emphasized is how the globalization of Korean banking facilitates approaches to mediating risk, including transnational documentation of property ownership and business and credit histories in South Korea. The conclusion explores implications for economic inequality in the United States by evaluating how findings relate to disparities in minority banking.  Keywords:  Korean immigrants; entrepreneurship; globalization; minority banks; financial literacy; economic inequality

Dave Ramsaran   Class and the Color-Line in a Changing America   (p 271-294)

Abstract:   The purpose of this study is to investigate the changing notion of race in the United States as it copes with the deepening process of globalization. It argues that if the radicalized structure is moving away from the black white dichotomy to a tri-racial system as proposed by Bonilla-Silva (2004) social class would be an intervening variable that would influence the new social stratification order. Additionally it argues that social class would also influence which of the frames of colorblind ideology (Bonilla-Silva, 2006) that is embraced by the different groups to explain race relations. This is tested among whites only using both in-depth interviews and focus groups in Central Pennsylvania.  Keywords:   color blind racism; race; class

William Arp III   The Under-Representation of Black-Americans in Top-Level Jobs in the Municipal Government of East Baton Rouge Parish   (p 295-311)

Abstract:   This study focuses on the under-representation of Black-Americans in top-level administrative positions in the municipal government of East Baton Rouge (EBR) Parish. Research reveals that white employees in EBR are disproportionately appointed, hired, and maintained in the highest paying jobs in city government. This racial disparity in hiring is revealed in data provided by the Human Resource Directors of East Baton Rouge Parish. Federal efforts to assure that municipal hiring is reflective of the racial composition of a city’s population have failed in the city of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Future studies should determine the influence, if any, of Black mayors and council members to correct inequitable hiring criteria and practices.  Keywords:   municipal hiring of Blacks; disparity in municipal hiring; exclusionary hiring practices

N. Latrice Richardson, Komanduri S. Murty, and Glenn S. Johnson   DOOM: A Sociological
Analysis of a Vicious Urban Gang in Atlanta, Georgia 
  (p 312-344)

Abstract:   Gangs in the United States have re-emerged with a strong violent presence in major urban areas (e.g. New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Miami, Dallas, Detroit, Memphis, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta) in our society. Gang’s accessibility to cars and high-powered guns (e.g. 9mm semi-automatic handguns, AK-47s, Tec-9 sum-machine guns, M-16s, assault rifles, and handguns equipped with silencers) have positioned them to escape the crime scene more easily than the past which was by foot. This case study uses the societal reaction theory to examine the DOOM gang members’ torture and murder of two female gang members. The societal reaction theory explains the gang members’ actions, attitudes, and behaviors that led up to the murder of two female (Nekita Waller and Marsinah Johnson) members. This case study also examines how state intervention is used to reduce crimes in our society.  Keywords:   urban gang; DOOM; Ahmond Dunnigan; deviance; state intervention; societal reaction theory

A) Socializing the Youth
B) Others Race, Gender, and Class Issues
Volume 16, Number 1-2, 2009, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editor:  Rhonda L. Williams and Heather Powers Albanesi

Rhonda L. Williams and Heather Powers Albanesi   Introduction.  Socializing our Youth   (p 4-5)

Kathryn Gold Hadley   How Do Parenting Practices Affect Children's Peer Culture?  Examining the Intersection of Class and Race   (p 6-24)

Abstract: Intersectional theory posits that class and race shape parenting practices and youth socialization. Lareau (2003) examined the link between race, class, and parenting, and proposed that middle-class parents produce overscheduled kids with undeveloped peer cultures. The findings from my ethnographic study of middle-class Chinese-American children who attended a weekend language school contradict Lareau’s. First, middle-class Chinese-American parents differed from their white and black American counterparts by adopting both middle-class and working-class parenting practices. Also, I show how these children used negotiation skills to build a creative, Pokemon-centered peer culture and resist adult attempts to limit peer-directed interactions. These findings reinforce the need to incorporate children’s agency in intersectional theory and analysis.  Keywords: parenting practices; social class; Chinese-American children; peer culture

Jeremy Redford, Jennifer A. Johnson, and Julie Honnold   Parenting Practices, Cultural Capital and Educational Outcomes:  The effects of Concerted Cultivation on Academic Achievement   (p 25-44)

Abstract: Research consistently documents a strong, positive relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement. Annette Lareau (2003) argues that parents’ child-rearing practices have a profound effect on academic and later occupational success for children, even holding constant gender, race and school effects. In Unequal Childhoods, Lareau uses qualitative research to illustrate how a middle-class form of parenting she terms ‘concerted cultivation’ transmits cultural advantages to middle-class children, providing them vital cultural capital needed to effectively negotiate inside the educational system. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), the current study quantitatively tests the theoretical validity of concerted cultivation. Results show that concerted cultivation significantly predicts both student GPA and standardized test scores, with parent and student habitus, in the form of expectations, playing the largest roles.  Keywords:  cultural capital; parenting; education; social class; inequality; academic achievement

Jessica L. Kenty-Drane Early Isolation:  Racial and Economic Segregation in U.S. Public Elementary Schools   (p 45-62)

Abstract: The literature shows that racially and economically segregated schools diminish educational outcomes for students in non white schools with impoverished peers (Frankenberg & Lee, 2002; Mayer, 2000). To reveal which children are apt to begin their education in high minority and poor schools, this study drew on nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Evidence documents variations in school racial and economic contexts according to children's race and social class backgrounds. Over half of Black and Hispanic first-graders attend segregated minority and poor schools while very few White first-graders do so. Additional analyses reveal that while social class is a useful predictor of educational segregation, it is less predictive for Black and Asian students than for White and Hispanic students.  Keywords:  race; social class; education; segregation

Melissa Swauger    No Kids Allowed!!!:  How IRB Undermine Qualitative Researchers from Achieving Socially Responsible Ethical Standards   (p 63-78)

Abstract: Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) undermine qualitative researchers from achieving ethical standards that are promoted by youth, feminist, critical race, queer, and cultural studies. While conducting my dissertation research, I learned that although IRBs seek ethical research approaches, their restrictive requirements limit studies on youth in ways that exclude or silence them, and further marginalize disadvantaged people whom qualitative researchers want to make visible. IRB policies and procedures inadvertently block the voices of youth, homogenize youth subjects, prioritize the consent of adult gatekeepers while limiting the consent of youth, and control the dissemination of research, all in the name of protection of vulnerable subjects. Current IRB policies may steer researchers away from qualitative inquiry, especially with young people.  Keywords: youth studies; youth research methods; qualitative research; Institutional Review Boards; feminist qualitative research ethic

Rhonda L. Williams   Developmental Issues as a Component of Intersectionality:  Defining the Smart-Girl Program   (p 79-98)

Abstract: The concept of intersectionality suggests that race, gender, and class can not operate independently of each other; however, this article argues that developmental issues must also be considered as part of the intersectionality paradigm. Teaching coping and self awareness skills at an earlier developmental age may help females work through the issues of intersectionality before negative behaviors can be ingrained and manifested as they develop into adults. A program, called Smart-Girl, is described as a method in which educational and research-based best practices can effectively be used to address intersectionality developmentally among adolescent girls. Smart-Girl provides a mentor-led, small group environment, where adolescent girls learn effective social/emotional intelligence and leadership skills through an activity-based, experiential curriculum.  Keywords: adolescent girls; mentorship; bullying; social intelligence

Heather Powers Albanesi   Eschewing Sexual Agency:  A Gender Subjectivity Approach   (p 99-129)

Abstract: This article argues for the utility of psychoanalytic theory within the sociology of gender for exploring subjective meaning. Using data drawn from in-depth interviews of 83 heterosexual young men and women, the author connects the degree to which the subject expresses agency within sexual encounters to their subjective experience of gender—that is, to the specific meaning (including raced and classed meaning) and dominant emotions (conscious and unconscious) that the subject attributes to masculinity and femininity. This article presents an analysis of two cases selected from the larger study representing the subset of subjects that avoid expressing sexual agency.  Keywords: sexual agency; gender identity; heterosexuality; gender subjectivity

Janice McCabe   Racial and Gender Microagressions on a Predominantly-White Campus:  Experiences of Black, Latina/o and White Undergraduates   (p 130-148)

Abstract: Using interview data and a critical race theory approach, this paper examines racial and gender patterns in microaggressions—covert insults towards subordinated groups—that black, Latino and white women and men experienced on a predominantly-white campus. Four themes emerged: (a) views of black men as threatening, (b) views of Latinas as sexually available and exotic, (c) the classroom as a particular setting for microaggressions experienced by black women, and, (d) male-dominated academic majors as particular settings for microaggressions experienced by white women. Attention is drawn to students’ solutions to microaggressions, particularly how they bonded together to form support structures to cope with these microaggressions, and what universities can do to better support students, given these experiences.  Keywords: race and ethnicity; gender; microaggressions; college students; higher education

Traci B. Abbott   Teaching Transgender Literature at a Business College   (p 149-167)

Abstract: Transgender identity has increasingly become a topic in the undergraduate classroom, yet the majority of the pedagogical criticism focuses on the social science or gender studies classroom. What little work has been done in a humanities setting proposes extending feminist pedagogy to include transgender theory rather than attempting to situate transgender issues as a main focus of the course. In this article I incorporate the work of these scholars in order to propose the possibilities, as well as drawbacks, of using fiction and non-fiction, including novels, poetry, films, and autobiographies, to study the variety of transgender experiences in a literature course for undergraduate business students.  Keywords: transgender; pedagogy, literature; gender studies

Margaret Hunter and Kathleen Soto   Women of Color in Hip Hop:  The Pornographic Gaze   (p 168-189)

Abstract: The lyrical content of hip hop music is a widely contested, yet understudied popular culture phenomenon. This article presents a content analysis of the lyrics of the 49 most popular mainstream rap songs over a two year period. The analysis revealed three over-arching themes regarding women of color: 1) consistent with trends in mainstream pornography, women are commonly characterized as sex workers, particularly strippers and prostitutes, 2) women’s voices are used strategically in songs to "sell" particular images of women and gender ideologies, and 3) women are often valorized for their loyalty to male partners despite danger to themselves. We find that popular rap music draws heavily from mainstream pornography contributing to a "pornification" of youth culture.  Keywords: pornography; rap music; hip hop; popular culture; youth culture

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction.  Others Race, Gender, and Class Issues   (p 191-192)

Angela J. Hattery   Sexual Abuse in Childhood - Intimate Partner Violence in Adulthood - Struggles for African American and White Women   (p 193-217)

Abstract: This paper, based on interviews with 35 white and African American battered women, utilizes the race, class and gender paradigm as a lens through which to examine the mechanism that leads women who’ve experienced at least one type of sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence—incest, premature sex engagement, or childhood prostitution—to employ at least one "survival" strategy that leaves them vulnerable to IPV: (1) marriage as a method of escape from incest and prostitution, and (2) seeking male protectors, through marriage and cohabitation. In many cases women chose partners who helped them escape sexual abuse, and who provided protection from the outside world but who proved to be abusive intimate partners.  Keywords: child sexual abuse; intimate partner violence; childhood prostitution; domestic violence

Mark A. Whatley   Never Do Today What You Can Do Later:  The Effect of Participants Sex and Gender Classification   (p 218-227)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how gender classification effects self-reported ratings of procrastination. Past research has found no differences due to biological sex but has yet to examine how gender relates to procrastination. Participants (n = 242) completed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (in Spence & Helmreich, 1978) and the Procrastination Scale (Tuckman, 1991). As predicted, males and females did not differ on their procrastination scores. As predicted, participants classified as masculine reported significantly lower procrastination scores than participants classified as feminine. Implications for research are discussed.  Keywords: gender differences; sex differences; procrastination; individualism-collectivism masculinity; femininity; androgyny; undifferentiation

William Arp, III   Race, Incarceration, and HIV/AIDS in Louisiana:  Risky Sexual Behavior Demands Mandatory Testing   (p 228-237)

Abstract: This is a case study of risky sexual behavior in Louisiana State Penitentiary-Angola. This survey research attempts to reveal sexual practices and risks and any other contributing behaviors that may lead to an increase of HIV/AIDS among inmates and the public at large. Secondly, the survey sought to determine if inmates would oppose mandatory testing for HIV/AIDS in the prison environment. Survey findings revealed men having sex with men and then later with women after they were released. A significant majority of inmates surveyed wanted mandatory HIV/AIDS testing when they entered and was released from prison.  Keywords: risky behavior; prisons inmates; HIV/AIDS; mandatory testing

Phoebe C. Godfrey   'Passing the Buck':  The Articulation of Class Struggle through Racism, Sexism and the Connections to Fascism   (p 238-256)

Abstract: This paper presents Naomi Wolf’s ten stages of fascism and applies them to an analysis of the murder of two Mexican workers in Georgia by members of the KKK in the early 1980's. The purpose is twofold; one to show that each of Wolf’s ten stages, which she sees as being recent developments, are in fact typical of the ways in which racialized minorities have been treated throughout American history and two show the ways in which issues of class struggle are articulated through the violence of racism and sexism, both in language and in actions.  Keywords: fascism; racism; sexism; Klu Klux Klan; meatpacking

Allison L. Hurst   The Path to College:  Stories of Students from the Working Class   (p 257-281)

Abstract: This paper identifies the cultural, institutional, and financial obstacles facing academically prepared high school students from the working class who wish to go on to college. Twenty-one working-class college students at a large moderately-selective public university were extensively interviewed about their experiences with the college application process. These stories highlight the ways in which class cultures, class biases and assumptions, and the educational system itself interact in ways that impede access to college. They also demonstrate the continuing importance of class in the US, and the difficulties surrounding individual mobility through education.  Keywords: class; working class; higher education; transition to college; tracking; inequality; social mobility

Gail Wallace   A Research Brief:  Exploring Black Feminist Consciousness in the Lives of Fifteen African-American Women   (p 282-288)

Abstract: This study examines the extent of black feminist consciousness in African-American women, and its relationship to the social and psychological conditions of their lives. While this will not be a causal study, I will attempt to identity themes that are common among this group. Based on open-ended interviews, I will describe African-American women’s attitudes and feminist consciousness on the one hand, and various measures of social and psychological conditions, well-being or adaptations on the other.  Keywords: African American women; Black feminism; ethnographic study; social and psychological conditions; well-being; African-American women’s everyday lives

Volume 15

A) Presidential Election Processes and Politics in the United State
B) Others Race, Gender, and Class Issues

Volume 15, Number 3-4, 2008, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editor:  George L. Amedee

George L. Amedee   Introduction.  Presidential Election Processes and Politics in the United States   (p 4-7)

Lisa A. Eargle, Ashraf M. Esmail, and Jas M. Sullivan   Voting the Issues or Voting The Demographics?  The Media's Construction of Political Candidates Credibility   (p 8-31)

Abstract: The authors examine news items covering presidential political candidates running for office and how the coverage varies according to the candidates’ characteristics. The data for this article comes from items appearing on the websites of four television news organizations (CBS News, CNN, FOX News, and MSNBC) for eight candidates (Obama, Clinton, Edwards, Richardson, McCain, Romney, Huckabee, and Giuliani) during the time period of August 2007 to September 2008. The authors examine these items to see what patterns exist in the content of political coverage and the coverage content varies according to candidates’ racial/ethnic, gender, and other characteristics. Results show that racial/ethnic minorities and females do receive more press coverage addressing their racial/ethnic and gender characteristics than do other candidates. However, the vast majority of news coverage tends to address issues other than candidate characteristics.  Keywords: race; framing; elections 

Joshua Stockley   Social Forces and the Primary Vote:  Examining Race, Gender, Age, and Class in the 2008 Presidential Primaries    (p 32-50)

Abstract: Voters generally use three evaluation methods—party identification, issue positions, and candidate evaluations. What happens when party identifications and policy differences are neutralized; by what measure do voters make their electoral decisions? Relying upon entrance and exit poll data from Edison Media Research and Mitofsky International, this paper examines the role of race, gender, class, and age in the 2008 Democratic nomination contest. The candidacy of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, in conjunction with a highly compressed, frontloaded primary schedule, affords an excellent opportunity to view the power of group dynamics and determine if the presence of a female, black, or younger candidate predicts for whom women, blacks, and younger voters vote. Are socio-demographic factors such as race, gender, age, and class predictors in an intra-party contest? Does socio-demographic voting persist regardless of the nature and timing of the contest? And, how do individuals with multiple socio-demographic constructs vote? This study finds that socio-demographic factors remain powerful predictors for voting behavior; race, gender, age, and class are important to voters and are standards that candidates will be judged by. The most powerful of these associations is race. In a candidate-centered electoral environment, candidate appearance, as defined by group membership, stands to play a heightened role in future elections. Keywords: presidential nominations; primaries; voting; women in politics; African Americans; Barack Obama; Hillary Clinton

Jas M. Sullivan and Melanie S. Johnson   Race Is On My Mind:  Explaining Black Voter's Political Attraction to Barack Obama   (p 51-64)

Abstract: Barack Obama has appealed to a broad segment of the American society, and his campaign has energized the electoral base of the Democratic Party with a platform of "hope and change." This study attempts to measure the appeal of Senator Obama, who has received nearly 90 percent of the black vote in the primary elections. Specifically, we ask black voters to reveal their reasons for supporting the candidacy of Senator Obama. Our hypothesis is that black voters’ rationale for supporting the candidacy of Obama is more along racial lines rather than on their knowledge of his specific policy positions. Based on our survey of 300 black respondents (from East Baton Rouge Parish), we found an overwhelming support for Obama among the black electorate, and much of this support was based on racial similarity than on their detailed knowledge of Obama’s issue positions.  Keywords: race; identity; voting behavior 

Ronald J. Vogel and Phillip Ardoin   Ask Me No Question, I'll Tell You No Lies:  Does the Bradley Effect Still Exist?   (p 65-84)

Abstract: Since African-Americans began competing in elections in majority white districts, researchers have postulated that some whites were reticent to tell pollsters that they intended to vote for the white candidate, causing polling to be inaccurate. Prior to 2006, it was difficult to determine empirically whether the Bradley Effect existed, and if it did, how powerful of a factor it was, since there were relatively few cases to examine. This study examines the 2006 electoral contests that pitted African-Americans versus whites, and analyzes the Democratic primaries and caucuses in the 2008 presidential race. We find that a Bradley Effect did exist in about half of the 2006 elections and in about one quarter of the 2008 primaries. However, a ‘reverse’ Bradley Effect occurred about as often.  Keywords: Bradley Effect; public opinion; African American politics; election polling

Elgie C. McFayden, Jr.   The Bill Clinton Presidency:  Economic  Impact on African Americans in the South   (p 85-99)

Abstract: This paper examines the impact of federal policies and programs implemented during the Presidency of William Jefferson Clinton on the economic condition of African Americans. The primary objective of this study is to determine if policies and programs implemented by the Clinton Administration significantly improved the economic condition of African Americans in the Delta region of the United States. The Delta region is the focus of this evaluation for several reasons. First, it has a well documented and extensive history of poverty among African Americans. The Delta has a proportionally large African American population and federal policies and programs, historically, have been ineffective at significantly improving the economic condition of African Americans in the region. As such, policies and programs which have achieved even moderate success in terms of reducing poverty rates and raising income levels in the most economically depressed region in the United States may have significant policy implications for addressing economic disparity and poverty throughout the United States. This study uses income as the primary indicator to make this assessment.  Keywords: African Americans; Delta region; poverty policy, Clinton Administration. 

George L. Amedee   Obama vs. McCain:  Economic Proposals in Search for Change   (p 100-109)

Abstract: This paper examines the issue of "real change" concerning the two presidential nominees and the implications for race, gender, and class concerns. An comparative analysis is used that compares McCain’s proposed policies to Reagan, the Republican’s consensus selection of economic success and Obama’s proposed policies to Clinton, the Democrat’s consensus selection of economic success. The issue of change regarding the race, gender, and class impacts of the two nominees is discussed.  Keywords: economic policy; deregulation; free trade; taxing and spending; privatization; economic indicators

Rodney D. Coates   Preserving the Illusion of Inclusion or Investigating a Matrix of Identity   (p 110-116)

Abstract: The 2008 presidential election afforded the United States a rare opportunity to interrogate issues related to race, class and gender. Unfortunately, rather than looking at the complex and nuanced identities represented by the leading candidates—the conversations tended to mirror our biases and reductionist thinking with regard to race, class and gender. This paper explores such reductionist thinking and argues that it serves to preserve an illusion of inclusion. The paper concludes by identifying a more nuanced matrix of identity that reflects a more accurate portrayal of social reality.  Keywords: race; class; gender; politics; identity; inclusion; diversity; ethnicity 

Lenus Jack, Jr.    Post Election Reflection - An Opportunity for Change:  A Consensus for Economic and Social Stability   (p 117-126)

Abstract: Euphoria has characterized the election of Barack Obama in 2008. The feeling, with some exceptions, was global. This paper is a reflection on the challenges facing President-elect Barack Obama: a slumping U.S. economy within a global recession and a demand for changes, particularly among social activists. Advocates are demanding federal legislation that will improve employment and real pay, increase the number of affordable houses, promote healthcare as a civil right and promote social justice. A perusal of the literature indicates that a growing number of Americans, in part because of a failing economy, have joined the advocates in making similar demands. Americans are demanding leadership from the federal government through federal legislation to cure the social and economic problems facing the nation. They see the election of Barack Obama as a consensus for change. The future Democratic president and Congress will be judged on those expectations. Keywords: affordable housing; healthcare; Obama; recession; social justice; unemployment; U.S. economy

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir   Afterword.  Race, Gender, Class Lessons from the 2008 Presidential Election   (p 127-138)

Abstract: This afterword focuses on the race, gender, and class lessons from the 2008 presidential election. I examine in detail some of the more interesting questions of the race, gender, and class implications of the 2008 presidential election. While discussing the historical meaning, breakthroughs, and areas of progress made, I also address the lack of progress in addressing economic equalities and struggles against racism, sexism, and capitalism.  Keywords: presidential election; race; gender; class

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction.  Others Race, Gender, and Class Issues   (p139-142)

Richard K. Caputo   Standing Polanyi on His Head:  The Basic Income Guarantee as a Response of the Commodification of Labor   (p 143-161)

Abstract: This paper examines unconditional basic income schemes proposed by Philippe Van Parijs and by Ross Zucker in light of Karl Polanyi’s analysis of the 1795 Speenhamland Law and of Esping-Andersen’s use of de-commodification as a signifier of social provisioning in welfare states. It discusses tradeoffs between productive advantages of market-based economies and dehumanizing disadvantages of commodified labor. Contemporary redistributive schemes such as those of Van Parijs and of Zucker extol the productive virtues of market economies well beyond what Polanyi, who advocated for subjecting markets to social purposes, would consider acceptable. Further, Van Parijs’s and Zucker’s basic income schemes extol capitalism, perhaps mistakenly, as a means of achieving a more egalitarian social order of which Polanyi would in all likelihood approve, if such economies functioned as portrayed and were properly implemented to de-commodify labor, that is at a level considered adequate and acceptable to the society in which one lives. Keywords: basic income guarantee; commodified labor; de-commodification; market economies; social welfare states; Speenhamland Law

Carly Hayden Foster   The Welfare Queen:  Race, Gender, Class and, Public Opinion   (p 162-179)

Abstract: The Welfare Queen is an exquisite example of the need for intersectional analysis in understanding political and social phenomenon. The Welfare Queen is a public identity with a specific social location determined by race, gender and class. Yet existing research on welfare, and public opinion about welfare, tends to focus on either race or gender—rarely both. Here I use an intersectional approach to analyze data from two nation wide public opinion surveys. My analysis of the survey data helps to fill in the gaps left by conventional approaches, as I look for the combined influences of race, class, and gender on public opinion about welfare.  Keywords: welfare; intersectionality; public opinion 

Valerie H. Hunt and Anna M. Zajicek   Strategic Intersectionality & the Needs of Disadvantaged Populations:  An Intersectional Analysis of Organizational Inclusion and Participation(p 180-203)

Abstract: In this paper, using the concept of "strategic intersectionality" and data obtained from twelve CDCs operating in the Southern Arkansas Delta, we examine how inclusive they are and how effectively they meet community needs. In particular, we use an intersectional approach to explore the connection between organizational inclusiveness and capacity to achieve its institutional goals. We find that (1) given the racial, gender, and the socio-economic composition of the CDCs, on the one hand, and the characteristics of the populations the CDCs, the CDCs’ inclusiveness in the leadership positions is limited, and (2) although each organization provides the necessary services, the work that they value, empowering the community members, is impeded by their limited inclusiveness and capacity. We conclude, by discussing the implications of strategic intersectionality for organizational inclusiveness and capacity. Keywords: intersectionality; inclusion; community development; public participation; Community Development Corporations

Glenn S. Johnson, Shirley A. Rainey, and Laila Scaife Johnson   Dickson, Tennessee and Toxic Wells:  An Environmental Racism Case Study   (p 204-223)

Abstract: Race and the geography of toxic pollution are highly correlated especially in communities of color. The authors use the environmental justice framework to examine toxic discrimination in Dickson, Tennessee where Sheila Holt and her family’s private wells were impacted by toxic chemicals from a leaky Dickson County landfill which impacted not only the health of several family members but the community as a whole. The authors provide a brief historical overview and a chronology of the events surrounding the alleged toxic chemical-trichloroethylene found in the Holts’ wells. The politics of pollution for the Holts’ family have not resulted in social justice or legal justice yet the health status of the family members is rather disturbing. The Holt family is suing government officials and private companies for negligently polluting their private wells that resulted in the negative impacts on their health. Keywords: poisoned wells; environmental racism; toxic contamination

John W. Miller, Jr. and Terri Combs-Orme   How Big is your World?  An Examination of Environmental Racial Composition on the Racial Identity of African American Adolescents   (p 224-239)

Abstract: Do African-American adolescents who live in a predominantly African-American community racially identify themselves differently than African-American adolescents who live in a predominantly European-American community? To determine this, the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI) was given to 101 African-American adolescents. A little more than half (57%) of study participants lived in a predominantly African-American community in South Carolina and the remaining 43% lived in a predominantly European-American community in Tennessee. Results indicate significant differences in racial identity attitudes between participants in SC and TN. Results also indicated that the concepts of Ideology, Regard, and Centrality that the MIBI examines may be too complex for adolescents under the age of 15, and a new factor, Self-Importance, was identified.  Keywords: African-American; identity; race; self-importance 

Barbara Perry and Mike Sutton   Policing the Colour Line Violence Against those in Intimate Interracial Relationships   (p 240-261)

Abstract: What we seek to explore in this paper, then, are the broad public prejudices and hostilities against interracial relationships, and more concretely, how these negative reactions to sexed and raced border crossings might condition violence against those in such relationships. They provide the context and pretext in which perpetrators engage in a particular form of hate crime. We argue here that these "ethnosexual imaginings and ideologies often manifest themselves in violent behaviour intended to police the colour line, by meting out punishment to transgressors. We open with consideration of the legal and cultural discourses that provide such a hostile environment for intimate inter-racial relationships. We then turn to how this context facilitates violence directed at those involved in such relationships.  Keywords: hate crime; inter racial relationships; prejudice; representations of race and gender

Doug Meyer   Interpreting and Experiencing Anti-Queer Violence:  Race, Class, and Gender Differences among LGBT Hate Crime Victims   (p 262-282)

Abstract: This qualitative research project explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people determine that violence is based on their sexuality or gender identity. Data were collected from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 44 people who experienced anti-LGBT violence. Findings reveal that their violent experiences differ along the lines of race, class, and gender. In particular, LGBT people of color often found it more difficult than White gay men to determine whether violence was based on their sexuality. These findings suggest that hate crime statutes may serve the interests of White gay men more than the interests of other LGBT people.  Keywords: intersectionality; race; class; gender; sexuality; violence; hate crime

Bridget E. Harr and Emily W. Kane   Intersectionality and Queer Student Support for Queer Politics   (p 283-299)

Abstract: This paper analyzes data from a survey of queer students at selective liberal arts colleges in the United States, to address the extent and predictors of support for queer politics among such students. Within the context of a review of the literature on racial and class biases within queer social movements, and the emergence of queer politics as a response, we document that queer students from less privileged social locations express greater support for racial and class inclusivity, as well as coalition building, within queer student movements. We consider the implications of that pattern for queer politics within student organizations and for educational practice at liberal arts colleges.Keywords: queer politics; intersectionality; college students; privilege

Jonathan Collins and Thomas Hebert   Race and Gender Images in Psychology Textbooks   (p 300-307)

Abstract: Previous research has shown that images can have a profound effect on the manor in which humans think. Reports indicate that our self-esteem, social judgment of others, and even our ability to recall information can be affected by images. Peterson and Kroner (1992) found that images of people in general and developmental psychology textbooks were significantly biased towards White males. The present study is a update and extension of this original finding by examining the incidence of race and gender in the images used by a wide variety of psychology textbooks. We examined the images of people in a wide variety of psychology textbooks and classified the images based on gender of either male or female and skin color of White, Black, or Brown. We found that there were significantly more images of males than of females. Also, there were significantly more images of Whites than of Blacks or Browns. These results suggest that the race and gender depictions in psychology textbook images have not changed significantly in the last 15 years and that the apparent White male bias may apply to psychology textbooks in a wide variety of areas. Keywords: image; picture; textbook; race; gender; disparity; emotional affect

Chris Baker, Glenn S. Johnson, Lee Williams, Deborah G. Perkins, and Shirley A. Rainey   The Highlander Research and Education Center:  Utilizing Social Change-Based Models for Public Policy   (p 308-335)

Abstract: Popular education, political knowledge, and culture are very important components in community-based problem solving for social change. This article provides a historical background of the Highlander Research and Education Center, a comprehensive overview of its mission for seventy-five years, a reflection of the center’s action research impact on social and economic justice in America, and a description of the practical change model used by social and civil rights activists to challenge racism, labor discrimination, sexism, gender inequality, and other inequalities in the United States. Group consciousness, collaborative research power, networking, and their ability to impact change in their lives contribute to ongoing participatory research at the Highlander Center. Action research is "learning by doing" and contributes to the practical issues that individuals experience in a problematic situation in their community. Action research assists social science, especially sociology in fulfilling its theoretical and methodological goals in research while collaborating with grassroots leaders in solving environmental and community problems. Keywords: adult education; social change; participatory research; local governance; citizen participation; participatory democracy; public sociology

A) Race, Class, Gender, and Capitalism
B) Intersection Race, Gender and Class
Volume 15, Number 1-2, 2008, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editors:  Nathalie J. Sokoloff and Fred L. Pincus

Natalie J. Sokoloff and Fred L. Pincus   Introduction.  Race, Gender, Class, and Capitalism   (p 4-8)

Fred L. Pincus and Natalie J. Sokoloff   Does "Classism" Help Us to Understand Class Oppression?   (p 9-23)

Abstract: Since the early 1980s, the concept of classism has appeared more and more frequently in the diversity literature, especially in the work of some intersectional theorists. Since there is no standard definition, classism sometimes refers to a class-based prejudice and other times refers to a class-based system of socially structured oppression. Those who employ the concept tend to see the origins of class oppression in an undifferentiated hierarchy of economic inequality as opposed to class conflict that is endemic to capitalism. In fact, those who talk about classism tend to ignore any discussion of capitalism. We argue that little is gained by talking about classism rather than capitalism since classism lacks a coherent analytical base. On the other hand, the Marxist and intersectional insights into capitalism and its intersections with race and gender systems of oppression are lost in discussions of classism. Keywords: class, classism; race/class/gender; intersectionality; diversity

Catherine Hodge McCoid   Eleanor Burke Leacock and Intersectionality:  Materialims, Dialectics, and Transformation   (p 24-41)

Abstract: Anthropologist Eleanor Burke Leacock’s Marxist dialectical materialism helped to create the core of intersectionality and still provides a methodology to help advance transformation. Her efforts contributed to two core aspects of contemporary intersectional approaches to capitalism: 1) the acceptance of the intersectionality of oppression in all its forms—race, class, gender, sexuality, religion, etc., and 2) the general rejection of biological determinism as it relates to race, gender, and class. Using taped interviews by the author and other materials, this article examines Leacock’s influence on intersectionality in five areas: 1) women’s status in egalitarian societies, 2) race, class, and gender in schools, 3) the critique of the "culture of poverty" approach, 4) women, development, and work, 5) colonialism, race, class, and gender in Samoa. It also examines some contemporary work building on Leacock’s model, which gives class a primary position, to illustrate how her approach continues to engage on-going challenges. Within the oppressive context of Cold War America, Leacock tested and found support for the Marxist hypothesis that humans once lived in a state in which men and women were equal partners. She explored and refuted biological determinist notions that 1) in all societies women have been subordinate to men (i.e., as a result of sexual biology), and she also refuted the idea that 2) basic features of capitalism (such as competition and private ownership of property) are found in all societies and individuals (i.e., are related to human "nature"). Since so many of the contemporary forms of oppression—attacks on immigrants, the rise of religious "fundamentalism," the increasing use of rape and other torture as weapons of war, the coloring of prison populations, rising attacks on sexuality, as examples—are resurrecting the ideology of biological determinism and are class assaults with new faces, it is ever more urgent to use the tools Leacock helped to develop. Keywords:  Eleanor Burke Leacock; intersectionality; materialism, dialectics; transformation; Marxism; feminism; sexism; biological determinism; class; gender; race; capitalism

Susan Ferguson   Canadian Contributions to Social reproduction Feminism, Race and Embodied Labor   (p  42-57)

Abstract: Recent methodological advances in Canadian Social Reproduction Feminism foreground labor as a foundational concept of social theory and, as a result, address the structuralist bias critics of the paradigm have identified, while still grounding theory in a comprehensive analysis that accounts for specifically capitalist relations. Yet, to fully address issues of racialization, this broad and dynamic concept of labor needs to be extended and complexified. Along with accounting for the sex-gender dimensions of labor, we need also to attend to its socio-spatial aspects. In other words, it’s not just what we do to reproduce society, but where we do it that counts in an imperial capitalist world. And Social Reproduction Feminism, with its expansive definition of labor and its comprehensive focus on the full spectrum of practical activity, is uniquely positioned to accommodate such complexity without forfeiting attentiveness to social relations of class and/or capitalism. It has the potential, therefore, to provide intersectional analyses with a methodology that brings "both capitalism and class back into the discussion." Keywords: social reproduction theory; feminist methodology; intersectionality; labor; race; gender

Jill R. Williams   Spatial Transversals:  Gender, Race, Class, and Gay Tourism in Cape Town, South Africa   (p 58-78)

Abstract: This paper examines the circulation of gay capital within gay and lesbian tourism in Cape Town, South Africa. Using participant observation of a gay shebeen tour as an example, I describe new forms of gay and lesbian tourist-activism emerging in Cape Town and analyze their impact on the racialized spatial economy of gay leisure space. Taking the complicity with capitalism inherent in tourism for granted, I demonstrate that capitalist impulses mediated by activist motivations can create radical, even anti-colonial, social moments and argue that in the context of South Africa it is particularly noteworthy that emerging forms of "queer capitalist tourism" are disrupting class and racial boundaries in ways not accomplished through the political activism that resulted in the inclusion of constitutional protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation. Amid increasingly visible and violent homophobia, queer capitalist tourism is facilitating transversal queer alliances and making important contributions to building a grassroots movement that can unite the previously fragmented gay and lesbian communities in South Africa. Keywords: race; class; gender; capitalism; sexuality; South Africa; queer; gay

Earl Smith and Angela J. Hattery   Incarceration:  A Tool for Racial Segregation and Labor Exploitation   (p 79-97) 

Abstract: This paper examines the system of incarceration in the contemporary United States. We argue that the current system of incarceration is not only racialized and gendered, but also serves as a tool for segregating or cordoning-off African Americans from mainstream, White society. As a tool of segregation, incarceration not only removes African Americans as competition in a tight labor market, but takes those who were formerly "unexploitable" and transforms then into labor that can be exploited for profit through their work in prison industries. We suggest that the use of incarceration as a tool of capitalism can be considered a contemporary form of racial, labor exploitation similar to the slave plantation economy that was critical to the development of the U.S. economy. Keywords: incarceration; racial segregation; exploitation; capitalism

Payal  Banerjee and Frank Ridzi   Indian IT Workers and Black TANF Clients in the New Economy:  A Comparative Analysis of the Racialization of Immigration and Welfare Policies in the U.S.   (p 98-114)

Abstract: Today’s service-oriented labor market is commonly viewed as segmented on the basis of differences between high-wage/high-skill and low-wage/low-skill sectors. Research suggests that this division also has deep racial connotations since many racial minorities and immigrants of color are concentrated in low-wage occupations. This paper extends our understanding of gender, class, and racial cleavages in the U.S. economy by showing how the racialized and feminized status of immigrants of color employed in the high-wage and high-skilled sector informs their marginalization in ways that reflect some of the experiences of racial minorities in low-wage work. We propose a model for conceptualizing the intersection of state policy and racial feminization as a common institutional epicenter that organizes the terms of exploitation and segregation of minorities and immigrants of color situated in both the high and low wage sectors in comparable ways.2 Keywords: TANF; H-1B Visas; dual labor market; race; gender; immigration; welfare; international labor; IT; Indian immigrants; globalization; migration

Shannon M. Monnat and Laura A. Bunyan   Capitalism and Welfare Reform:  Who Really Benefits from Welfare-to-Work Policies   (p 115-133)

Abstract: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 promoted employment as one of the key strategies for lifting families out of poverty and off welfare. The welfare to work policies implemented under the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program require that most TANF recipients be employed in order to receive benefits. Throughout the past few years sociologists have been increasingly questioning whether all individuals on welfare benefit equally from welfare to work policies. Accordingly, this paper presents a socio-demographic portrait of employed mothers on welfare. Specifically, we use state-level data from the Administration of Children and Families (ACF) to address the following questions: 1) What role does race play in employment and earnings for mothers who receive welfare?; 2) In what ways does marital status intersect with race to facilitate or restrict employment and earnings?; and 3) Who are the biggest beneficiaries of policies that require individuals on welfare to work? Critical race and intersectional theories are applied to help explain the findings. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the findings and directions for future research.  Keywords: welfare; race; racism; capitalism; intersectional theory; critical race theory; employment

Ronald L. Mize   Interrogating Race, Class, Gender and Capitalism Along the U.S.-Mexico Border:  Neoliberal Nativism and Maquila Modes of Production   (p 134-155)

Abstract: Applying the race, gender, class framework to economic development along the U.S.-Mexico border necessitates a critical interrogation of how late capitalism and neoliberal development projects define state-society relations best described as "neoliberal nativism." Situating neoliberalism in the context of the U.S.-Mexico border region, the processes of border militarization, border crossings and citizenship, maquiladora circuits of production, and the non-actualized transformative potential of cross-border labor coalitions are defining the terrain as thoroughly gendered, raced, and classed. A new era of nativism is defining the rhetoric of border security and leading to the increased militarization of the border. The subsequent criminalization of "illegal aliens" rests upon US citizens’ racializations of those residing south of the border and disproportionately endangers Mexican women and children. The callous view of viewing Mexican women as disposable bodies is on display in Cuidad Juarez where the maquildora murders have resulted in the brutal murders of 300 women from 1993 to 2005. The labor process of U.S. distribution centers and the circuit of commodities in a post-NAFTA era are also examined in articulation with the gendering and cross-national racialization of the maquila workplace.  Keywords: U.S.-Mexico border; neoliberalism; globalization; international migration; nativism, NAFTA; maquiladoras

Zulema Valdez   Beyond Ethnic Entrepreneurship:  An Embedded Market Approach to Group Affiliation in American Enterprise   (p 156-169)

Abstract: The traditional ethnic entrepreneurship paradigm suggests that resource mobilization based on ethnic group membership and the particular structural conditions of the economy and society combine to facilitate ethnic enterprise. Yet, this model remains largely descriptive and imprecise with respect to how and why class and ethnic resources and structural opportunity matter. Furthermore, this approach neglects to consider the likelihood that other non-ethnic social groupings distinct from ethnicity, such as those rooted in class, gender, or racial group affiliation, might also influence entrepreneurship. To address these concerns, this article introduces an "embedded market" (Block, 2003; Polanyi, 1944) approach that situates the role of group affiliation within the context of American capitalism. This approach begins with the premise that the role of group affiliation in economic action originates in and is maintained and reproduced by the social structure of the capitalist system in which it is embedded. Specifically, the embedded market approach reconsiders ethnic group membership, along with other politically-influenced social groupings (e.g. class, gender, nativity, and race) as non-essential relationships of reciprocity. In this conception, group affiliation provides the basis for compensatory relief in the form of social capital to augment market uncertainty in the modern market economy. This article uses the case of Latina domésticas to demonstrate the compensatory role of group affiliation and its corollary social capital in facilitating ethnic and "non-ethnic" enterprise in American capitalism.  Keywords: ethnic entrepreneurship; social capital; race, gender, class; domésticas

Nicki Lisa Cole   Global Capitalism Organizing Knowledge of Race, Gender and Class:  The Case of Socially Responsible Coffee   (p 170-187)

Abstract: What knowledge travels along, and is injected into, the global commodity chain of coffee, on its path from tree to cup? In this paper I examine the discourse and imagery employed by the socially responsible niche of the global coffee market to determine what the final product itself tells us about its roots, its travels, and the web of capitalist relations of production and consumption that surrounds it. I analyze the packaging, promotional and informational materials, and web text of coffee websites and find that the patterns of the discourse of socially responsible coffee suggest knowledge of coffee farmers, global capitalism, and the consumer self that pivot around axes and intersections of race, gender, and class. I argue that the contours of this discourse serve to rearticulate the dominant relations of global capitalist production and consumption in everyday life in the United States. Using racialized and culturally essentialized depictions of coffee farmers and their locales, I argue the discourse and its imagery rearticulates the established global division of labor between the global south and north. The discourse and imagery functions as an extension of colonial paternalist ideology that rests on the presumed need of coffee farmers, and is juxtaposed against benevolent consumers, who the discourse describes as socially responsible, ethical beings who do good by participating in the global system of capitalism.  Keywords: consumer goods; ideology; race; gender; class; culture; capitalism

Brian Dolber   Unmaking 'Hegemonic Jewishness':  Anti-Communism, Gender Politics, and Communication in the ILGWU, 1924-1934   (p 188-203)

Abstract: The International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) was at the forefront of shaping Jewish working-class culture in the early twentieth century. By the 1920s, however, the structural shifts within the larger political economy were challenging the nature of the Jewish working-class community as a racialized counterpublic. While the male leadership of the ILGWU embraced these changes and advocated for a centralized, expert-led model of communication within the union, Jewish women took a more progressive approach and fought for a model of labor education that facilitated the maintenance of a democratic, ethnic counterpublic in the face of mass culture. The ultimate triumph of the male leadership within the union culminated in the commercialization of its largest effort in mass education—radio station WEVD. It also signaled the transformation of a local, ethnic working-class culture into part of White, consumer society.  Keywords: labor history; public sphere; Jewishness; mass culture

Jason T. Eastman and Douglas P. Schrock   Southern Rock Musicians' Construction of White Trash   (p 205-219)

Abstract: Based on interviews, song lyrics, websites, and observation of concerts, we examine how southern rock musicians construct themselves as poor, rural, white men. While popular culture often uses negative stereotypes to degrade poor whites, we show how southern rock musicians reclaim what they view as positive attributes of "white trash." They do this by embracing symbols of southern white trash (including the confederate flag), glorifying rural poverty, and celebrating drunken violence. We bring a focus on capitalism into our analysis by uncovering how class is central to southern rockers’ racialized and gendered identity work, situating them as marginalized workers in a culture industry, and drawing out implications for class reproduction. Keywords: intersectionality; music; identity work, white trash

Zine Magubane   The Mammy and the Panopticon African American Women in the Self-Help Movement   (p 220-236)

Abstract: This paper argues that contemporary capitalist culture uses the bodies of African American women to communicate and reinforce ideologies about how to properly motivate and discipline the self in a capitalist society. Its guiding premise is that the self-help movement, in its varied forms, promotes the idea that human beings should function as their own Panopticons, continually policing themselves and subjecting themselves to ruthless self-surveillance (Bartky, 1990). Panopticism is an idea that grew out of Jeremy Bentham’s Panoopticon, an architectural plan for a prison, school, or asylum whereby the structure is built so that inmates can be put under constant surveillance. The paper uses the reality television show, Starting Over, and the internet based message boards associated with it, to argue that the bodies of African-American women are being cast as the feminine voice and gaze of the Panopticon who alternately chastises and advises, criticizes and cajoles.  Keywords: mammy; reality television; African Americans popular culture; Black women in Popular Culture; race; class; gender and popular culture

Jean Ait Belkhir   Afterword:  Race, Gender and Class and Marxism   (p 237-243)

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction:  Intersection Race, Gender and Class   (p 244-245)

LaToria Whitehead, Rueben C. Warren, Glenn S. Johnson, and Francesca M. Lopez   Mississippi Head Start Mothers:  An Environmental Justice Case Study   (p 246-264)

Abstract: Minimal progress has been made in understanding the relationships between the environment and health. However, increasing evidence suggests that there is a disproportionate burden of environmental exposures among Black, Hispanic, Native Americans and low-income groups of all racial and ethnic backgrounds that may result in health disparities. The Environmental Justice Framework assists in understanding this study which focuses on the association between adverse living conditions of Head Start mothers and their environmental awareness. Children are the most vulnerable population impacted by negative health risks from early and continual life exposures to environmental contamination. The Head Start program has effectively mitigated many of the effects of poverty by providing low-income children with life skills for a healthy and productive life.  The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the demographic factors of Head Start mothers and their environmental awareness. Data from this analysis were taken from a 1996, 77-item survey instrument. The survey was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of Head Start families related to the environment and environmental health. The survey was distributed in 20 counties, to 804 Head Start households that were selected at random out of a total of 5000 households enrolled in the Mississippi Action for Progress Head Start (M.A.P.) program. The number of parents who responded was 763 out of 804 (95% response rate) female-headed households, who were participants of the Mississippi Action for Progress Head Start Program. Although race and age were important factors influencing the environmental awareness of the mothers, the educational level of the mother was not. These findings suggest the need for environmental health enrichment programs for Head Start mothers, children and staff. Study results should be utilized for follow-up research to empower Head Start mothers, particularly Black mothers to increase their political involvement in health and environmental related activities.  Keywords: environmental justice; environmental health; environmental awareness

Mark A. Whatley   The Dimensionality of the 15 Item Attitudes Toward Women Scale   (p 265-273)

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the 15 item Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS). College undergraduates (n = 360; 50% female) were given Spence and Helmreich’s (1978) short, 15 item version of the AWS. The results of the factor analyses suggest that the AWS is measuring a unitary attitude toward women in American society and remains unidimensional for both male and female participants. Results also show a positive shift in attitudes toward the roles and rights of women by both men and women. Researchers requiring an attitudes toward women measure will find the 15 item AWS practical.  Keywords: attitudes toward women, culture, sex differences, factor analysis, individualism-collectivism

Brandelyn Tosolt   Differences in Students' Perceptions of Caring Teacher Behaviors:  The Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender   (p 274-288)

Abstract: This article reports the findings of a study investigating differences in 825 sixth-grade students’ perceptions of caring teacher behaviors based on the intersections of student race, ethnicity, and gender. While this research is based on Noddings’s ethic of care in schools (2005), it responds to concerns that her theory is mono-cultural (Thompson, 1998; 2003) by reorienting "[theories of care] in ways that systematically account for race, class, gender, cultural, and other differences" (Thompson, 1998:528). The findings of this research suggest that perceptions of teacher caring do vary based on the intersections of student race, ethnicity, and gender. Further investigations are needed into perceptions of teacher caring among specific subgroups of students.  Keywords: middle school; students’ perceptions; ethic of care; gender, race; ethnicity

Volume 14

A) Race, Gender, Class, Sexuality, and War
B)  The Sociology of Inequality:  Intersection of Race, Gender & Class
Volume 14, Number 3-4, 2007, ISSN 1084-8354

Part A

Guest Editors:  Joane Nagel and Meredith Kleykamp  

Joane Nagel and Meredith Kleykamp   Introduction.  Race, Gender, Class, Sexuality, and War   (p4-9)

V. Spike Peterson   Thinking through Intersectionality and War   (p10-27)

Abstract: Intersectional analysis attempts to more adequately theorize how social divisions (of ethnicity/race, class, gender, sexuality, age, etc.) interact and affect each other, without reducing one to another. "Triad analytics" is introduced here to emphasize affective investments and the mutual constitution of subject formation (who we are), cultural concepts (how we think), and embodied practices (what we do). I argue that pervasive gender coding privileges not only (some) men but also subjectivities, conceptual frames, and embodied activities that are characterized as masculine. These analytical starting points are used to explore RGC and S in colonial and contemporary contexts of militarization and war. The process reveals how "official war stories" do political work with material consequences: constructing enemy "others," legitimating calls to war, justifying extremes of violence, and normalizing RGC and S forms of subjection.  Keywords:  intersectionality; oppression; race; gender; class; sexuality; violence; militarism; militarization; war; imperialism; "war on terror"; socialization; feminization; masculinism

Joane Nagel and Lindsey Feitz   Deploying Race, Gender, Class, and Sexuality in the Iraq War   (p28-47)

Abstract: The U.S. military demographically diverges from the U.S. population along several dimensions. The armed forces are disproportionately non-white, less educated, much younger, overwhelmingly male, and officially straight. Although the U.S. armed services integrated racially more than a half century ago, military culture reflects its long history of celebrating masculinity, maintaining classed hierarchy, and enshrining heterosexuality. When the United States attacked Iraq in March, 2003, another longstanding feature of military demography was changing: there were an unprecedented number of American women serving in the U.S. armed forces. In this paper we examine some of the implications of the increased number and role of women in the U.S. military. We focus on one front in the Iraq war that is situated at the intersection of gender, race, class, and sexuality: the propaganda campaign to win the hearts and minds of the American people.  We argue that early in the war, servicewomen were deployed as "damsels in distress" to dramatize U.S. servicemen’s courage and gallantry and Iraqi men’s cowardice and depravity. We find that this gender deployment was designed to resonate with race, gender, class, and sexual themes in the larger U.S. society and in American history. We conclude that the damsels in distress saga illustrates the capacity of military organizational social structure to sustain particular patterns of gender and power relations even in the face of demographic changes in its personnel.   Keywords: race; gender; class; sexuality; militarism; Iraq war

Mady Wechsler Segal, Meredith Hill Thanner, and David R. Segal   Hispanic and African American Men and Women in the U.S. Military:  Trends in Representation   (p48-64)

Abstract: During the planning for the All-Volunteer Force (AVF), social analysts anticipated an overrepresentation in the Army of those disadvantaged in the labor force, including African Americans and those of all races from lower socio-economic statuses. Using Department of Defense data, such as those available in DoD's annual reports on Population Representation in the Military Services, and unpublished data provided to the authors by the Office of the Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness), we document in this paper the current representation of Hispanic and African American men and women in the armed forces. Since the start of the AVF in 1973, African Americans have served in the U.S. military, especially in the Army, in numbers greater than their percent of the population. This disproportionate representation has been especially clear among military women. Recently, accessions of African Americans have declined. At the same time, Hispanics, who constitute a growing segment of the U.S. population, have been underrepresented in the military, especially among the officer corps. Hispanics now comprise a larger percentage of military women than men. We analyze the trends in representation over time and the differences among the U.S. armed forces. We also discuss explanations and implications for these trends and anticipate the future.  Keywords: military; army; race; ethnicity; Hispanic, representation; gender; African Americans

Meredith Kleykamp   Military Service as a Labor Market Outcome   (p65-76)

Abstract: The volunteer military is a labor market institution operating at a unique nexus of race, gender, and class. In this research note I discuss some of the labor market consequences of the race-gender-class composition of the American armed forces between 1973 and 2000 demonstrating the impact of military service on employment rates over the history of the All-Volunteer Force. The failure to count those enlisted in the military among the ranks of the employed distorts our understanding of patterns of employment in the U.S. Because African American men serve in disproportionate numbers in the military, failing to count their military employment ignores substantial numbers of black men voluntarily working for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines, and thus leads to over estimates of the black-white employment gap. The rapid expansion of military service by young black men happened at precisely the time that the labor market outcomes for this group deteriorated. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, as many as 8-9% of black men age 16-35 were serving in the military on active duty, yet this military employment was not factored into official employment statistics. As a consequence, civilian employment rates underestimated the total employment (including military service) by as much as 6 percentage points among young black men.   Keywords: employment; labor markets; inequality; social stratification,; race; military sociology; armed forces

Patricia A. Gwartney   Race, Gender, Class, and Perceptions of Terrorism in the Immediate Aftermath of September 11, 2001   (p77-97)

Abstract: This research represents the first empirical investigation of gender, race, and social class intersections in attitudinal and behavioral responses to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. Structural positions of privilege appear to cushion the dread associated with terrorism threats, but race and gender intersections do not ameliorate their effects. Research in the psychology of risk perception frames the analysis. Data come from a representative survey (n=802) conducted eight to 12 weeks after 9/11.  Keywords: terrorism; intersectionality; attitudes

David E. Rohall and Morten G. Ender   Race, Gender, and Class:  Attitudes toward the War in Iraq and President Bush among Military Personnel   (p99-116)

Abstract: This study compares attitudes toward the war in Iraq and President Bush’s handling of the war among service members by race, gender and class using data from the 2003 Military Times Poll, examining similarities and differences to trends found in civilian data. Overall, at the time of the poll, most service members reported that they believe that the U.S. should have gone to war in Iraq and approved of the President’s handling of Iraq. However, initial analysis shows that Whites, men, officers, and Marines show the greatest support, following trends found in civilian polls addressing issues of race and gender. Advanced analysis shows that some of these findings continue while controlling for political ideology and other background characteristics. Specifically, being African American continues to be negatively associated with war support controlling for all other factors. The impacts of gender and class, as measured by rank, are reduced substantially when controlling for political ideology. These findings partially support the idea that minorities in society have less vested in the use of force in foreign policy and thus should report less support for such endeavors.  Keywords: attitudes; Iraq War; public opinion; military

Second Lieutenant Erin Morgan   Masculinity and Femininity in the Corps   (p117-130)

Abstract: Cadets at the United States Military Academy live within a very distinct microcosm of American society. With a culture all their own, members of the Corps of Cadets grow up in an Academy whose historical tradition and present mission of producing officers for the U.S. Army shapes cadet behaviors, norms and ideals. Among these is the conceptualization of masculinity and femininity and the relative place and value of gender notions within the Academy and military service. An in-depth investigation of cadet opinions, stereotypes, behaviors, and personal experiences highlights current conceptualizations of gender in the Corps and evinces why actual clear feminine ideal defining the mannerisms valued and expected of a woman in military service does not exist.  Keywords: masculinity; femininity; gender roles; gender; women in the military; women in service academies; West Point, USMA

ENS Stephanie M. Young   A Final Period to the Union:  The Militarism and Militarization of the United States of America and its Effects on the United States Coast Guard and its People   (p131-138)

Abstract: Looking at past examples as well as more recent events, the military and its dogma has always held implications for society, specifically women. Today, these military implications hint at a new American militarism which lends to a renewed militarization of society as well. The militarism on our society shines through a broad spectrum of American life: from our education system to business protocols. Its reign is limitless and presides over the whole of American culture. When the military functions under its own doctrine they are fully functional, however, danger surfaces when the concepts that govern the military are disseminated to the very society it is obligated to protect. As a humanitarian force, the Coast Guard has always saved lives. Yet, with this militarization that America has embraced, the Coast Guard itself has been reshaped into a full fledged fighting force that is absorbing military ideals. Originally, a provider of protection and humanitarian services, the United States Coast Guard, has shifted to security "services" which comes as a detriment to its people and society.  Keywords:  militarism; militarization; United States Coast Guard; masculinity

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction.  The Sociology of Inequality:  Intersection of Race, Gender & Class   (p139-141)

Diane C. Keithly and Shirley Rombough   The Differential Social Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the African American Population of New Orleans   (p142-153)

Abstract: The post-Katrina recovery of the city of New Orleans presents many unprecedented challenges for public policy and planning experts. The purpose of this paper to evaluate the differential social impacts of Katrina on minority populations in the city using the work of three classical social theorists, Ferdinand Toennies, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim. Social theory is discussed and applied to the subject of the displacement of the city’s minority population to asses the nature of the loss of social ties in these communities. It is also suggested that these social impacts need to be addressed by the planning efforts for the recovery. This paper attempts to outline social costs in terms of the qualitative social ties which were devastated by Katrina, and the subsequent massive flooding and displacement of minorities.  Keywords: disaster; Katrina; New Orleans; disaster policy  

Pamela Waldron-Moore, Anthony McKinney, Ariel Howard, and Amanda Brown      A Question of Social Justice:  The case of Louisiana Communities and their Struggle for Environmental Sustainability   (p154-174)

Abstract: All too often environmental justice is excluded from considerations of social justice. Recently, however, scholars have attempted to place it squarely in the center of that debate. Our study examines the question of environmental activism in the context of social justice. We are concerned with why individuals who are environmentally burdened are less than politically active and, further, if political inactivism does not itself explain why people of color in New Orleans communities continue to be targets of environmental racism. In a survey conducted by a small group of students, one hundred and twenty-two persons were interviewed with a view to determining variance in environmental activism among ordinary citizens in New Orleans. Two variables predicted activism: residency status and perception of personal threat. Overall, the data explained 32% of the variance in environmental activism and facilitated general policy recommendations. In a related study, another student group found that the more politically inactive African-Americans were, the greater the likelihood that they would reside in environmentally hazardous communities. Since both samples included a majority of African-Americans across different class lines, they offer interesting insight into perceptions of social justice as a race neutral ideal.   Keywords: social justice; environmental justice; environmental racism; political activism; perception of threat; residency; race; class

Celia B. Banks   The Sociology of Inequality   (p175-188)

Abstract: This paper presents a discussion about social inequality. Mills’ (1959/2000) sociological imagination provides in a theoretical discourse into the existence and perpetuation of social injustice. Cultural perspectives formulate a historical explanation of classism, racism, gender inequality, and cultural dominance. The study lends awareness to the body of knowledge about social differences that yield states of inequality. It is hoped that this information will assist in uncovering root causes of a social phenomenon that has had a devastating impact on human relations over the course of history.  Keywords: apartheid; bell curve; child violence; Christian; culture; dominance; Engels; ethnocentric; Eurocentrism; feminism; gender; inequality; Marx; Muslim; natural law; race; racism; sexism; slavery; social; sociological imagination; sociology; stratification; DuBois; superiority; womanism; women

Deanna Jacobsen Koepke   Race, Class, Poverty, and Capitalism   (p189-205)

Abstract: The term stratification is used to discuss the distribution of resources that are valued in a society. In the United States, our society is stratified and structured along race, class, and gender lines, such that some lives are considered more valuable than others. Resources and opportunities are unequally distributed among our citizens. The U.S. economy is not structured to care for the people who have fewer resources. Thus, we have a substantial group of citizens who are underprivileged. They are not only poor, but also out of the mainstream and less able to participate in society. This paper explores the classism, poverty and racism that exist in our country and how they intersect under capitalism.  Keywords. race; class; poverty

Richard K. Caputo   Sex at an Early Age:  A Multi-System Perspective   (p206-227)

Abstract: Data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to assess the association between family, self, proximate extra-familial, and distal extra-familial system factors and abstinence/virginity and age of first sexual intercourse (N=1,854). In addition to family, findings point to the robustness of sociodemographic correlates of gender, race/ethnicity, and SES on abstinence and timing of sexual initiation.  Key Words: abstinence; adolescent sexuality; families; race/ethnicity; SES

Sarbani Banerjee and Amitra Hodge   Internet Usage:  A Within Race Analysis   (p228-246)

Abstract: The majority of North Americans have more access to the Internet today as compared to ten years ago. Schools, libraries, homes, coffee houses, and workplaces are equipped with the technology needed to get people online. This paper addresses a need to shift the focus from describing the digital divide, unequal access to the Internet, to the focus of describing the digital divide in usage. Research suggests that differences in usage do exist between social categories, such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, income, region, and age. This paper attempts to go beyond previous research studies by exploring the usage of the Internet by sex, education, income, and age within the racial categories of white and non-white. Data for this study is from the Current Population Survey. Our findings indicate that differences do exist within the categories of white and non-white. Furthermore, the study presents the findings of what people engage in while on the Internet.  Keywords:  Internet usage; Internet access; race; digital divide; racial divide; social equity

Enobong Hannah Branch    The Creation of Restricted Opportunity due to the Intersection of Race & Sex:  Black Women in the Bottom Class   (p247-264)

Abstract: In Horton, Allen, Herring, and Thomas’ (2000) study of the black working class, a historical picture is painted in which black women are shown to be uniquely disadvantaged as it pertains to economic position more so than either black men or white women, their experiences parallel neither group. The factors that precipitated this pattern are the concern of this paper. In particular, I propose an integrative theory of race, gender, and class that is based on the utilization of one’s occupation as an indicator of economic class. I will then explore the intersection of race and gender in historically creating the disadvantage experienced by black women in the American occupational structure. The advancement of black men, I argue, occurred under the guise of male privilege although they were black and the advancement of white women occurred under the guise of white privilege although they were female, however, black women were both black and female, thus there was no guise, no point of privilege by which they could have advanced. Hence we see their increase in the bottom class during the time when the rates for black men and white women were decreasing.  Keywords: intersectionality; race; class; gender; black women; inequality; work; occupational segregation; domestic service; social stratification/mobility

A) 2007 Race, Gender & Class Conference:  Hurricane Katrina
B) Race, Gender & Class as Organizing Principle
Volume 14, Number 1-2, 2007, ISSN 1082-8354

Part A

Guest Editors:  Jean Ait Belkhir and Lenus Jack, Jr.

Jean Ait Belkhir and Lenus Jack, Jr.   Introduction.  2007 Race, Gender & Class Conference:  Hurricane Katrina   (p4-6)

Jerome Scott and Walda Katz-Fishman   America through the Eye of Hurricane Katrina - Capitalism at its "Best"  What Are we Prepared to Do?   (p7-16)

Abstract: This essay, written in the months immediately after the human-made disaster of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated New Orleans and the Gulf Coast in 2005, contextualizes the destruction of human life, community, and environment in history, economy, power, and peoples’ struggles. The horrific destruction reflects the intentional abandonment and criminalization of the poor, working class, communities of color—African American, Indigenous, immigrant—especially women, children, elders, and environmental crisis over centuries. It teaches us two critical lessons. One, that the economic and political system of global capitalism, including the U.S. government at all levels, is broken and cannot be fixed. Two, that only a powerful bottom-up movement led by those most adversely affected can reconstruct New Orleans and the Gulf Coast around a transformative vision rooted in twenty-first century economic, political, and social realities that addresses their needs and hopes. The U.S. Social Forum, as part of a global movement building process, held in Atlanta June 27 to July 1, 2007 was an important moment in building movement and lifting up the voices, visions, and struggles of the people in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast.  Keywords: Hurricane Katrina; capitalism; exploitation; electronics; oppression; race; class; gender; militarism; privatization; movement building

Glenn S. Johnson and Shirley A. Rainey   Hurricane Katrina:  Public Health and Environmental Justice Issues Front and Centered   (p17-37)

Abstract: Hurricane Katrina is referred to as America’s worst national catastrophe or the greatest man-made disaster in history. It was a catastrophe in terms of loss of life, major structural damage and disaster-related morbidities. The infrastructure in the region was damaged which resulted in thousands of individuals lacking access to food, clean water, housing, and sanitation. The entire world was riveted and horrified as they watched on their televisions the poor and underserved black victims suffer from a devastating storm. Katrina exposed the world to the deteriorating infrastructure and systemic poverty of the Gulf Coast States. The federal government response to this disaster is that they are not doing enough and they are very slow. The environmental justice framework is used to analyze the public health issues surrounding Hurricane Katrina.  Key Words: public health; environmental justice; toxic environments

Quincy Thomas Stewart and Rashawn Ray   Hurricane Katrina and the Race Flood:  Interactive Lessons for Quantitative Research on Race   (p38-59)

Abstract: The catastrophe that affected the gulf coast region is the most significant domestic natural disaster in recent history. Although the initial response to this event was unsatisfactory to many, policymakers and relief organizations subsequently picked-up their efforts to alleviate the larger social and economic effects of Hurricane Katrina. For many scholars, the hurricane and the ensuing flood of New Orleans presents a unique environmental phenomenon that will structure the lives of gulf coast residents and other Americans for several decades. The Katrina phenomenon, however, mirrors a social catastrophe that has structured the lives of Americans for over three centuries—race. Just as the hurricane and ensuing flood penetrated the lives of New Orleans residents, the concept of race has permeated American social institutions such that racial classification shapes the breadth of individuals’ social interactions and life chances. Accordingly, the recent natural flood can be viewed as a physical microcosm of a larger social flood of how race structures the lives of all Americans. This article analyzes the parallels of these two floods to shed light on the processes that maintain and recreate social inequality, and to guide future research on racial outcome disparities among Gulf Coast residents and evacuees in particular, and U.S. residents in general.  Keywords: race; inequality; regression; quantitative methodology

Revathi I. Hines   Natural Disasters and Gender Inequalities:  The 2004 Tsunami and the Case of India   (p60-68)

Abstract: This research examines the link between gender and natural disasters. Specifically, it studies the 2004 Tsunami, that occurred in the Indian Ocean, and the inordinate impact it had on females in India. There are two fundamental gender issues that are examined in this paper: (a) The reasons why more women than men were impacted by the 2004 tsunami, and (b) The post-tsunami challenges that were faced by women. Through the research it is observed that following the tsunami, gender concerns were overlooked and social realities were ignored. As a result, women were marginalized in the process. The absence of any concrete gender analysis at the governmental level, indicates the nonchalant attitude toward gender concerns.  Keywords: tsunami; gender; India; natural disasters; disaster challenges; gender challenges

Ophera A. Davis and Marie Land   Southern Women Survivors Speak about Hurricane Katrina, the Children and the What Needs to Happen Next   (p69-86)

Abstract: This essay is a compilation of fifteen interviews with women ranging in age from 20 to 70. The women are from New Orleans, Gulfport and Biloxi. The women are African-American, Austrian born-Caucasian, Caucasian-American, and Jewish. The women were identified through agencies and alliances. The women were asked to participate in a study to offer their opinions and experiences as Gulf Coast states residents about Hurricane Katrina. Since women’s voices are sometimes overlooked or not heard, this essay will give the women a chance to speak frankly in their own voices.  Keywords: women; Hurricane Katrina; interviews; qualitative study; African American women

Diane C. Keithly   Surviving the Recovery:  The Role of Expectation and Belief in Rebuilding New Orleans   (p87-95)

Abstract: The subject of the recovery of New Orleans is discussed with the aim of broadening the perspective on the recovery effort by looking at the antecedents to the storm, in particular, land loss in Louisiana and examining historical examples at other natural disasters in the region. The discussion also includes the social impacts on the community and the role of Robert Merton’s concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy and W.I. Thomas’ definition of the situation in shaping the future of New Orleans. Perceptions influence beliefs and, ultimately, beliefs about the city’s future will partly determine its future.  Keywords: Katrina; New Orleans; disaster; recovery

Michael Radcliff   SUNO Family Vows to Fight the Systematic Destruction of the School and its Legacy   (p96-99)

Glenn S. Johnson and Shirley A. Rainey   Hurricane Katrina Impact on Three Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs):  Voices from Displaced Students   (p100-119)

Abstract: Hurricane Katrina not only destroyed the Gulf Coast States but devastated higher education for African Americans at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the region. Students, faculty, administrators, and staff at these institutions were displaced across the United States. This paper provides a HBCU student perspective of the hurricane and how many of them evacuated from the region. These students’ perspectives are placed in the environmental justice framework to provide not only an African American perspective of this horrific storm but a more comprehensive analysis of the impact of the storm environmentally, politically, socially, and economically. This paper also discusses lessons learned from this horrific storm and offers some recommendations to address the needs of the impacted universities.  Keywords: environmental disaster; displaced students; Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Race, Gender and Class Lessons from Hurricane Katrina   (p120-152)

Abstract: In the public imagination, natural disasters do not discriminate, but are instead "equal opportunity" calamities. Hurricanes may not single out victims by their race, or gender or class but neither do such disasters occur in historical, political, social, or economic vacuums. Instead, the consequences of such catastrophes replicate and exacerbate the effects of extant inequalities, and often bring into stark relief the importance of political institutions, processes, ideologies, and norms. In the words of New York Times’ columnist David Brooks, storms like Hurricane Katrina "wash away the surface of society, the settled way things have been done. They expose the underlying power structures, the injustices, the patterns of corruption and the unacknowledged inequalities. The last two decades alone have provided a series of examples that demonstrate the vast inequalities of U.S. democratic system, particularly as they are manifested along racial, gender and class lines. A truly race, gender and class left would want to eliminate class inequality. But, in the race, gender and class trinity class is the odd factor. Mainstream race, gender and class social and academic activists want to get rid of race and gender inequality but "forget" class inequality.  Keywords:  Hurricane Katrina; race; gender; class; poverty; women of color

Part B

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction:  Race, Gender & Class as Organizing Principle   (p153-156)

Aimee Van Wagenen   The Promise and Impossibility of Representing Anti-Essentialism:  Reading Bulworth Through Critical Race Theory   (p157-177)

Abstract: There is now little contest in the social sciences over rejecting racial essentialism in theory and analysis of race. There is, however, contest and confusion over what exactly it means to reject racial essentialism. Is it appropriate to define and employ racial groups as a category of analysis given that there is no scientific basis for racial categorization? Is racial identity meaningful and viable as a concept if a rejection of essentialism is where one begins analysis? Do we have any epistemological basis for persisting in using the terminology of "race" and "races"? The consequences for social analysis that stem from rejecting racial essentialism are as yet unclear. In this essay, I focus in particular on the consequences for representing racial subjectivity. I first review the scholarly consensus on rejecting racial essentialism and several theoretical alternatives proposed in the literature for representing an anti-essentialist racial subjectivity. I then consider the film Bulworth as a popular representation of an anti-essentialist racial subjectivity. I find promise and impossibility in both the theoretical and popular representations.  Keywords: critical race theory; essentialism; racial subjectivity; popular culture; film

Filomina Chioma Steady   The Black Woman and the Essentializing Imperative:  Implications for Theory and Praxis in the 21st Century   (p178-195)

Abstract: This article analyses the achievements and essentializing imperatives and challenges still facing Black women in Africa and the African Diaspora. It argues that race is and continues to be an organizing principle in a global political economy that is both racialized and gendered. These results in four main types of essentialisms that continue to be maintained by hegemonic paradigms and ideologies: These are essentializing through corporate globalization; essentializing through stereotypes and the branding of Africa; essentializing through environmental injustices and environmental racism and essentializing through the social construction of disease. It maintains that essentializing and post-modernist frameworks are integrated and not mutually exclusive and should be interrogated together by activist academics.  Keywords:  Black women; African feminism; womanism; corporate; globalization; essentializing imperatives; environmental justice; HIV/AIDS; racialized and gendered global system; stereotypes; climate change; toxic colonialism; toxic terrorism; African women in politics; achievements of Black women

Adia Harvey Wingfield   The Modern Mammy and the Angry Black Man:  African American Professionals' Experiences with Gendered Racism in the Workplace   (p196-212)

Abstract: This paper explores the ways that Black professionals experience racism in the workplace as a gendered phenomenon. Drawing from in-depth interviews with 23 Black professional workers, I compare the ways that racism is gendered for Black men and for Black women. I also explore the ways that gendered racism constructs responses to racial affronts. I argue that exploring the gendered nature of racism offers a more precise assessment of how racism in the workplace impacts minorities.  Keywords:  gendered racism; Black professionals; controlling images

Amal Ibrahim Madibbo   Race, Gender, Language and Power Relations:  Blacks within Francophone Communities in Ontario, Canada   (p213-226)

Abstract: This paper examines how Antiracism and Black feminism enable us to conceptualize the situation of Blacks in the dynamics of power, namely, the distribution of economic and social resources within the Francophone communities in Canada. Black Francophones constitute a racial minority situated within the French-speaking official minority. This populace is discriminated against by the predominantly white and Anglophone State and by white Francophones. To conclude, Antiracism and Black feminism allow us to thoroughly analyze the power relations across race and gender relations. However, the specific case of Black Francophones as a double minority affirms that language should be integrated in the antiracist analysis to better understand the social reality of racial minorities that are located within linguistic minorities.  Keywords:  race, gender, language, power, equity, racial minorities, linguistic minorities, immigration, Canada

Shonda K. Lawrence, Desiree Stepteau-Watson, and Cynthia Honoré-Collins   An Exploratory Study:  Incarcerated Mothers with Daughters Involved in Child Welfare   (p227-235)

Abstract: This study explored outcomes for girls who experienced both maternal incarceration and child welfare system involvement. Incarcerated women with daughters between the ages of ten and seventeen participated. This secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey offers information about mother-daughter contact and relationship, antisocial behavior, school performance and teen pregnancy. Increasing numbers of incarcerated mothers has serious implications for the well being of their children. Findings suggest that dual system involvement results in higher rates of antisocial and delinquent behavior, including carrying weapons, drug and alcohol use and violent physical behavior.  Keywords:  adolescent girls; child welfare; delinquency; maternal incarceration

Jacquelyn Mitchell and Rufus Sylvester Lynch   Re-Uniting Low-Income African American Fathers with their Children:  A Transdisciplinary Model to Address the Legal Conundrums Embedded in the Social Challenges   (p236-252)

Abstract: Stimulated by national policy and funding, attention to the issue of fatherhood is increasing. Fatherhood programs often focus on constructions of "responsibility" that mandate absent fathers to emotionally and/or financially support their children. However, the multifaceted legal conundrums embedded in the social barriers to "responsible" fatherhood that are faced by fragile and marginalized non-custodial fathers are rarely comprehensively addressed. These forensic barriers extend beyond criminal justice system issues, to consumer, traffic, housing and other issues that plague fragile populations. This article advances a transdisciplinary fatherhood programming model that emerged from monitoring data during implementation of a "responsibility"-based design. The original design was expanded to more effectively address imbedded legally-related impediments to re-uniting non-custodial fathers with their children. Practice, policy, and programming implications are explored.  Keywords:  fatherhood; non-custodial fathers; forensic barriers

Danielle Taana Smith and Kijana Crawford   Climbing the Ivory Tower:  Recommendations for Mentoring African American Women in Higher Education   (p253-265)

Abstract: The focus of this study is to determine the availability of mentors for African American female administrators who hold or have held senior-level administrative positions in higher education in New York State. We examine whether or not these African American female administrators were given the opportunity to work with mentors at their institutions. If they were not given this opportunity, we attempted to determine how they maintained their positions without the aid of mentoring, and how and if mentoring could have facilitated their career development. This study also examines how mentoring could have eased the strain felt by African American women in these high level positions.  Keywords:  African American women; mentoring; academic administration; higher education

Richard K. Caputo   Federal Taxation of Individual Capital & Labor Income in the United States, 1978-2003   (p266-280)

Abstract: Taxable income from dividends, capital gains, and wages & salaries in the United States are examined in light of the major tax reform efforts of the Reagan administration in 1986 and that of the G.W. Bush administration in 2001. Since affluent citizens are more likely to benefit from capital gains and dividends, questions are raised regarding the fair distribution of the tax burden between capital and labor.  Key Words:  tax fairness; income taxes; capital gains; dividends

Jas M. Sullivan and Ashraf Esmail   Black Social & Political Activism:  An Exploratory Study   (p281-298)

Abstract: While prior studies have often defined social activism as protesting or marching and political activism as voting, we define social and political activism with multiple measures. For each type of activism, we create an additive index that includes various social and political activities. In this research, we ask the following question: do black information networks, political involvement of church, and nationalist identity affect social activism and political activism of blacks? Using the 1993 Black Politics Study data, the results suggest that black information networks and church’s political involvement were strong predictors of both social and political activism; however, nationalist identity was not significant.  Keywords:  African-American; social and political activism

Megan Durell, Catherine Chiong, and Juan Battle   Race, Gender Expectations, and Homophobia:  A Quantitative Exploration   (p299-317)

Abstract: Using a convenience sample of New York City residents, this study explored the relationship between traditional gender role expectations and homophobic attitudes. Hierarchical regression modeling was employed for analyses. We found that (1) Blacks reported higher levels of homophobia than their White, Latina/o, and Asian counterparts; (2) among the variables considered, the traditional gender role expectations measure was the sole common significant predictor among all four racial groups; and (3) great discrepancies exist across racial groups in the relative importance of the demographic variables considered. Therefore, we concluded that a more nuanced understanding of homophobia, including its relationship with gender roles, needs to be investigated with strong attention to racial heterogeneity.  Keywords:  gender roles; homophobia; race

Julie Morton   Fighting War:  Essential Skills for Peace Education   (p318-332)

Abstract: In a world rife with conflict, our schools ought to provide students techniques for successful cooperation and problem-solving. To teach peace effectively, educators need to target dialogue, critical thinking, and creative planning skills consistently, so that students can practice productive ways of addressing turmoil and tension.  Keywords:  conflict transformation; conflict resolution; peace education; peace skills

Adele N. Norris, Yvette Murphy-Erby, and Anna Zajicek   An Intersectional Perspective in Introductory Sociology Textbooks and the Sociological Imagination:  A Case Study   (p333-344)

Abstract: A key role of sociology is to examine the interplay of history, individual biography and the broad patterns of social relations. An intersectional perspective developed by women of color, especially African-American women, to account for the complexity of people’s social locations is an integral component of the sociological imagination. Introduced to mainstream sociology in the 1990s, intersectionality perspective focuses on the interaction of class, race, gender, and age inequalities in shaping people’s experiences. In this paper, we examine whether a paradigm shift has occurred in mainstream sociology to incorporate an intersectional perspective. To address this question, we conducted a case study analyzing discussions of U.S. poverty in 15 most popular introductory sociology textbooks published between 2000 and 2007. We found that poverty is discussed in the context of racial/ethnic, gender, and age inequalities. Importantly, with a few exceptions, these inequalities are discussed separately, impeding the realization of the sociological imagination. We conclude by proposing a dialog between intersectionality perspective and mainstream sociology.  Keywords:  intersectionality; inequalities; sociology; poverty

Volume 13

A) Race, gender, and Class:  For What?
B) Current Examples of Intersectional Approaches
Volume 13, Number 3-4, 2006, ISSN 1082-8354

Part A

Guest Editors:  Vasilikie Demos and Anthony J. Lemelle, Jr.

Special Issue Managing Editor: Timothy Dowd

Vasilikie Demos and Anthony J. Lemelle, Jr.   Introduction:  Race, Gender, and Class for What?   (p4-15)

Heather Dillaway and Sarah Jane Brubaker   Intersectionality and Childbirth:  How Women from Different Social Locations Discuss Epidural Use   (16-41)

Abstract: Analyzing unpublished primary data from two separate qualitative studies, the authors employ an intersectionality framework to compare the experiences of two different samples of birthing women. Examining commonalities and differences in how women perceive and decide about epidurals in the hospital setting, the authors argue that feminist critiques of the medicalization of childbirth should be expanded to address race, class, and age as structures of oppression and privilege that shape women’s reproductive experiences. Findings are based on qualitative analyses of 19 interviews with predominantly White, middle- to upper-class women in a Mid-Atlantic state and 51 interviews with African American teens in a Southern state. Generally, Southern teens emphasized medical risks associated with the epidural and based decisions to forego the epidural on concerns about their wellbeing. Alternatively, Mid-Atlantic adults defined the epidural as a safe way to avoid the pain associated with childbirth and subsequently chose to use the epidural. The findings challenge many feminist critiques of medicalized childbirth, suggesting that conceptual approaches that focus only on gendered oppression and women in privileged locations fail to fully explain the birthing experiences of diverse groups of women. The authors conclude that understanding women’s perceptions of and decisions about epidurals (as well as other aspects of childbirth) is only possible if we pay attention to commonalities and differences among birthing women. This article is an exercise in how to move beyond gender and compare diverse women’s childbirth experiences.  Keywords:  childbirth; epidural; intersectionality; social location; race; class; age; qualitative research

Marla H. Kohlman   Intersection Theory:  A More Elucidating Paradigm of Quantitative Analysis   (p42-59)

Abstract: Intersection theory, a theoretical paradigm which calls attention to the interlocking forces of race, class, and gender, among other master status characteristics, is used to predict that respondents report having been targeted for sexual harassment under circumstances that are quite different from one demographic group to another. Sexual harassment is interpreted as primarily a power relation such that workers in less powerful positions are expected to be more vulnerable to targeting. This study may be distinguished from most studies utilizing intersection theory as a theoretical paradigm because it is a quantitative analysis of a broad, national set of data, the General Social Survey, rather than qualitative analyses or a meta-analyses of existing studies. It is predicted that the results reported in general additive models of sexual harassment mask the experiences of race, class, and gender as an interlocking force which differentially shapes the experiences of men and women in the labor market and society overall. The findings reported illustrate that these patterns vary substantially by race and gender, which provides firm support for the usefulness of intersection theory as a theoretical paradigm of analysis which should be more often utilized to shape the modeling of quantitative analyses.  Keywords:  intersectionality; theory; sexual harassment; race; gender; labor force

Tiffany Taylor and Barbara J. Risman   Doing Deference or Speaking Up:  Deconstructing the Experience and Expression of Anger   (p60-80)

Abstract: Most social scientists conceptualize anger as a negative emotion, a form of distress with negative consequences. In contrast, feminist activist writers often conceptualize anger as a potential source of oppositional consciousness and subsequent empowerment. This research project weaves together sociological theories of anger as a negative emotion, activists’ notions that anger among the oppressed is a source of energy for resistance, and add an intersectionality approach that suggests groups with different material and social standpoints will experience anger differently. Our findings suggest that racial and class statuses are important for how people feel and express anger. But, our findings also suggest, somewhat surprisingly, that gender does not, by itself or in interaction with other social statuses, affect the feeling or expression of anger. Gender, race and class disadvantage affect the experience or expression of anger in quite distinct ways. This supports the argument that different underlying social processes can shape gender, race, and class inequality.  Keywords:  emotions; anger; race; class; gender; intersectionality

Chong-suk-Han   Being an Oriental, I Could Never be Completely a Man:  Gay Asian Men and the Intersection of Race, Gender, Sexuality and Class   (p82-97)

Abstract: In recent years, scholars have noted the influence that race has played in the construction and maintenance of gender for men of color. In this paper, I examine how contemporary narratives continue to feminize Asian men and the consequences that this feminization has, specifically, on gay Asian men. In doing so, I examine contemporary narratives about Asian men to show how they are constructed and narratives created by gay Asian men to show how that gendered construction of race has a negative effect on their emotional and physical well-being.  Keywords:  race; sexuality; gender; class; gay Asian men

Suzanne Bouclin   Dancers Empowering (Some) Dancers:  The Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender in Organizing Erotic Laborers   (p98-129) 

Abstract: In this case study of an Ottawa-based erotic dancers' affiliation, the author centers the voices of informants while critically engaging with their discourses around, and approach to, crafting better working conditions. Informants reveal their experiences of economic exploitation, managerial control, and making compromises in light of the new industry practices. In response, they have organized to resist unfair labour conditions. Though the dancers' affiliation has created a space in which women can feel empowered and has been instrumental in crafting municipal by-laws regulating the industry, it overlooks other relationships of privilege that further complicate individual women's decision to engage in certain labour practices. Specifically, the author concludes that race, class and gender does matter in the context of organizing marginalized and stigmatized workers. Namely, women's location around varying axes of disadvantage may hinder their ability to make more meaningful choices within constraining work environments. Correspondingly it may temper the relevance of dancers’ affiliations to their everyday working lives.  Keywords:  marginal labour; intersectionality; feminist methodologies; sex work

Marcia Texler Segal and Theresa A. Martinez   Teaching from a Race, Gender, and Class Perspective:  A Dialogue about the Rationale, Rewards, and Challenges of Developing a Collection of Readings from Which to Teach   (p130-142)

Abstract: In the form of a dialogue between two sociologists from different ethnic and academic backgrounds and generations, developing an anthology for use in courses that employ an intersectional perspective, the authors discuss the reasons for teaching from this perspective. They recount how they came, personally and professionally, to understand the integration of race, gender, and class. Teaching from an RGC perspective is presented as both challenging and rewarding. The anthology was developed by drawing on readings successfully used in classes with the authors endeavoring to strike balances between quantitative and qualitative and between theoretical and imaginative pieces. The process is presented as collaborative and feminist.  Keywords:  intersectional; teaching; race; ethnicity; gender; class

Brian D. Polkinghorn and Thomas E. Boudreau   Bones of Contention:  Applying an Identity Affirmation Conflict Reduction Model to a Case Study of Repatriating of Ancestral Remains   (p143-161)

Abstract: There are many examples of violent intergroup conflict that have arisen out of specific situations or "flash points." However, once the "flash" subsides and the conflict continues there needs to be further exploration and refined explanation as to why the conflict has not abated even when the original reasons may have been adequately addressed. What residual forces can sustain a conflict and further drive escalatory dynamics? One plausible explanation is the propensity for individuals to cluster with similar others (members of their primary identity groups—race, gender, class, ethnicity etc.) in times of conflict in an effort to coalesce against a mutual adversary. Groups often then perpetuate the conflict by enforcing and maintaining hostile, dehumanized and objectified identity images of the "other" long past the original exchange. There are two assumptions being made in this article about many complex social conflict settings. First, sociological and social psychological mechanisms create in-group and out-group identity dynamics along with subsequent labels that are then played out within and between numerous identity groups. Second, variations in identity exist within and among these groups creating distinct forms of identity that during times of protracted conflict become more rigid. Together, these two assumptions ground part of the origins and proliferation of conflict in identity. The thesis of this article is that if identity can drive conflict and violence then it can be a factor in conflict and violence reduction. In particular this article argues that a conflict between groups can be lessened by the explicit identity affirmation by one group of the other group’s identity, including recognition of its past pain, defeats and collective losses, when appropriate. Using a case of conflict between an American Indian tribe and local law enforcement illustrates a new conflict reduction model consisting of: Leadership, Recognition, Validation and the Transparency of Future Time. This model is a variation of the ARIA model developed by Jay Rothman (1997) though it is quite different in content and application.  Keywords:  conflict transformation; identity affirmation; conflict de-escalation; conflict reduction; conflict model

Article added by RGC Editors

Michael D. Parsons and Maria Plakhotnic   Invisible to the Majority:  The Search for Critical Race Theory in the Higher Education and Policy Literature   (p162-175)

Abstract: This paper evaluates CRT’s impact on the higher education policy literature. The first section of the paper explains why it is important to consider the influence of CRT. This is followed by definition of CRT. The third section presents the methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications.  Keywords:  critical race theory; higher education; public policy

Part B

Guest Editor:  Juan Battle

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction:  Current Examples of Intersectional Approaches   (p176-179)

Juan Battle and Darla Linville   Race, Sexuality and Schools:  A Quantitative Assessment of Intersectionality   (p180-199)

Abstract: Many studies focus on the social problems of adolescents with same-sex attraction. Several variables have been found that impede their academic achievement for a variety of reasons, including poor attendance, physical or verbal harassment by students or teachers, and dropout. Little attention has been paid to non-heterosexual sexual attraction or behavior as a source of resilience and motivation for academic achievement. Situated in research about the "achievement gap" or "opportunity gap" between Black and White students and current research on the social and academic atmosphere in schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning students, this study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave I dataset. This study found that among students who do not have same-gender sexual attractions, race was a significant factor in predicting a decrease in positive school attitudes. However, among students with a same-gender sexual attraction, race ceases to be a factor in predicting positive school attitudes. For Black students, same-gender attraction may function as a protective factor against negative educational expectations.  Keywords: gay and lesbian; same-gender attracted; youth; schools; academic achievement; cultural capital; achievement gap; resilience; Black

Antonia Randolph   "Don't Hate Me Because I'm Beautiful":  Black Masculinity and Alternative Embodiment in Rap Music   (p200-217)

Abstract: This study examines the manifestation of subordinate men’s masculinity in popular culture by analyzing the construction of Black masculinity in rap music. The data for this research comes from a content analysis of lyrics from playa rap—a genre of rap music characterized by its focus on consumption, adornment, and sensual pleasure. Playa rap’s promotion of an alternative form of masculine embodiment points to the limitations of hegemonic masculinity as a lens for understanding subordinated men. Some argue that while playa rap may seem at first glance to endorse non-hegemonic modes of embodiment, others argue that its lyrics actually promote an embodiment that is in service of the hegemonic goals of controlling women and displaying capitalistic success. While playa modes of embodiment may ultimately have hegemonic goals in mind, the path they travel reveals the particular constraints Black men face when asserting male dominance. In other words, the research takes masculinity in rap as produced, not primordial.  Keywords:  Black masculinity; rap music; non-normative gender

Antonio Pastrana, Jr.   The Intersectional Imagination:  What Do Lesbian and Gay Leaders of Color Have To Do With It?   (p218-238)

Abstract: This paper examines the complexities of intersectional politics, how they have affected U.S.-based lesbian and gay (LG) social movement organizing, and how key people of color within this movement talk about the presence of secondary marginalization through the lens of race. In-depth interviews with four leaders of color within the LG movement were conducted in order to understand what the author calls the intersectional imagination—a form of analysis that attempts to make connections between individual- and group-level oppressions from a perspective that is embedded in the actual lived experience of oppression. Interview participants talked about the multifaceted nature of the "mainstream" and how it manifests itself in movement organizing. It can limit a movement’s goals, and it can be used to explore new ways of conducting the work of organizing. Similarly, discussions about leadership both encouraged participation in "mainstream" organizations and advanced a need for new models for thinking about what leadership means.  Keywords:  intersectionality; intersectional politics; LGBT social movements; secondary marginalization

Joe L. Lott, II.   Racial Identity and Black Students' Perceptions of Civic Skills   (p239-254)

Abstract: This research investigates the impact of racial identity on Black students’ perceptions of their civic skills. Even though 50 years ago they were one of the most active civic groups, Black students are a group whose civic participation has sharply declined between the 1970s and 1990s. The sample comprised 276 Black students who attended either a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI). Hierarchical regression analyses found that Immersion-Emersion and Internalization stages of the Black racial identity scale (B-RIAS) significantly explained Civic Skills. This study has implications for racial identity development and offers a more expansive theoretical framework about how to think about civic participation and Black students.  Keywords:  Black racial identity; Black college students; civic skills; citizenship

Michael A. Lewis and Eri Noguchi   The Female Corp of Volunteers:  How gender and Labor Supply Interact to Affect Civic Participation   (p255-267)

Abstract: Using nationally representative samples of female (N = 3,309) and male (N = 2,491) full and part-time workers from a survey conducted by the Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, this research examines the interaction effect of gender and labor supply on civic participation, measured as number of times one has volunteered in community activities. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analysis, we found that a reduction in labor supply increases females’ civic participation but has no effect on males.  Keywords:  gender; civic participation; voluntarism; labor supply

Shelly Brown-Jeffy   The Race Gap in High School Reading Achievement:  Why School Racial Composition Still Matters   (p268-294)

Abstract: This study, a multilevel analysis of 4,065 students from 219 schools in the High School Effectiveness Study, examines the association between school racial composition and the Black-White achievement gap in reading achievement during a time in history when American schools began to resegregate and achievement differences between White and non-White students began to widen. Results indicate that the Black-White gap in reading achievement in schools with less than 10% Black, Hispanic, and/or Native American students enrolled is substantial, especially in comparison to schools with 25-54% Black, Hispanic, and/or Native American students (where the Black-White gap is relatively small and all students have higher average reading achievement). Racial integration is beneficial for Black student achievement, especially in the racially diverse suburban school with a mix of Black, Hispanic, Native American, White and Asian students that most approximates the racial mix of the United States.  Keywords:  racial differences; education; academic achievement; achievement gap; minority groups, race

Sabrina W. Tyuse and Julie Birkenmaier   Promoting Homeownership for the Poor:  Proceed with Caution   (p295-310)

Abstract: Several aspects of the financial marketplace are presently converging to promote low-income and minority homeownership in the United States. These include programs by the federal government and the mortgage lending industry, which allow lower income families to purchase homes. However, current lending patterns may adversely affect disadvantaged populations. This paper discusses various homeownership strategies that are designed to help families purchase and retain their home. It also explores the history of mortgage lending, the effects of credit history on homeownership, equity building, and subprime and predatory loan practices. Based on the findings, this paper summarizes the social implications and offers recommendations to improve homeownership policy. In addition, specific suggestions for educators and advocates, policy makers, and researchers are offered.  Keywords:  homeownership; race; credit; subprime and predatory lending; social welfare

Rodney U. Garrett   Effects of Mentoring on the Quality of the Doctoral Experience at Historically Black Colleges and Universities:  Results of Groundwork Investigation   (p311-327)

Abstract:  This study describes the effects of mentoring on the quality of the doctoral experiences in education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The study focused only on the 14 HBCUs that offer doctoral degrees in education. Twelve of the 14 eligible institutions agreed to participate in the study. Forty-seven doctoral students who were in their third year of study or close to completion participated in the study. These respondents completed a survey that was utilized in a national study of doctoral students at predominately white institutions and Ivy League institutions conducted by Golde and Dore in 2001. The researchers determined that mentoring had a positive effect on the quality of doctoral education offered at HBCUs.  Keywords:  Historically Black Colleges and Universities; doctoral students; minority colleges, minority students

Sandra L. Barnes   An Analysis of Black Church Usage of Black Liberation and Womanist Theologies:  Implications for Inclusivity   (p329-346)

Abstract: Black Liberation and Womanist theologies represent biblical interpretations used to educate, equip, and empower marginalized groups. Their emphasis in combating various forms of oppression positions them as potential exemplars for social action. This project examines whether contemporary Black churches employ Black Liberation and Womanist theologies and the church, clergy, and member profiles as well as congregational environments conducive to such sermonic references. Findings based on Faith Factor 2000 Project data suggest that congregational environment, rather than profile indicators, explain the tendency to reference such theologies. Furthermore, churches considered priestlier in stance are just as poised to posit such theologies as their prophetic counterparts. Findings inform current research regarding changes in Black Church theological emphasis and provide implications for increased inclusivity.  Keywords:  black church; inclusivity; liberation theology

Race, Gender and Class:  A Potpourri in Psychology; and Others
Volume 13, Number 1-2, 2006, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editors:  Thomas Hebert and Elliott Hammer

Thomas Hebert and Elliott Hammer   Introduction to Race, Gender, and Class:  A Potpourri in Psychology   (p4-6)

Yuki Aizawa and Mark A. Whatley   Gender, Shyness, and Individualism-Collectivism:  A Cross-Cultural Study   (p7-25)

Abstract: For the past two decades, many researchers have paid much attention to the diversity of cultures and suggested cultural syndromes may help explain cultural differences in social behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct of shyness in three different cultures. Sixty Japanese, 33 Chilean, and 53 American participants were asked to complete a measure of individualism-collectivism (Triandis, 1995) and shyness (Cheek & Buss, 1981). As hypothesized, the Japanese reported greater shyness than Chileans and Americans. Men and women in all the three cultures showed different attitudes and emotional expressions based on cultural differences between individualism and collectivism.  Keywords: culture; individualism; collectivism; shyness; social anxiety; gender

Alisha Ali   A Framework for Emancipatory inquiry in psychology:  Lessons from Feminist Methodology   (p26-35)

Abstract: Psychological science has been plagued by a disengagement from social issues including racism, sexual discrimination, and poverty. This disengagement is in part a consequence of dominant methodological approaches which are in many ways incompatible with the investigation of societal factors. This paper explores the need for an emancipatory methodological framework within psychology that can allow the discipline to actively respond to social problems while still retaining the ideals of scientific rigor. Drawing upon feminist models of methodology, a viable framework is proposed. The enactment of this framework is considered in light of certain challenges to the integration of socially relevant issues into mainstream psychological research.  Keywords: feminist methodology; psychological science; social change

Priscilla D. Allen and Katie Cherry   Race Relations in the Nursing Home Setting   (p36-45)  

Abstract: The increasing number of older adults in society and projected increases in the number of older persons for the future mark an important demographic trend. The number of frail or disabled elderly people who will require nursing home care is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Understanding the impact of gender and ethnicity on staff-client relationships in the nursing home setting is a critical challenge for social scientists. This paper examines caregiver and resident relationships in the nursing home where a growing immigrant, non-White staff, cares for the dominant White consumer population. The extant nursing home race relations literature is reviewed with a focus on historical and cultural disparities, utilization, and experiences between caregivers and residents. Implications for practice and directions for future research are considered.  Keywords: nursing home caregiving; race relations; long-term care 

Shanette M. Harris   Body Image Attitudes, Physical Attributes and Disturbed Eating among African American College Women   (p46-58)

Abstract: This research examined relationships among body image attitudes, physical qualities and eating variables for a sample of African American women. Eighty-seven voluntary participants completed a personal profile form, subscales of the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), the Body Cathexis Scale, and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). Body attitude measures were consistently associated with body mass in a direction to suggest that heaviness or high weight levels produce body dissatisfaction and unfavorable fitness and appearance evaluations. Likewise, Bulimia, Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction eating disordered subscales were positively associated with body mass. Two canonical variates were extracted from the relationship between eating disorder correlates and body attitudes. These results show that variation exists among African American college women associated with differences in relationships among eating disturbances, physical attributes and body attitudes.  Keywords: Black women; African American women; African Americans; women; females; eating behavior; eating disorders; eating disturbances; eating dysfunctions; body; body attitudes; body image; body mass; body satisfaction; weight; appearance; fitness

Jason Reed   Gender Differences in Political Attitudes and Persuasion   (p59-69)

Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical discussion of whether men and women inherently possess different attitudes about political objects and issues. Drawing upon theories and empirical work from social, cognitive, and evolutionary psychology, a framework is presented to suggest that men and women should generally possess differing political attitudes due to both societal and personal factors. Specifically, Social Dominance Theory suggests that existing social ideologies will contribute to men and women developing differing political attitudes, and an associative network model of cognition developed by Judd and Krosnick (1989) suggests that individual levels of attitude strength or expertise with a political attitude object will contribute to different political attitudes for men and women. The paper then uses the dual-process persuasion theory of the Elaboration Likelihood Model to present a single framework for attitude change applicable to both men and women despite the likelihood of gender differences in political attitudes. Theoretical and practical implications of these frameworks are discussed.  Keywords: persuasion; political attitudes

Teresa R. Robbins   Changing Minds but not Politics:  The Influence of Intergroup Interactions on Racial Policy Attitudes about African Americans   (p70-86)

Abstract: This research used the intergroup anxiety model (Stephan & Stephan, 1985) as a framework to examine the relationship between two antecedents and two outcomes of intergroup anxiety. I predicted that among European American (EA) respondents, satisfaction with living in a neighborhood with a high proportion of African American (AA) residents (an indicator of positive prior interactions) and working together with predominantly AA neighbors to solve a common problem (an indicator of a cooperative reward structure) would be associated with external attributions about the disadvantaged social position of AA and with greater support for government aid to AAs. Consistent with expectations, secondary analyses of national election data revealed that increased neighborhood intergroup contact was associated with external attributions toward AAs among respondents who were satisfied with their neighborhood, and among respondents who had cooperated with neighbors. However, neither the quality nor the reward structure of prior interactions correlated with attitudes about government aid to AAs.  Keywords: intergroup anxiety; ethnic attitudes; political attitudes

Alecia M. Santuzzi and Janet B. Ruscher   Distancing from Incompetent In-Group Members:  Evidence for the Black Sheep Effect in Ethnicity and Nationality   (p87-95)

Abstract: The present study examined how White university students living in the United States evaluated student university applicants given differences in applicants' nationality, ethnicity, and competence. Consistent with the black sheep effect (Marques & Yzerbyt, 1988), ratings for an incompetent in-group applicant (i.e., White applicant living in the Unites States) were lower in comparison to ratings for other incompetent or competent applicants. These results demonstrated that BSE may be relevant to not only racial identity, but also other aspects of social identity (e.g., nationality). BSE seemed to be stronger when the "black sheep" was of both the same racial category and the same nationality as participants, compared to when only one of either race or nationality was the same or when both race and nationality were different from participants. Therefore, BSE might increase as the degree of overlap in individuals’ social identities increases.  Keywords: black sheep effect; social identity; racial identity; in-group evaluation

Sondra E. Solomon and Donald A. Saucier   Perceived Effectiveness of a Bias Awareness Program   (p96-107)

Abstract: An awareness program consisting of three event types (colloquia, workshops, and film sessions) was created to reduce bias on campus. Participants reported their perceptions of the effectiveness of the individuals who conducted events, their perceptions of the events as learning experiences, and their changes in thoughts, feelings, and behavioral intentions after attending events. Participants reported that all program event types’ speakers and facilitators were at least moderately effective, and each event type was at least moderately effective as a learning experience. Results indicated that workshops were especially effective and were more likely than colloquia or films to produce changes in thoughts, feelings, and intentions to behave differently.  Keywords: prejudice reduction; bias awareness; tolerance

Arthur A. Stukas, Jr.   Principled Stands Against Racism   (p108-123)

Abstract: A procedural paradigm was created to demonstrate a particular reaction to racism, the principled stand, defined as explicit disagreement accompanied by an abstract or moral principle. After watching a videotape about discrimination, White participants who scored low on the Modern Racism Scale (McConahay, Hardee, & Batts, 1981) discussed prejudice with a confederate in an unstructured format. The confederate delivered one of three racist scripts, revealing different motivations for his racism, or a neutral control script. Rates of principled stands and other verbal reactions were examined. Results demonstrated that women were more likely to take principled stands than men, although when they took them, men took stronger stands than women. Principled stands occurred frequently and were consistent as a response to differently motivated racism. Implications for research and society are discussed.  Keywords: prejudice; racism; social interaction; disagreement

DeMarquis Hayes, Michael Cunningham and Jacques Courseault   Race Related Barriers for African American Males Pursuing Higher Education:  Implications for Psychology   (p124-132)

Abstract: This manuscript draws attention to the gender gap between African American males and females in higher education. In doing so, a review of information regarding African American males from the early school years to college is discussed. Information is presented that highlights how race and gender specific issues affect the number of African American males pursuing advanced degrees that lead to careers in higher education. The manuscript examines barriers preventing African American males from pursuing advanced degrees and offers suggestions for improving participation of African American males in higher education generally and in psychology specifically.  Keywords: African American males; higher education; gender gap

Sherry B. Schnake, Daniel J. Beal, and Janet B. Rusher   Modern Racism and Intergroup Bias in Causal Explanation   (p133-143)

Abstract: Intergroup bias emerges in causal explanation, such that ingroup but not outgroup members often are credited for positive behaviors and forgiven for negative behavior. When two potential explanations for behavior appear, conversational conventions predict that individuals weight the later explanation most heavily in their judgments. Previous work on conversational conventions, however, finds that people follow conversational conventions when they best support intergroup bias. The present study investigated the extent to which individual differences in prejudice moderated this pattern. European American participants who were determined to be low or high in modern racism read about the behaviors of European American and African American actors. When mitigating external explanations for negative behaviors or disposition-crediting explanations for positive behaviors were provided last, individuals high in modern racism tended to rely upon conversational conventions only for European American actors. That is, high modern racists’ selective reliance upon conversational conventions forgave ingroup members for their faults, and tended to credit them for their virtues; consistent with intergroup bias, they did not extend this courtesy to outgroup members.  Keywords: modern racism; intergroup bias; attribution

George Ansalone   Tracking:  A Return to Jim Crow   (p144-153)   

Abstract: More than fifty years after the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools are "inherently unequal"; equality of educational opportunity still remains an almost unattainable goal in American schooling. For many, this distressing problem is the direct result of the growing pervasiveness and popularity of educational tracking, the separation of students by ability and curricula. This article explores the historical roots of tracking and suggests that its evolution and continued presence in our society represents a veiled attempt and defective strategy for attaining separate but equal education in the schools. It underscores the research findings that call attention to the negative student outcomes in the area of affective and cognitive development for disadvantaged students in tracked classes. Finally, it concludes that the educational limitations of the Jim Crow Era including differential resource allocation and teacher expectations, a differentiated curriculum as well as the negative impact on student self-concept and career trajectory, are facilitated by the educational structure of tracking. Keywords: ability grouping; social inequality; tracking

Alma Thornton, Bernestine McGee, Sahasporn Paeratakul, Kirkland Mellad, Gina Eubanks, Betty Fomby, Jeff Gossett, and Kimberley Bardell   The Influence of Socio-Demographic Factors on Psycho-Social Beliefs   (p154-167)  

Abstract: This study examined four major psycho-social variables, health belief, social influence, health locus of control, and self efficacy in rural lower Mississippi Delta residents. Socio-demographic variables of race, education and income were used to measure differences in perception of attitudes of importance of others in shaping normative beliefs, placement of primary responsibility for health outcome (locus of control) and beliefs about staying healthy and preventing diseases. Two hundred sixty eight (268) Delta residents were systematically surveyed resulting in 249 usable interviews. Chi Square analysis was used to assess differences. Differences in health belief, locus of control, social influence and self-efficacy were found to vary by race, education, income and food assistance status. Significant differences were found between (1) race and food assistance status and health belief; (2) race and social influence; (3) race, food assistance status, education and health locus of control; and (4) race, food assistance status, income, education and self-efficacy.  Key words: self efficacy; locus of control; health belief; socioeconomic status

Jean Ait Belkhir   Introduction to Others   (p168-169)   

Kris Acheson   Black Shepherd, White Sheep:  A Phenomenological Study of a Southern Church    (p170-190)  

Abstract: Much recent literature has noted the invisibility of Whiteness and the normalization of White supremacy in the US. This body of work is often especially applicable to life in the rural Southern US. Recent critical literature suggests that interrogating examples of the disruption of normative Whiteness could offer powerful opportunities for social change. In the context of the White supremacist South, then, an important task is finding and examining instances where the everydayness of Whiteness is challenged, where people are made uncomfortable because the unspoken rules of race relations are broken. This essay explores an instance of radical disruption of the invisibility of Whiteness—a Black pastor of a predominantly White church in the rural South. Using phenomenological methods, I interrogate the phenomenon of a Black man pastoring White Southerners as that experience is described in a set of narratives written from various perspectives within the church (a church member, a church elder, and the pastor himself). Through a reduction and interpretation of themes in the narratives, I arrive at conclusions about the nature of the phenomenon and various ways of experiencing it in an attempt to find ways to combat personal and systemic racism.  Keywords: whiteness; racism; phenomenology; religion; lived experience; visible identity; South 

John Penny and Laurie Gaillard   Mentoring African American Women in Higher Education Administration   (p191-200) 

Abstract: This paper gives a brief overview of networking and the role that the mentor/mentee plays in it. It defines networking and mentor. Also included are the value of mentoring, the old boys system, characteristics of mentors, actions taken by mentors to ensure productive relationships, responsibilities of mentees, leadership skills developed and, African American women. An appeal is made to African American women/men in higher education administration who have succeeded to become mentors.  Keywords: mentor; mente; African American women; higher education administration; networking 

Ashraf Esmail and Jas M. Sullivan   African American College Males and Females:  A Look at Color Mating Preferences   (p201-220)

Abstract: This paper explores color-preference attitudes among African-American males and females in the areas of interpersonal attraction and mate selection. The hypothesis underlying the study is that, as lightness in skin color increases, so, too, the perception of attractiveness and the association of positive characteristics with light skin color. This research utilizes interviews to explore whether or not African-American males report a preference for light-skinned women and whether or not African-American females report a preference for light-skinned men. The findings indicate that African-American males choose marriage partners according to the skin color complexion of their father. However, in terms of women they find most attractive, they select according to the skin color complexion of their mother. Among African-American females, the findings indicate that while it is true that they chose males that were medium to dark skin complexion, other factors such as height, hair, lips, eyes, style of dress were more important that merely the color of one’s skin.  Keywords: African-American; interpersonal attraction; mate selection   

Alvin D. Mitchell   The Effects of the Marshall Hypothesis on Attitudes toward the Death Penalty   (p221-247)

Abstract: Previous research has partially supported the Marshall Hypothesis’ contention that most people in America support the death penalty because they are not knowledgeable of the debatable issues involved. These issues include retribution, morality, public opinion, deterrence, cost, irreversibility, and discrimination. Other topics include fear of crime and the media’s exacerbation of the crime problem. All of these issues and topics can influence attitudes toward the death penalty. If Americans knew the substance of these issues and topics, their attitudes may change in regard to the death penalty. In 2003, Governor Ryan of Illinois first issued a stay of execution, then a moratorium, and later a commutation of death sentences for all inmates on death row in the state of Illinois. In addition, he fully released other inmates who were found guilty and sentenced to death. Interestingly, however, Governor Ryan, a republican believed wholeheartedly in the death penalty. Governor Ryan’s attitude mirrors the contention of Justice Thurgood Marshall: If people are knowledgeable of the death penalty and its application, then support for the death penalty will wane. If Governor Ryan’s attitude changed toward the death penalty after Marshall’s effect, then it is possible that others will change their attitudes toward the death penalty. This study revisits the Marshall Hypothesis using students at a large, multicultural community college in the southern region of the United States.  Keywords: capital punishment; death penalty; Marshall Hypothesis   

Sudipta Das   Life in a Salad Bowl:  Marriage, Family Life, and Economic Choices in Asian-American Communities in the United States   (p248-272)   

Abstract: This study attempts to isolate its focus on marriage, family, and economic choices among the six largest Asian American groups: Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Asian Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Through available statistical data on the lifestyles of the first-generation Asian American immigrants and on that of their U.S.-raised or U. S. born children as well as from ethnic insight, the study attempts to show how patterns are changing in these particular areas from the past to the present. Marriage and family choices are becoming intertwined with choices of rapid economic advancement in some ethnic groups, which are electing to indulge in behavioral and structural assimilation with the host society for social stability and economic gain. In defining trends characteristically identified as "Asian American," this study also seeks to identify the practices within each ethnic group constituting this collective rubric.  Keywords: Asian; Asian-American; endogamy; paternalism; patriarchy; ethnic marriage; ethnic family life

Peter B. Anderson and William Sorensen   "Drinking more than Normal in order to Make it Easier to Have Sex with Someone":  A race, Gender, Class Analysis of College Students Living On and Off Campus   (p273-287) 

Abstract: In this study the authors focused on the question; how will "drinking more than normal" and subsequent sexual activities fluctuate by the intersections of race, gender, and class? In addition, we were interested in determining how safer sex practices would differ by the intersections of race, gender, and class and how the additional variable of place (living on or off-campus) would interact with the target variables. The results show that even though having sex is the common denominator between the two dependent variables, they represent two different mechanisms to achieve sex and are mediated by different factors. Drinking to have sex is mediated by the interactions of gender, class, race, and age. Having multiple sex partners is mediated primarily by place, and by the intersection of class and age. In our study lower class Black males reported the fewest times drinking in order to have sex and the lowest number of sex partners in the past year compared to other groups. In ancillary analysis, men were more likely than women to drink to have sex with a casual partner and women were more likely than men to drink to have sex with a steady partner regardless of, and controlling for race, class, and age.  Keywords: sex; alcohol; risk; race; gender; class; place  

Volume 12

Race, Gender, and Class in Public policy, Planning, and Administration 
Volume 12, Number 3-4, 2005, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor:  George Amedee  

George Amedee   Introduction to Race, Gender, and Class in Public Policy, Planning, and Administration   (p4-8)

Joan Marshall Wesley, Matthew Dalbey, and William M. Harris   Urban Segregation in the Deep South:  Race, Education, and Planning Ethics in Jackson, Mississippi   (p11-30)

Abstract: Segregation has retrenched itself in Jackson, Mississippi, the largest city in the largest metropolitan area in the State. As a social phenomenon, segregation has survived through tradition, lingering attitudes, public policy in economic and job development, educational decision-making, and land-use changes such as suburbanization and sprawl. This paper explores the historical roots and current status of segregation in the public schools, the city and the metro area. Coming from a posture informed by ethics in planning and public policy, the authors examine efforts by a local grass roots organization and an affirmative education policy, both aimed at reducing segregation in the public schools. Programmatic and creative remedies are offered as possible ways to dismantle racial segregation.  Keywords: planning ethics; planning policy

Rita Henry-Brown and Nycole Campbell-Lewis   Examining Barriers to Career Advancement Among Females of Color in the Federal Career Service   (p31-46)

Abstract: The present study focuses on the glass ceiling phenomenon as it affects the advancement of females of color in the federal career service. Three theories are offered to explain the barriers to career advancement: human capital, sociopsychological, and systemic. Mentoring, job commitment, and geographical mobility variables are discussed as potential barriers to career advancement. Strategies for advancing females of color through the pipeline to upper management levels, policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. Data for this analysis were obtained from the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. The total sample consists of 8,400 randomly selected federal employees in the General Schedule/General Management grades 9 through 11 and the Senior Executive Service.  Keywords: glass ceiling; career advancement

James C. Harvey   Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity for Blacks in Higher Education and the university of Michigan Cases   (p47-55)

Abstract: This paper assesses the status of Affirmative Action in higher education as an equal opportunity tool for bringing African Americans into the mainstream of America. The key cases leading up to the Michigan Case are presented and the significance of these cases in their attempt to achieve diversity. An assessment of the current and future status of Affirmative Action in Higher Education is presented in light of the Michigan case and the reaction to its decision. The subsequent political and legal fallout from the case is discussed with a final determination of the current and future strength of Affirmative Action in higher education.  Keywords: Affirmative action; diversity; plaintiffs; quota system

Tazinski P. Lee   The Myth and Reality of Affirmative Action:  A Study Using the Perceptions of Female Police   (p56-72)

Abstract: In spite of the passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, Title VII provisions and various executive orders prohibiting discrimination in human resource practices, female police officers remain heavily concentrated in the lowest level positions of many police departments in the United States. To date, the only solution for improving the employment status of women in policing has been affirmative action. While affirmative action plans/initiatives have lead to some improvements in female officers’ statuses, additional progress could be made if the plans were strongly enforced by all police departments. This work explores police officers’ perceptions of the impact that affirmative action plans/initiatives have had on the recruitment, hiring, promotion, and retention of female officers. Using convenience sampling, 109 currently employed sworn male and female police officers from the three largest police departments in a rural area of the South were surveyed. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were used to analyze the findings. The data revealed that the number of female police officers in the departments studied was small. The data suggests that there is a lack of enforcement of affirmative action plans/initiatives by each department.  Keywords: Affirmative Action; quotas; glass ceiling; gender discrimination; representative bureaucracy; small town

Ruby Cooper Lipscomb    Child Support Policy Reformation:   A Policy Analysis   (p73-84)

Abtract: This article addresses the quality of the current child support policy because it is vitally important to the nation’s future. A significant number of children is living apart from at least one parent, and therefore is eligible for child support (Children’s Defense Fund, 2003). Based on a review of the literature, an analysis of our nation’s child support system is presented. In addition a proposal for reform is recommended.  Keywords: Child Support; social policy; single- parent families child welfare   

George Amedee  Closing the Transportation Divide:  Linking TANF and Transportation   (p86-106)

Abstract: This paper examines the status of the transportation related problems associated with TANF’s success. The paper draws on findings from previous studies on journey to work and welfare to work guidelines and strategies being employed to address the transportation challenges of TANF recipients. Data collected from a survey of 1,688 TANF recipients as part of the Mississippi TANF Implementation Study, the experiences of Washington State’s Department of Transportation On-the-Job Training and Supportive Services and information collected on funding commitments to this program nationwide are also presented in a discussion of the link between transportation and jobs. A large majority of TANF recipients are largely young minority females with children who lack timely and dependable transportation from central city and rural areas where 2/3 of them reside to suburban areas that are becoming the primary focal point for the growth in employment nationwide. To adequately address the needs of TANF workers, the study found that both rural and urban area services must address transportation problems associated with trip chaining, temporal mismatch, and information gap issues. The study also found that states have responded with a wide range of creative and innovative programs to address job access and reverse commute needs. In spite of proliferation of new transportation strategies, the most serious problems facing TANF recipients that was identified in this study is finding and maintaining decent paying jobs. The ability to maintain work was also identified as a problem. The study recommends the expansion of nontraditional jobs for females in heavy construction and technology jobs under the DOT OJT Program and expansion of funding to ease barriers in transitioning from welfare to work in heavy construction areas. Other recommendations include an increase in funds for job access and reverse commute programs, building day care facilities near employment locations in the suburbs, and opening up housing and public transportation opportunities for low income families in suburban communities.  Keywords: TANF-Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; TEA21- Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century; OJT- On the Job Training

Cynthia P. Honoré-Collins   The Impact of African American Incarceration on African American Children in the Child Welfare System   (p107-118)

Abstract: Over the past decade, much has been written and discussed on the disproportionate number of African Americans in United States social systems. This paper highlights the issue of the increasing numbers of incarcerated African Americans, and the impact that it has on out-of-home placement for African American children. This paper presents literature that explores and describes the history of this trend. Discussion centers on statistics and trends on African American incarceration and out-of-home placement of children with incarcerated parents. Questions for future research are presented and strategies of advocacy, empowerment, and transformation are suggested to address the disproportionate representation of African Americans in the criminal justice and child welfare systems. This paper also discusses the implications of this problem for social workers, policy makers, and social scientist.  Keywords: African Americans; prison; incarceration; child welfare; out-of-home placement; foster care

Joyce Buckner-Brown and Augustine O. Agho    An Examination of U.S. Federally Funded Television Public Service Announcements (PSAs) in Changing AIDS Risk Behaviors in African American Populations   (p120-138)

Abstract: During the period of January 1996 through June 1999, African Americans accounted for 50% of all AIDS diagnoses and 57% of all diagnoses, Using the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change as a conceptual framework, this study examined English language Public Service Announcements (PSAs) disseminated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to determine whether televised broadcasts aimed at general and African American audiences followed a logical sequence from awareness to motivation, skill building, and maintenance. Findings indicated that PSAs provided factual information, but failed to move beyond factual information to presenting messages that promoted, motivated, and reinforced behavior change. There were no statistically significant differences in the variables examined between the PSAs targeting African Americans and those targeting the general population.  Keywords: HIV/AIDS Televised Public Service Announcements; Transtheoretical Model; minority health; health promotion; African Americans; Stages of Behavior Change

Pamela Leong   The African-American Church and the Politics of Difference:  Creating an Oppositional Religious Culture in the Context of HIV/AIDS   (p139-154)

Abstract: This ethnography examines how an African-American congregation in Los Angeles has created an oppositional religious culture in the context of the AIDS pandemic. The congregation is able to address the unique needs of its marginalized members because it engages in a variety of tactics that appear to challenge the status quo. It destabilizes and subverts gender and sexual categories, fosters open dialogue and the disclosure of secrets, affirms and legitimizes differences, reinterprets theology, and openly challenges and resists systems of oppression. As a separatist religious organization, the congregation offers alternative and oppositional religious and social culture, providing familiar and empowering sites for the unique experiences of individuals who are low-income, black, GLBT, and HIV-positive.  Keywords: African-American church; black church; religion; HIV/AIDS; congregational culture; sexuality; GLBT; gender

Carmen M. White   Tourism as an Ethnic Landscape and the Landscape of Ethnic Tourism:  The Case of Fiji   (p155-175)

Abstract: The contemporary organization and content of tourism in Fiji has colonial roots as deep as the oppositional identities of this nation’s two numerically dominant populations—indigenous Fijians and Fiji Indians—configured in national discourse as "comparative reference groups." This article will show how the tourism industry in Fiji has become a site for a type of ethnic tourism where these essentialized identities are expressed both discursively and structurally. The article also provides a historical context for the advent of mass tourism in Fiji, outlining how Fiji tourism emerged in the context of a racially segmented labor market rationalized by a wider colonial order. Colonially constructed notions of racial difference would not only legitimate a hierarchically structured ethnic division of labor in tourism, but would be accommodated, amplified and focalized in tourism discourse. While industry campaigns channel a tourist gaze upon Fijians as the embodiment of noble savagery and redeemed primitivity, the physical presence but discursive erasure of Indians in tourism constitutes its own narrative. Meanwhile, the structural dominance and visual exclusion of the local European elite barely differentiates them from the overseas enterprises that dominate the industry. This article also explores such by-products of Fiji tourism’s colonial origins as Fijian preclusion from local consumption of tourism.  Keywords: ethnic tourism, Fiji; Fijians; noble savagery; South Pacific; tourism discourse

Race, Gender and Class and Poverty:  Causes and Consequences
Volume 12, Number 2, 2005, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor:  Francis O. Adeola

Francis O. Adeola   Introduction. Poverty:  Causes and Consequences   (p3-9)

Katherine A Luther, Deseriee A. Kennedy, and Terri Combs-Orme   Intertwining of Poverty, Gender, and Race:  A Critical Analysis of Welfare News Coverage from 1993-2000   (p10-33)

Abstract: Over the years, welfare has become highly intertwined with ideological beliefs involving gender, race, and poverty. As the nature of welfare transformed to include non-white recipients, the perception of welfare recipients as single "worthy white widows" was replaced by the "lazy African-American breeders." This study examined how television news may have appropriated this negative image in its coverage of the changes in the U.S. welfare system that took place during the 1990s. News stories presented by the major U.S. television networks from 1993 to 2000 were examined. The analysis showed that news stories tended to depict the typical welfare recipient as being female and black, and often depicted the recipient as responsible for her welfare status.  Keywords: welfare, legislation, news, framing.

Karen Christopher   The Poverty Line Forty Years Later:  Alternative Poverty Measures and Women’s Lives   (p34-52)

Abstract: The official U.S. poverty line is the standard measure of economic disadvantage in the U.S. Yet with its multiple shortcomings, this measure underestimates economic hardship. This article uses a multiracial feminist framework to apply alternative poverty measures to women, people of color, and women of color. Compared to the official U.S. poverty measure, alternative poverty measures almost always produce heightened measures of economic disadvantage for these groups. While the official U.S. poverty rate more severely underestimates poverty among White and Latina women, Black women— particularly Black single mothers—live the most deeply in poverty. The article ends with a discussion of policy implications.  Keywords: poverty, gender, race/ethnicity, multiracial feminism.

Francis O. Adeola   Racial and Class Divergence in Public Attitudes and Perceptions about Poverty in USA:  An Empirical Study   (p53-80)

Abstract: This article focuses on differences between Blacks and Whites in attitudes, perceptions, and opinions concerning the roots of poverty in the United States. First, the extent of poverty, its trend, and demographic distributions are presented. Next, individual, cultural, genetic, human capital, and structural theories of poverty are discussed. Hypotheses from these theories are formulated and tested using multiple nationally representative data-sets in tandem with empirical information from the U.S. Census Bureau. The results indicate there is a growing trend in poverty in the United States, especially since 2000, with racial minorities, children, female headed households, and foreign-born segments of the population disproportionately represented among the poor. Poverty remains concentrated in the South than any other region of the country. While Americans in general perceived government spending on the poor as too little, they placed the blame of poverty on the poor themselves. In a multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA) performed, significant differences were found between Blacks and Whites in attributions of poverty with the former identifying structural level failures and the latter indicating personal and psycho-social deficiencies as the roots of poverty. The only hypothesis not supported in the analysis is the IQ hypothesis. A holistic perspective blending both the individual and structural variables are recommended for future research.  Keywords: poverty, PRWORA, human capital, social Darwinism, The Bell Curve, IQ, discriminant analysis, public opinions, race and ethnicity.

Richard C. Caputo   The GED as a Signifier of Later Life Health and Economic Well-Being   (p81-103)

Abstract: Guided by human capital, socialization, and institutionalization theories, this study examined later life health and economic well-being of General Education Development (GED) certificate recipients. Relying on study sample (N=4,848) obtained from the Health and Retirement Study, Early 2002 release, GED recipients were found to have significantly worse later life outcomes than high school graduates on measures of cognition, depression, physical illnesses, and household income and to have significantly better later life outcomes than high school dropouts on measures as depression, independent activities of daily living, and household income. Findings suggest that GED recipients, who are more likely to be poor than conventional high school graduates though less likely than non-credentialed dropouts, should not be lumped together with them and that potential and subsequent GED recipients and high school dropouts should be given special consideration to prevent deleterious outcomes in later life.  Keywords: educational outcomes, economic well-being, GED, health, high school dropouts.

Shirley Rombough and Diane Keithly   Native Americans, The Feudal System, and the Protestant Work Ethic:  A Unique View of the Reservation   (p104-120)

Abstract: Native Americans experience high rates of poverty and lower levels of education and income in comparison to white Americans and other minority groups. This paper traces the history of Native Americans in relation to federal policies which disrupted native culture and created reservations. A review of literature suggests some surprising results. Recent findings point to a growing interest in Native American culture and a growing population on reservations. Reservation life appears to be attractive but perhaps for reasons that are less than apparent. The authors note similarities between the cultural disruption wrought by the rise of the Protestant work ethic and capitalism in feudal Europe and the experiences of Native Americans in relation to larger American culture. Parallels between traditional feudal society and reservation life today are made for the purpose of explaining what continues to keep people living on reservations.  Keywords: Native American, feudal system, capitalism, reservation, minority groups, traditional society

Lynn Fujiwara   Mothers without Citizenship:  Asian Immigrants and Refugees Negotiate Poverty and Hunger in Post-Welfare Reform   (p121-141)

Abstract: This article examines the impact of food stamp cuts for Asian immigrants and refugees through the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Drawing from field work conducted from 1996-1998 in the Bay Area of Northern California in Asian immigrant community organizations allowed for a more nuanced examination of Asian immigrant families negotiating poverty. I argue that the targeting of non-citizens as undeserving of public benefits not only jeopardized human rights to immigrants, it reflects the existing and persistent devaluation of immigrant families who experienced higher levels of hunger and food insecurity due to welfare reform. This focused analysis of the loss of food stamps to immigrant families highlights the intersecting forces of race, gender, class, and citizenship formed through social policy that reinforces the persistence of poverty within immigrant communities. Keywords: immigration, welfare reform, poverty, women, citizenship, Asian immigrants and refugees.

Emily R. Cabaniss and Jill E. Fuller   Ethnicity, Race and Poverty Among Single Women:  Causes and Complications   (p142-162)

Abstract: Poverty is an enduring problem in the United States that remains at the center of many research agendas. While much attention has focused on identifying segments of the population most at risk for experiencing periods of economic deprivation, such as single women, less attention has been devoted to examining the reasons behind greatly differing poverty rates across groups. Among poor women in the United States, some racial and ethnic minority groups suffer considerably more hardship and longer durations of poverty than other groups. Our work strives to synthesize theoretical perspectives toward a more complete explanation for why unmarried women of color are prone to being poor. It suggests a way of conceptualizing the unique impacts of cultural pressures and structural constraints that become amplified as they filter through individual circumstances and compound the effects of poverty for some groups of women. Considered in this work are: culture of poverty and assimilation theories, structural and feminist perspectives, as well as popular and situational explanations for poverty.  Keywords: ethnicity, race, poverty, gender.

Ruby C. Lipscomb   The Challenges of African American Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren with Implications for Research and Program Development   (p163-177)

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to highlight the increasing and important role that grandparents play in raising their grandchildren without the children’s parents present. African American grandparents are disproportionately affected by this trend. The theoretical underpinnings in this article suggest that the African American family is a social system embedded and interwoven with the wider society or macro system. Grandparent caregivers and their grandchildren are viewed as subsystems. The social factors and forces in the wider society that lead to grandparents assuming the primary caregiver role are presented in order to enhance the understanding of their unique challenges. Social service support systems are discussed as well as recommendations for future program development and research.  Keywords: African American, caregiver, gender, grandparents, grandchildren, class, race.

Paul C. Mocombe   Where Did Freire Go Wrong?  Pedagogy in Globalization:  The Grenadian Example   (p178-199)

Abstract: Recent debates in education theory have centered on the poststructural emphasis of the decentered (heterogeneous) subject within the cultural structure of schools. Emphasizing the dialogue, recent pedagogical practices have avowed, between constructed identities within schools, theorists of this poststructural persuasion attempt to demonstrate the resistance posed by constructed identities to integration into the capitalist structural logic of schools. This essay, on the contrary, argues that Paulo Freire’s dialogical pedagogy, as contemporarily practiced in American post-industrial workplaces and schools, speaks to the continual role of education as an instrument that is used to facilitate integration, rather than as a liberating force against the partiality of its capitalist ideological structure. So where did Freire, and by my association poststructural theorists, go wrong? This essay, through a world-systems approach, offers a rereading of Freire’s emphasis on dialogue, as practiced in the American and Grenadian contexts, which not only refutes it in favor of the antidialogical model or the "Banking system," but demonstrates, contrarily to the poststructural emphasis, how dialogical pedagogy is utilized, within existing configuration of post-industrial capitalist power, to foster normalization (i.e., homogenization) amongst diverse "cultural" identities (race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality), rather than to liberate them.  Keywords: pedagogy, Paulo Freire, globalization, world-system.

Quantitative Approaches to Race, Gender, and Class Analysis
Volume 12, Number 1, 2005, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor:  Bart Landry

Bart Landry   Introduction   (p4-10)

Kei M. Nomaguchi   Are There Race and Gender Differences in the Effect of Marital Dissolution on Depression?   (p11-30)

Abstract: In this article, I examine whether there are race and gender differences in the effect of marital dissolution on depression, using panel data of a nationally representative sample of black and white Americans. To examine group differences, two procedures are used, including (1) OLS regression models with interaction terms on the full sample, and (2) t-tests of differences in coefficients for the effect of marital dissolution on depression from separate subgroup regression models. Results suggest that regardless of race, women are more likely than men to increase depression upon becoming separated/divorced, and there are no significant race differences within each gender, and there is no interaction between gender and race. Although black-white differences in gender relations in marriage led to speculations that blacks may differ from whites in gender difference in psychological responses to marital dissolution, results suggest that regardless of race, women are more vulnerable than men to marital dissolution.  Keywords: depression, gender, interactions, marital dissolution, race, gender, class, RGC perspective

Bradford Booth and David R. Segal   Bringing in the Soldiers Back In:  Implications of Inclusion of Military Personnel for Labor Market Research on Race, Class, and Gender   (p34-57) 

Abstract: This paper takes issue with the common methodological practice of excluding military personnel from populations being analyzed on the basis that such persons represent members of an "institutionalized population", not subject to the choices and constraints found within the labor market. This practice represents an ‘institutionalization’ of another sort—the perpetuation of a norm of research design that has its roots in an era when armed forces personnel were conscripted, but that is no longer realistic. We propose an alternative conceptualization, arguing that, because the military represents the nation’s largest employer of African American men, the inclusion of service members in labor market research—particularly on racial inequality—helps our understanding of this area of inquiry. Data from the 1990 U.S. Census are used to test the hypothesis that individual military service is associated with reduced earnings inequality among black and white men employed full time. Findings indicate that, controlling for key individual characteristics including education and potential work experience, racial earnings inequality among men is significantly lower within the military. This suggests that by excluding military personnel from research designs, labor market scholars may be neglecting a factor that bears on our understanding of racial inequality. Military effects on racial inequality among women workers are also examined.  Keywords: race, gender, class, intersectionality, labor markets, inequality, social stratification, military personnel, military sociology

Erika Laine Austin   Women's STD Prevention and Detection practices:  The Specificity of Social Location   (p59-81)

Abstract: Limited research has focused on women’s prevention and detection of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due to the emphasis on the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Existing public health research on women’s sexual health practices treats race/ethnicity and social class as separate explanatory factors, with a focus on the practices of minority and impoverished women. This work uses an intersection approach to problematize the traditional use of race/ethnicity and social class in public health research by creating multiplicative interaction terms to represent the unique social locations created by the intersection of the systems of patriarchy, racism, and capitalist exploitation. Logistic regression models reveal several significant interaction terms, suggesting that race/ethnicity and social class interact in meaningful ways to predict women’s sexual health practices.  Keywords: race, gender, class, intersection theory, women’s health, sexually transmitted diseases

Brett A. Magill   Generalized Expectancies for Control among High-School Students at the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender   (p82-96)

Abstract: The present study examines the effects of race, class, and gender on perceptions of control among high-school students from the perspective of intersection theory. Using a subset of data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 4818) and a four-item measure of internality-externality, attributions of control were examined as they vary by race, class, and gender. Interaction effects were also examined and age was used as a control. Statistically significant but small main effects were found for race, class, and gender with blacks, working-class individuals, and women demonstrating greater externality than whites, individuals of higher class situation, and men. Statistically significant age effects were also noted while no interaction effects were found. It is concluded that racism, patriarchy, and capitalism as systems of power create inequalities in the lives of individuals that diminish the degree to which individuals see themselves in control of their experiences.  Keywords: locus of control, internality, externality, race, gender, class, intersection theory

Jennifer Castro and Bart Landry   Race, Gender, and Class Variation in the Effect of Neighborhood Violence on Adolescent Use of Violence   (p97-120)

Abstract: Over the past few decades, countless youth have been exposed to chronic neighborhood violence, yet few studies have examined the effect of this exposure on adolescents’ own assaultive behavior. Whether and how exposure to neighborhood violence increases the likelihood of adolescent violence has importance to criminological theory and policy. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that the strength of this effect may vary by the race, gender, and class of the adolescent. To date, no known quantitative analyses have examined the effect of neighborhood violence on adolescent use of violence across intersections of race, gender, and class. By conceptualizing neighborhood violence as a source of negative and noxious strain, the present study integrates elements of general strain theory with an intersectionality approach. Using multivariate regressions, we analyze the effect of neighborhood violence on adolescent use of violence across intersections of race, gender, and class—while controlling for other predictors of adolescent violence. We conduct our study using self-report data from 3,214 juveniles interviewed as part of the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (Kilpatrick & Saunders, 1995). Results provide support for intersectional variation in the effects of experiencing and witnessing neighborhood violence on adolescent use of violence.  Keywords: race, gender, class, intersectionality, neighborhood violence, general strain theory

Bart Landry   Notes on Teaching Race, Gender, and Class Methodology to Undergraduates   (p121-124)

Juan Battle, Wanda Alderman-Swain, and Alia R. Tyner   Using an Intersectionality Model to Explain the Educational Outcomes for Black Students in a Variety of Family Configurations   (p126-151)

Abstract: Using a nationally representative sample from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) and a theoretical model of intersectionality, this research examines the longitudinal effects that a variety of single-parent households have on the educational outcomes of Black males and females. We found that: (1) in general, parental configuration in the 8th grade has no impact on educational achievement in the 12th grade or two years after high school; (2) in general, economic capital is more important in predicting educational outcomes than parental configuration; (3) Black male students in divorced households or one-parent households in the 8th grade have better outcomes in 12th grade than do their male counterparts in married or two-parent households; and (4) race, gender, and class are simultaneously intersecting categories in the family experiences and educational achievement processes of Black students.  Keywords: education, family, black, intersectionality, gender, race, class, NELS, students

Danielle Taana Smith   Developing Entrepreneurship among African Americans:  The Effects of Urban Residence   (p152-168)

Abstract: This study examines the impact of urban residence on the likehood of self-employment for African Americans and Whites. Geographic region and urban residence are used as variables that reflect the social and economic development of the community, as more stable and organized communities are expected top offer social networks that are more effective for goal achievement to individuals in those communities. Demographic variable are education, labor force experience, gender, age, marital status and the presence of children in the household. The aim of the study is to aid in the understanding of how African Americans can use entrepreneurship as a means of achieving social and economic parity with main-stream Americans. Data analyzed are from the 1993 through 2000 Current Population Surveys: Annual Individual Level Files (CPS). The research questions are: How does urban residence affect the likehood of self-employment? Do differences exist based on race?  Keywords: African American, Entrepreneurship, Urban Residency

Gail Wallace   American Sociological Association Race, Gender and Class Section Survey Report   (p170-175)

Volume 11

Social Change, criminology, Women of Color in the Academy, Reparations for African Americans, Critical Whiteness Studies, Workfare
Volume 11, Number 4, 2004, ISSN 1082-8354

Jean Ait Belkhir and Christiane Charlemaine   Introduction   (p4-7)

Abigail A. Fuller   What Difference Does Difference Make?  Women, Race-Ethnicity, Social Class   (p8-29)

Abstract: The tendency to universalize the experiences of white, economically privileged women is problematic for several reasons. It ignores the ways that women’s experiences in the workplace; in the family; with reproductive rights; and with violence differ by racial-ethnic group and social class. It is blind to the "gendering of ethnicity" that occurs when stereotypes of women (and men) of color are sexualized. We have a moral obligation to recognize these differences, and we increase the effectiveness of social change efforts on behalf of women when we do so.  Keywords: gender and race-ethnicity, gender and social class, reproductive rights, violence against women, women’s movement

Paul C. Mocombe   Who Makes Race Matter in Post-Industrial Capitalist America?   (p30-47)

Abstract: Since the 1960s, the radical era out of which contemporary understandings of black consciousness as Du Boisian double consciousness (i.e., the so-called adaptive-vitality school) or biculturation (both African and American) emerged, there has been one other school of thought on the matter—that of the pathological-pathogenic school, which argues that in its divergences black American consciousness is nothing more than a pathological form of, and reaction to, American consciousness rather than a dual (both African and American) hegemonic opposing "identity-in-differential" (the term is Gayatri Spivak’s) to the American one. The purpose of this essay is to understand black consciousness by working out the theoretical and methodological problems from which these two divergent paradigms are constructed in order to give a more sociohistorical, rather than biological (i.e., racial), understanding of black consciousness, which, I believe, will better equip us to understand for whom and for what purpose contemporary race matters matter.  Keywords: practical consciousness, identity-in-differential, pathological-pathogenic, adaptive-vitality, structuration

Mary Patrice Erdmans   Looking for Angel:  White Working-Class Women Lost Between Identities   (p48-62)

Abstract: In 2003, Angel and Jim celebrated their 46th wedding anniversary. Married at age 20, Angel had six children and defines herself primarily as a mother, a Catholic, and a wife. She worked outside the home after her children were grown, but her husband’s skilled labor position provided most of the family income. This essay looks at the ways scholars overlook women like Angel, white working-class women who were or are stay-at-home moms. When scholars study white women, the privilege of whiteness or the disadvantage of gender often overshadows class differences. When class is discussed, it is more likely to be the poor class or middle class, with the working class folded into one of these bimodal humps; or working-class women are linked with women of color, while middle class women are myopically white. When the white working-class woman does appear in the literature she often does so as a minority white, that is, as an immigrant or ethnic. And finally, while there are numerous studies of white working-class women in the work place, very few examine the private domestic sphere. In my conclusion, I explore the benefits to finding Angel: 1) focusing attention on the classed society in which we live challenges the myth of meritocracy; 2) understanding the private lives of women at home expands our concept of resistance; and 3) attending to the race-class-gender dynamic of white working-class women requires that we develop more complex understandings of identities that include both privilege and disadvantage.  Keywords: white working class, gender, private sphere

Philip S. S. Howard   White Privilege:  For or Against?  A Discussion of Ostensibly Antiracist Discourses   (p63-79)

Abstract: There has been a recent flurry of ostensibly antiracist work from the newly named domain of Critical Whiteness Studies. Much of this work attempts to undermine white dominance through a focus upon the diversity and uneven privilege within/among those positioned as white. Using a critical anti-racist/anti-colonial discursive framework, this paper offers an analysis and critique of these projects as they play out in key writings of those Critical Whiteness Scholars who would examine "White trash" as the quintessential paradox of whiteness, and those who would "rearticulate whiteness" to include oppositional white identities. The paper argues that these projects, despite their intentions, are fundamentally flawed through a particular understanding of (anti) essentialism, and may actually further (the normalization of) white privilege.  Keywords: antiracism, critical whiteness studies, essentialism, white privilege

Gregg Barak   Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice:  Ways of Seeing Difference   (p80-97)

Abstract: This article/essay was originally derived as a symposium speech or presentation at the Second Annual Conference on Race, Gender, and Class Project held on October 20, 2000 in the city of New Orleans. The purpose of this communication was/is to share with non-criminologists the ways in which criminologists and other students of crime and justice approach the study of the relations between class, race, and gender as well as the influences or impact that these may have on the formation, enforcement, and application of criminal justice and the administration of criminal law. In the process of exposing the inequalities of crime, culture, and production, four criminological approaches to the study of class, race,, and gender are identified.  Keywords: class, criminal justice, criminology, gender, and race

Alvin Mitchell   Determinants of safety in Urban and Suburban Areas   (p98-111)

Abstract: This study examines the determinants of safety. More specifically, this study examines the impact that both fear of crime and racism in citizens’ feelings of safety within urban and suburban areas. Before addressing the determinants of safety, I examined two critical factors that shape public perceptions of safety: 1) the media role in exacerbating the public’s innate fear of crime and 2) the influence of politicians in generating the public’s fear for their own safety. I argue that these two factors are intertwined and contribute to citizens’ fear of crime, which leads to racism. Therefore, I am hypothesizing that racism is a stronger determinant of feelings of safety in the suburbs than urban cities because suburbanites are more likely to equate crime with a negative stereotype. In this paper I test this possibility with data from the 1996 Quality of Life survey conducted by the University of New Orleans and find that perceptions of crime and racism do affect feelings of safety.  Keywords: racism, symbollic racism, crime, determinants, safety

Ed. A. Muñoz, Barbara J. McMorris, and Matt J. DeLisi   Misdemeanor Criminal Justice:  Conceptualizing Effects of Latino Ethnicity, Gender, and Immigrant Status   (p112-134)

Abstract: Contemporary sentencing research has de-emphasized analyses of misdemeanor sentencing decisions, precluding discussion on the implications misdemeanor convictions may have on other aspects of criminal justice. In this study, bivariate and multivariate statistical strategies are employed to examine the independent and interactive effects of Latino ethnicity and immigrant status for males and females on over 8,000 misdemeanor cases filed during 1992 in three Nebraska non-metropolitan counties. Latinos/as, in comparison to their White counterparts, were more likely to be charged with a greater number of more serious misdemeanors other than simple traffic violations. This resulted in harsher punishment for Latinos, but not for Latinas. Interactive effects again demonstrate the need for more theoretical and methodological rigor in the examination of race/ethnicity in criminal justice decision-making as significant differences were found between non-immigrant and immigrant Latinos/as. Findings suggest that increased attention to the enforcement and adjudication of misdemeanor criminal codes may prove fruitful towards reducing the disproportionate incarceration of non-White racial/ethnic minorities.  Keywords: misdemeanor sentencing, Latino, Mexican, immigrant, discrimination

Maria Balderrama, Mary Thierry Texeira, and Elsa Valdez   Una Lucha de Fronteras (A Struggle of Borders):  Women of Color in the Academy   (p135-154)

Abstract: The "lived contradictions" of female faculty of color is the focus of this paper. Quantitative data paint the picture of the existing institutional inequities (salary, tenure/promotion quality of life) that place and keep women of color in economic and scholarly ghettos. One African American woman scholar and two Chicana scholars describe their experiences of struggle and survival as they cross the border into higher education while maintaining their commitment to social justice that is at the core of their scholarly work and practice. Scholars such as Bowles & Gintis and Albert Memmi ground this piece by suggesting that differential treatment along race, class and gender is systemic and part of the historical ideology of academia with the U.S. We end with practical implications for practicing and maintaining the hope of humanizing academe.  Keywords: race, feminism, academe

Paul Douglas Mahaffey   The Adolescent Complexities of race, Gender, and Class in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye   (p155-165)

Abstract: The examination argues that out of Toni Morrison’s first three novels The Bluest Eye, Sula, and Song of Solomon, The Bluest Eye is the most qualified as a work of adolescent literature that discusses how race, gender and class affects the young, black female despite its "adult" content. Pecola Breedlove seeks a nurturing relationship in an adult world of white, assimilationist attitudes but only finds rejection and misery because of her particular racial, gender and class status. This rejection ultimately silences Pecola, destroys her state of child-like innocence (accentuated by her passionate desire for blue eyes), and forces her into the harsh realities of the adult world while retaining the mental thoughts of a child. The examination uses specific moments from the text that highlight race, gender and class attitudes from various adults to demonstrate that the path to adulthood for the adolescent is especially treacherous for the young, black female. Although Morrison’s work is one dealing with the tragic circumstances in a adolescent females life that severely scars her for the rest of her life, The Bluest Eye also contains the story of the young black female Claudia and her sister Freida who are able to overcome the oppressive attitudes of the adult world and find their own subjective voices. Claudia’s voice is the one that implicates not only the adult community but also her and her sister in Pecola’s mental destruction. This presentation of a young person’s life argues for The Bluest Eye’s inclusion on an adolescent reading list.  Keywords: race, gender, class, adolescent, literature, adolescent development, intra-racism, assimilation

Sarita Davis   The Politics of Prayer, pantyhose and Friends in High Places:  A Black Womanist Perspective on Workfare   (p166-183)

Abstract: Structurally unemployed Black women represent one of the largest subgroups participating in Welfare-to-Work. As these programs put increasing emphasis on the single outcome of participants post program earnings, less attention is given to the Job Search process. The Job Search process is arguably the most critical step between Training and Employment. While the content of training rests in the hands of the instructors (i.e. labor market analysts and job coaches), the Job Search process literally goes uninformed by it's local body of experts, the Job Seekers themselves. The purpose of this paper is to propose an applied model of Job Search gleaned based on the practices, experiences, and strategies of the most economically, politically and socially marginalized stakeholders, in this case Black female Job Seekers. While this is a pilot attempt, much can be gained by centering Workfare, Employment Training and Job Search in the lived experience of its more challenged participants, more grounded and realistic program practices, policies, and outcomes can be developed.  Keywords: Job Search, Black womanist perspective, Workfare, Welfare-to Work, concept mapping

Judy Aulette, Sean Langley, and Albert Aulette   Finding Strategies for Winning Reparations for African Americans   (p184-199)

Abstract: Slavery and Jim Crow fit the international definition of crimes against humanity justifying reparations be paid to African Americans by the private businesses and U.S. government that benefited directly from these crimes. But the movement faces an uphill battle in winning public support. This research surveys student opinions of reparations with the intention of determining ways to best build that support. We found that race, gender, knowledge about reparations, and the belief that racism persists all affect opinions of whether the U.S. government or private institutions should pay reparations to African Americans. We conclude that organizers should build on their strengths by drawing on African Americans and women for support. We also suggest that unlike other successful bids for reparations from groups like Japanese Americans and Holocaust survivors, African Americans will have to convince the public that the crimes against humanity are not just in the past but persist today.  Keywords: reparation, African Americans, slavery, Civil right movement

Race, Gender, and Class in Education (Part III)
Volume 11, Number 3, 2004, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor:  Phyllis L. Baker

Phyllis L. Baker   Introduction   (p3-6)   

Elaine R. Cleeton and Glenda A. Gross   Linking teaching and Diversity in a Public Liberal Arts College:  Students Describe lecture, Discussion, and race in the Classroom   (p7-18)

Abstract: In this study we examine white student classroom experiences of learning and diversity at predominantly white (92%) Public Liberal Arts College (PLAC). PLAC is committed to offering its students a collaborative learning experience valuing diversity. Forty-eight semi-structured student interviews were designed and conducted by fourth-year sociology majors with students representing all academic disciplines and racial groups enrolled at the college. Analysis of the interviews conducted with 35 white students found the subjects reported racial diversity to be unrelated to their college education, lecture-test pedagogy to be the best way to teach and the most difficult way to learn, participation in class discussions to be difficult, and the presence of students of color in the classroom to make discussions of race difficult, if not impossible. We argue that to make diversity part of the college experience, PLAC must encourage professors to work collaboratively with students, developing students’ interactive skills, in order to undertake dialogues about segregation and racism in the U.S.  Keywords: teaching; learning; critical, collaborative, feminist pedagogy; discussion; race; identity; liberal arts; white college students

J. Bruce Burke and Michelle Johnston   Students at the Margin:  Searching for American Dream in higher Education   (p-19-35)

Abstract: The American dream of higher education as a road to a better life for everyone is often denied to a substantial portion of the population. Our estimate is that up to 33% of American students are minority students who experience marginalization in the low expectations the teaching profession has for their success in education. This article is written by two professional teacher educators and university administrators who have been struggling with the issues of marginalization throughout their careers. In our analysis, structural change, social change and economic changes are required to forge educational reforms creating an academic culture more sensitive and supportive of minority students. Underneath reform efforts, we find the struggle between individual and corporate responsibility that has characterized the American dilemma. Neither blaming the victim nor rugged self-reliance will create the social capital needed for restructuring American education. We draw on some of the stories of our own successes and failures in educational reform. Throughout the discussion, we embrace a deeply felt hope for achieving a fair and just educational system for all Americans.  Keywords:  marginalization; educational reform; changing institutions by restructuring

Gillian S. Richardson, Diana Lawrence-Brown, and Susan Mary Paige   Rejecting Pygmalion:  The Social and Cultural Capital of Working-Class Women Ph.D. Students   (p36-53)

Abstract: In this work the quthors analyze the strengths and tensions associated with working-class status in terms of negociating the academy. They utilize autobiographical methods drawing from their personal and family histories, framed in social, cultural, and educational contexts. The findings on the influence fo social and cultural capital fall into the following categories: 1) The emergence of class consciousness; 2) Educational experiences and aspirations; 3) Reconciliations of working-class and academic identities.  Keywords:  social class; working-class; social capital; cultural capital; academics

Kamini Maraj Grahame   Contesting Diversity in the Academy:  Resistance to Women of Color teaching race, Class, and Gender   (p54-73)

Abstract: This paper analyses the experiences of women of color faculty in the women’s college unit of a university as it sought to diversify its faculty, staff, student body, and curricula. The predominantly white student body resisted the presence of these women and their efforts to teach curricula on race, class, and gender. In addition to student resistance, these women encountered obstacles associated with hiring, promotion, workload, colleagues’ perceptions, and their overall position within a gendered and racialized social order. The paper proposes that even well intentioned institutions must engage in more radical efforts at transformation, closely scrutinizing and addressing their own structural practices of resistance, and exercising vigilance to safeguard inclusive curricula in the current climate of assault on diversity.  Keywords:  institutional ethnography; diversity; resistance; higher education; women of color

Sandra J. Jones   A Place Where I Belong:  Working-Class Women's Pursuit of Higher Education   (p74-93)

Abstract: This paper examines the meaning of education for a specific group of working-class women. Education is often considered a way out of the working class and into higher status professions. However, a relatively small percent of women move up to such a degree. As a way to explore the experience of mobility and the ways in which class informs women’s subjectivities, with particular attention to gender and race/ethnicity, I interviewed ten women professors from the working class. Inductive analysis revealed a distinct orientation to education informed by the particularities of participants’ working-class backgrounds. Higher education was perceived as "a way out" and "a place where I belong." Participants were drawn to higher education, not only as a way out of oppressive conditions, but by a desire for intellectual work. This paper examines a subset of findings related to critical moments of awareness and concludes with implications for higher education and future research.  Keywords:  social class; working class; women; education; mobility  

Donnell Butler   When Race matters:  The Influence of Sex and Socioeconomic Status on Perceived racial and Ethnic Variation in College Enrollment   (p94-111)

Abstract: Existing conclusions regarding racial variation in college enrollment implicitly assume that sex and socioeconomic status have similar effects on college enrollment across racial groups. Using data from the 1988 through 1994 surveys of the National Education Longitudinal Study, the author departs from these assumptions and finds that sex, socioeconomic status, and their interaction have different effects on college entry depending on a student's ethno-racial background. Moreover, the analyses reveal that while Asians are able to overcome certain obstacles known to deter college enrollment, Blacks are unable to reap the benefits of resources typically associated with college enrollment.  Keywords:  education; college; college enrollment; race, ethnicity; sex; gender; socioeconomic status; class

Richard K. Caputo   Professional studies vs. Liberal Arts & Sciences:  Family background, Head Start Participation, and High School Curriculum as Predictors of College Major   (p112-126)

Abstract: Many studies have examined differences by sex and race/ethnicity in the choice of college major within the arts, sciences, and engineering fields. In this paper, data on choice of major, participation in Head Start, and high school curriculum are used to examine the extent to which observed differences by sex and race/ethnicity reflect the effects of distal and proximate pre-collegiate preparation (as reflected respectively in pre-k and high school educational experiences), controlling for family background and other factors. One conclusion is that white and black women are more likely than white men to major in professional studies. The paper discusses positive and negative implications of the findings, especially in regard to greater gains by women in male dominated professions and the loss of academically oriented female students from such fields of study as liberal arts and education.  Keywords:  college prep curricula; Head Start; liberal arts; professional studies; science majors

Douglas R. Hotek and Phyllis L. Baker   Tomorrow's Industrial Workers:  A Career and technical Skills Assessment of recent Mexican Immigrants in Rural Iowa   (P127-139)

Abstract: This paper contributes to literature on race, gender, and class in higher and postsecondary education primarily through an analysis of survey data on the skills of recent Mexican immigrants in a small town in Iowa. These data are supplemented with qualitative data on the immigrants’ commitment to family, work, and Iowa. We found that, contrary to general sentiment, at least half of the recent Mexican immigrants in Marshalltown, Iowa have substantial aptitude to develop vital industrial skills needed by the community to maintain its economic vitality. We recommend the use of an innovative skills training program that applies bilingual, modular, and multi-media instructional technologies. We argue that an understanding of race, class, and gendered oppressions coupled with research from social scientists and industrial technologists can be powerful and effective in working toward improving the lives of marginalized persons, particularly those who lack in career, technical, and English language skills.  Keywords:  immigration; Mexico; post secondary; training; skills; industry; Iowa

George Ansalone   Educational Opportunity and Access to Knowledge:  Tracking in the US and Japan   (p140-152)

Abstract: Tracking or the separation of students by ability and curricula, has been the topic of a contentious debate in the United States which has spanned the greater part of the last century. Proponents of tracking view it as a means of increasing societal efficiency by contributing to the proper selection and channeling of national resources. They also point to the increased academic achievement, which they contend is produced by the tracking. On the other hand, opponents argue that this structure contributes to social and cultural reproduction in society by enabling race, gender and class to determine who learns "what" and "how." Additionally, they assert that tracking denies lower track students, who are predominantly economically disadvantaged, the equal educational opportunity and access to knowledge that is required for academic and career success. This article attempts to shed light on the debate by providing a cross-cultural perspective. It examines student outcomes from elementary schools in Japan, where tracking is rarely practiced, to those in the US, where tracking is pervasive. Hopefully, this comparative approach will help us to assess the full impact of this educational structure.  Keywords:  tracking;  ability grouping

Paul E. Green   A Comparative Examination of Historically Disadvantaged Institutions in the Republic of South Africa and Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the Unites States   (p153-176)

Abstract: The "mis-education" or "schooling" of a traditionally marginalized group of people is a circumstance shared by the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Traditions of separate and unequal education resulted in vast disparities between academic achievement and proficiency rates in both countries resulting in constrained economic, educational and community development. While their histories of legalized apartheid were distinct, laws, policies and practices legitimized separate educational institutions, namely Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs-US) and Historically Disadvantaged Institutions (HDIs-RSA) which served the educational needs of its citizens for well over a century. Decades of inadequate funding of lower and postsecondary institutions in the Republic of South Africa and the United States have forestalled educational access and opportunities now vital to the economic progress and growth of these nations. What role will institutions of learning (universities, elementary and secondary schools) play in a desegregated South Africa’s system of employment, public accommodations and education? Can the ethnic universities in South Africa learn from the experiences of HBCUs in the United States? Moreover, can the history of HBCUs and the struggle of African Americans for equal access and equal educational opportunity provide a model for HDIs in South Africa?  Keywords:  higher education; education access/opportunity; equality; equity; marginalization; South Africa; United States; Historically Disadvantaged Institutions; Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Race, Gender and Class in Media
Volume 11, Number 2, 2004, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor: Cecelia Baldwin

Cecelia Baldwin   Preface   (p5)

Jean Ait Belkhir   Introduction   (p6-8)

Guy Berger   Problematizing Race for Journalists: Critical Reflections on the South African Human Rights Commission Inquiry into Media Racism   (p11-35)

Abstract:  How journalists report race and racism was at the center of the South Africa's Human Rights Commission Inquiry into racism in the media. A critical analysis of the conceptual assumptions in the Inquiry’s Final Report, however, reveals serious limitations to the enterprise. In particular, the flawed conceptualizations plus the generalized character of the findings are of little help in assisting the momentum of eradicating racism in South African media, and for linking race transformation to issues of class, gender, sexual orientation and xenophobia. This article identifies the problems as a race essentialism and a racism relativism, and argues instead that journalists need the concept of racialization in order to change their reporting. The argument upholds the desired role of the South African media as one that contributes to a non-racial, as opposed to a multi-racial, society.  Keywords: race, racism, apartheid, media, journalism, human rights, inquiry.

Michael Welch, Eric Price, and Nana Yankey   Youth Violence and Race in the Media: The Emergence of "Wilding" as an Invention of the Press   (p36-48)

Abstract:  In addition to reinforcing racial stereotypes while reporting incidents of crime, the media also resorts to sensationalism whereby it invents new forms of menace. To illuminate the significance of inventions in newsmaking, we embarked on a content analysis of youth violence and race in print journalism. Specifically, we attended to the emergence of "wilding" in the New York City press beginning in 1989 when the term first appeared to describe the rape and assault of the Central Park jogger. Our study tracked the use of the term in four New York City newspapers through 1998 from which we expose elements of racism deeply imbedded in prevailing criminal stereotypes. As a term stylized by the media, "wilding" is explored further in the context of moral panic and the putative threat of social and economic disorder.  Keywords: moral panic, content analysis, race, youth violence.

Lillie M. Fears Differing Reactions to Female Role Portrayals in News Editorial Photographs (p59-77)

Abstract:  This study examines general perceptual stereotyping of black and white women when they are exposed to news editorial photographs featuring black and white women. Results suggest that black women do, indeed, perceive black and white women in photos differently than do white women. In addition, factor analyses revealed that the images of black women in the sample tended to cluster around four image types (factors)—the leader, the upstanding woman, the charmer, and the careerist. These findings are important in that they extend previous gender portrayal studies which typically have resulted in categories for stereotypes, such as the dumb blonde, that have been applicable only in prescribing the social and familial roles of white, urban, middle class women.  Keywords: women, female, African American, black, stereotype, portrayal, image, perception, photograph, reaction, visual.

Lucy Ganje and Lynda Kenney   Come Hell and High Water. Newspaper photographs, Minority communities & the Great Grand Forks flood   (p78-89)

Abstract:  Images of the 1997 flood in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and East Grand Forks, Minnesota, grabbed the nation’s attention. Thousands of people were displaced and millions of dollars in property damage incurred. The cities’ daily newspaper, the Grand Forks Herald, documented the disaster in spite of the loss of its own facilities and the homes of many staff members. The newspaper was ultimately awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for this coverage. This article examines the newspaper’s photographic representation of the area’s minority community over a two-month period immediately before, during and after the flood. It reviews the impact of media coverage during a disaster and discusses media responsibility in the portrayal of diverse communities during times of crisis.  Keywords: content analysis, community diversity, disaster, newspaper photographs, photographic representation, media responsibility.

Jane Caputi and Lauri Sagle   Femme Noire: Dangerous Women of Color in Popular Film and Television   (p90-111)

Abstract:  A number of critical works address the sexual politics of dangerous women in popular films: "monstrous feminine" horror or science fiction imagery and violent, predatory femme fatale types in the film noir. Yet all too these deal inadequately if at all with racial significations. Despite even the linguistic commonplace that horrors is "dark" and femmes fatales and the films they appear in are noir, many theorists neglect critiquing representations of dangerous, monstrous and violent women of color. Yet much of the standard imagery associated with the white femme fatale actually is rooted in colonialist and racist projections. The very characteristics that make the white woman "bad" or "noir" are those qualities that according to a racist/sexist viewpoint are especially endemic in women of color: primitive emotions and lusts, violence, sexual aggression, masculinity, lesbian tendencies, promiscuity, duplicity, treachery, contaminating corruption, sovereignty, and so on We provide some analysis of the racial politics of femme fatale imagery and offer textual readings of several narratives grouped around three types of femme noire: the Virgin/Cannibal, Dragon/Lady and Queen/Bitch. Femme noire stereotypes are often read as confirming women’s base inferiority, immorality and monstrosity and can inspired hatred, scapegoating, and retaliation. Yet, many viewers resist these conventions, identify with the defiance and energy of these "bad" women, and elaborate conventional stories from the perspectives of the "other."  Keywords: femme fatale, film, women of color.

Kiesha Warren, Mark Orbe, and Chad Kimmel   Experiencing Difference: Theoretical Analysis of Interracial Conflict   (p112-129)

Abstract:  At the heart of this study is the question "how do different cultural groups view conflict?" Our analysis has established that a pattern does exist between African-American men and women, and non-African-American men and women. We use the "different eyes/ lenses" thesis in order to theoretically and sociologically understand the "differences" in interpretation that exist between the two groups in regard to interracial conflict.  Keywords: race, gender, conflict, intercultural conflict, reality television.

Ebony M. Roberts   Through the Eyes of a Child: Representations of Blackness in Children's Television Programming   (p130-139)

Abstract:  Images of Black people and culture are generally negative or nonexistent in children’s television programming. Past research suggests that such images can distort a child’s self-image and damage his or her developing self-concept. Using content analysis, this paper examines the potential influence of two popular children’s programs, Sesame Street and Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, on the impressionable minds of Black children. It is argued that popular culture representations of Black people and culture in children’s television programming have a potentially negative influence on Black children’s developing self-concept.  Keywords: Black children, self-concept, children’s television programming, Sesame Street, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers.

Shiela Reaves, Jacqueline Bush Hitchon, Sung-Yeon Park, and Gi Woong Yun   "You Can Never Be Too Thin" - or Can You?: A Pilot Study on The Effects of Digital Manipulation of Fashion Models' Body Size, Leg Length and Skin Color   (p140-155)

Abstract:  This pilot study examines whether awareness of the digital manipulation of photographs may mitigate the effects of "the thin ideal" in fashion magazines. Digital manipulations of four fashion photographs altered models' body shape, skin color and leg length. Subjects were exposed to both original and manipulated versions. Focus group discussion and individual surveys suggest that whereas women find thin models with dark skin (whether Caucasian or African American) attractive, they prefer authentic, unretouched images in advertisements. In addition, a questionnaire measured the erosion of body dissatisfaction and found that female subjects were significantly happier with their bodies once they had seen both the thin and restored images side by side, and thereby recognized the impact of digital manipulation. They were also more likely to protest the practice of digital editing in magazines to editors and advertisers. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of enhanced media literacy as an antidote to magazine editorial policy that favors artistic freedom over truth in digital editing.  Keywords: ethics of digital manipulation, thin ideal, eating disorders.

Chia-When Chi and Cecelia Baldwin   Gender and Class Stereotypes:  A Comparison of U.S. and Taiwanese Magazine Advertisements   (p156-175)

Abstract:  Female portrayals in print advertisements were compared and contrasted in the United States and Taiwan. Gender stereotypes in the media remain consistent even decades after the women's movement began in the 1960s and the 1970s in both countries. Culture plays a crucial role in the production of stereotypical portrayals in different countries during different stages of the social progress.  Keywords: communication, mass communication, advertising, gender, sexist portrayals.

Race, Gender, Class and the 1992 L.A. "Riots"
Volume 11, Number 1, 2004, ISSN 1082-8354

Jane L. Twomey   Introduction   (p3-5)

Austin Long-Scott   Understanding Race, Class and Urban Violence: Why Journalists Can’t Do More to Help Us Understand   (p6-22)

Abstract:  This essay from a long-time race relations and social issues reporter explores the cultural, structural, organizational and ideological forces that make it difficult for journalists to be insightful when covering urban violence involving issues of race and class.  Keywords: riot, journalism, class, race, gender, popular culture, Kerner Commission, Hutchins Commission.

William S. Solomon   Images of Rebellion:  News Coverage of Rodney King   (p23-38)

Abstract:  This research studies the social construction of race and class, by the mainstream U.S. news media, in their coverage of the Los Angeles police beating of Rodney King. It examines all of the news reports in The New York Times and The Washington Post, from the date of the beating, March 3, 1991, to the verdict in the first trial of King’s assailants, April 29, 1992. It finds that a dominant news frame articulated the parameters of acceptable thought — that the beating was neither an aberration nor a reflection of deep-seated societal codes of racism, but instead a problem of a troubling pattern within the Los Angeles Police Department. Subsequently the news frame shifted to a more conservative outlook, by reporting favorably on the assailants’ lawyers’ portrayal of King as a symbol of a savage wilderness whose residents the authorities must control, for the common good.  Keywords: news, hegemony, racism, social class.

Jeffrey D. Brand   Assurances from the Pulpits:  The Churches of Los Angeles Respond  to the 1992 riot  (p39-55)

Abstract:  In the aftermath of the 1992 riots in Los Angeles, churches played an important role in guiding and assisting recovery efforts. The local and national press noted the efforts of religious leaders and reprinted portions of their messages to congregations and to the public at large. This study explores the texts of sermons preached to congregations on the Sunday following the riots. The goals of this study are to evaluate how religious leaders responded to this crisis and how they promoted an active role for their congregations in the recovery process. This study reveals some of the potential influences that religious leadership may have in times of crisis and the messages appropriate for such situations.  Keywords: rhetoric, epideictic, sermon, religion, crisis

Bill Yousman   "Can We All Get Along?"  The Los Angeles Uprising, Classical Theories of Social Psychology and Dialectics of Individual Action and Structural Inequality    (p56-74)

Abstract:  This essay reviews and critiques three classic theoretical perspectives in social psychology in order to achieve a dialectical understanding of both the individual and societal factors that were central to the police beating of Rodney King and the subsequent Los Angeles uprising of 1992. The argument is made that a properly dialectical approach allows observers to include both individual processes and socially motivated factors and influences when attempting to analyze real world phenomena.  Keywords: deindividuation, scapegoating, realistic group, conflict, social identity theory.

Jane L. Twomey   Searching for a Legacy: The Los Angeles Times, Collective Memory and the 10th Anniversary of the LA "Riots"  (p75-93)

Abstract:  How is the 1992 Los Angeles urban unrest remembered 10 years later? What is the role of the media in shaping and preserving a community’s collective memory of the events? In an attempt to investigate these questions, this study examines the Los Angeles Times’ role in public memory of the riots by examining the newspaper’s 10th anniversary commemorative series "Legacy of the Riots: 1992-2002." Drawing upon the literature on collective memory and journalism, this study finds that the Los Angeles Times negotiated collective memory of the events and used this negotiated memory to contextualize and explain conditions in the city 10 years after the riots. The study suggests that further research should focus on the ability of media to frame memory, and what the implications of that framing might be.  Keywords: collective memory, framing, hegemony, 192 Los Angeles riot, Los Angeles Times

James Spencer   Los Angeles Since 1992:  How did the Economic Base of Riot-Torn Neighborhoods Fare After  Unrest     (94-115)

Abstract:  This article first reviews the literature on the Los Angeles riots of 1992 and identifies the lack of empirical work on neighborhood economic inequality as a gap in the literature. Using recently released Zipcode-level economic data from the US Census Bureau it then estimates the density and per capita levels of manufacturing, retail and service jobs in riot areas prior to and after 1992. A comparison of these levels with the levels for the Los Angeles region as a whole and with the poor areas of Los Angeles County that did not experience rioting suggests that the relative position of the riot neighborhoods to the region is the same today as it was prior to the riots. Moreover, the comparisons suggest that the job base of both the riot neighborhoods and the other poor neighborhoods has lagged behind the region since the early 1990s at the same time that socio-economic characteristics have also worsened.  Keywords: Los Angeles riots, spatially, concentrated poverty, neighborhoods, economic base, public policy.

Max Herman   Ten Years After: A Critical Review of Scholarship on the Los Angeles Riot   (p116-135)

Abstract: Among the diverse assortment of journal articles and book chapters written shortly after the events of April 28 to May 2 1992 of Los Angeles, a pattern clearly emerges; a division among those who purported to study the "riots" in an "objective" empirical manner proclaimed by the positivist social science tradition, those who saw the "rebellion" as a means of investigating issues of ethnic identity, competition and cooperation, and those who utilized the "uprising" to address inequalities of power in the larger society. The former, whom I loosely refer to as positivists, relied on statistical analyses of "official data" to express the underlying logic of "urban unrest" or "civil disorder." The second camp, which I label "multiculturalists," employed ethnographic methods to examine the underlying motivations of various ethnic group members who acted as participants and/or victims during the "rebellion." The third and final group, whom I refer to as postmodernists, were mostly concerned with representing the voices of those at the margins of society, took a skeptical stance toward "official" sources, and treated the trial of LAPD officers and the subsequent riot as texts to be analyzed from the multiple perspectives of differently situated actors. They saw the "uprising" as indicative of race, class and gender oppression at the local, national, and global level.  Keywords: riots, sociological theory

Tiffany Dyan Kuniko Monroy and Daniel J. Meyers    Fanning the Flames?  Riot Commissions and the Mass media   (p136-157)

Abstract: When outbreaks of civil violence occur, the mass media are often criticized for their coverage of the events and how it may contribute to inflaming conflict. These criticisms are sometimes concretized in the reports of governmental commissions, like the Kerner Commission, that are appointed to study the violent outbreaks and make recommendations about how to avoid rioting in the future. It is unclear, however, if the critiques of the mass media lead to any change in the media's approach to reporting unrest in the future. This study takes as its starting point the recommendations made by two riot commissions in the 1960s and then examines later riot coverage (following the Miami Arthur McDuffie killing and the Los Angeles Rodney King case) to determine to what extent later media behavior reflects the commissions' recommendations. The results indicate, among other things, a relatively low incidence of scare headlines and rumors, but more substantial problems related to racial portrayals of aggressors and the representation of social actors' perspectives in the articles.  Keywords: mass media, riots, Rodney King, Arthur McDuffie, Kerner Commission.

Shannon Campbell, Phil Chidester, Jamel Bell and Jason Royer   Remote Control:  How Mass Media Delegitimize Rioting as Social Protest   (p158-176)

Abstract: This study investigates newspaper coverage of contemporary riots. An analysis of the Los Angeles riots of 1992 and the Cincinnati riots of 2001 demonstrates the media's role in situating riotous activity within very specific frames. The authors contend that newspaper coverage of recent riots represents a shift in the way media frame rioting. Race riots of the 1960s are often linked to and situated within the social protest frame by media (the authors contend that a great difference exists between the Civil Rights Movement and the race riot). Contemporary riots like those in Los Angeles and Cincinnati are most often framed as ineffective, illogical protests against established order, and not as mechanisms for progressive social change.  Keywords:  riot, race, police, brutality, newspaper, mass media.

Volume 10

Privilege and Race, Gender, and Class
Volume 10, Number 4, 2003, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editors:  Abby L. Ferber and Dena R. Samuels 

Abby L. Ferber and Dena R. Samuels   Introduction to RGC's special edition on Privilege    (p3-4)

Dena R. Samuels, Abby L. Ferber and Andrea O'Reilly Herrera   Introducing the Concepts of Oppression & Privilege into the Classroom    (p5-21)

Abstract:  Traditionally, inequality has been explored and taught from the perspective of those who are the victims of oppression. More recently, however, race, gender and class theorists have focused on the multiple levels of oppression that impact people’s lives, and how each is connected to a corresponding system of privilege and domination. This article argues for the importance of incorporating the concepts of both oppression and privilege into the curriculum; provides a series of suggested activities, which will assist instructors in introducing these topics into their classrooms; and explores some of the many challenges facing instructors addressing race, gender and class in the classroom. We argue that bringing privilege into the discussion can potentially minimize student resistance, and open up new space for social change.  Keywords: race, gender, diversity, privilege, oppression, teaching about privilege, student resistance.

Charles A. Gallagher   Color-Blind Privilege:  The Social and Political Functions of Erasing the Color Line in Post Race America   (p22-37)

Abstract:  This paper examines the social and political functions colorblindness serves for whites in the United States. Drawing on interviews and focus groups with whites from around the country I argue that colorblindness maintains white privilege by negating racial inequality. Embracing a post-race, colorblind perspective allows whites to imagine that being white or black or brown has no bearing on an individual’s or a group’s relative place in the socio-economic hierarchy. Starting with the deeply held belief that America is now a meritocracy, whites are able to imagine that the material success they enjoy relative to racial minorities is a function only of individual hard work, determination, thrift and investments in education. The color-blind perspective removes from personal thought and public discussion any taint or suggestion of white supremacy or white guilt while legitimating the existing social, political and economic arrangements which privilege whites. This perspective insinuates that class and culture, and not institutional racism, are responsible for social inequality. Colorblindness allows many whites to define themselves as politically progressive and racially tolerant as they proclaim their adherence to a belief system that does not see or judge individuals by the "color of their skin."  Keywords: race relations, colorblindness, white identity, white privilege.

Steven D. Farough   Structural Aporia & White Masculinities:  White Men Respond to the White Male Privilege Critique    (p38-53)

Abstract:   argue that in order to comprehend how social power operates in everyday life and identity formation, one must understand how the material effects of language are crucial to this process. To demonstrate this, I use the poststructuralist theoretical concept "structural aporia" to analyze how white men’s reactions to critical discourses on white masculine privilege are arranged through the logical structure of discourse itself. Structural aporia refers to a logical impasse produced within the regulatory effects of discourse. The use of structural aporia will help demonstrate both how the structure of discourse produces confusion and contradictions within the narratives of white men as they address the white male privilege critique, and how racialized, gender, and economic power operate at the level of identity formation.  Keywords: poststructuralism, white masculinity, racial identity, power, white male privilege.

Mary Bernstein, Constance Kostelac and Emily Gaarder   (p54-74)

Understanding "Heterosexism" Applying Theories of Racial Prejudice to Homophobia using Data from a Southwestern Police Department

Abstract: This paper proposes an "institutional matrix" (IM) model as a sociological way to understand heterosexism. We draw on theories of racial prejudice to illustrate the relevance of self-interest, stratification beliefs, and a sense of group position for understanding heterosexism. Next, we present the IM model, elaborating the concept "sexual project" as a way to link the construction of interest and threat to concrete organizational and institutional locations. Last, we illustrate the utility of the IM approach by examining its ability to explain attitudes toward lesbian and gay civil liberties among a select group of police department employees.  Keywords: homophobia, heterosexism, police attitudes, lesbian and gay politics.

Kristine De Welde    White Women Beware!: Whiteness, Fear of Crime, and Self-Defense   (p75-91)

Abstract:  This article examines the interrelationships between whiteness (white femininity here) and fear of crime. Through ethnographic research on a women’s self-defense course, I show how fear of crime functions as disciplinary power for many women before the course and how after the course these fears are challenged with a reinstatement of (race and class) privilege. The self-defense discourses and practices presented in the course subvert dominant understandings of women’s vulnerability. However, this culture of fear and susceptibility to crime is able to be challenged by these women’s reinstatement of "white safety zones" that reaffirm entitlement and privilege. I suggest that what is most silent, these women’s privilege, lends insight into what is most salient about white femininity and fear of crime.  Keywords: white femininity, whiteness, fear of crime, white privilege, self-defense.

Pancho McFarland    Challenging the Contradictions of Chicanismo in Chicano Rap Music and Male Culture   (p92-107)

Abstract:  An analysis of 470 Chicano rap song texts reveals a strong tendency toward the influence of a patriarchal dominance paradigm in urban Chicano youth culture. The patriarchal dominance paradigm is based on "either/or" dichotomous thinking and often results in an aggressive, even violent, disposition toward those deemed "other." The attitudes evident in many songs mirror the hypermasculine and misogynist worldview presented in the dominant media and in much of the expressive culture of ethnic Mexican men. The promotion of Chicana feminist cultural production and a dialogue between feminists and Chicano rap fans can challenge this paradigm and present images of gender and justice that differ markedly from those presented in the dominant media and patriarchal aspects of Chicana/o culture  Keywords: Rap, Chicanismo, Chicana feminism, violence, youth, media, resistance

Amy St. Martin and Becky Thompson    Cuban Tourism:  In the Name of Progressive Politics   (p108-119)

Abstract:  The Cuban government’s encouragement of tourism partly reflects Cuba’s need for foreign capital made necessary by the decades-long blockade levied against the country by the United States. Ironically, progressive support of Cuba manifested in this travel is undermining Cuba’s struggle against racism and patriarchy. In this article the authors examine how, under the guise of supporting a socialist country, tourism has become an embargo-era means of upholding inequalities. The authors open up the discourse of the romance with the Cuban revolution that many progressives play out in their imaginations and a Cuban nationalist discourse, both of which make it difficult to talk openly about internal hierarchies. This becomes another privilege of tourists, in adopting closed discourses on Cuban nationalism, as they do not have to live with the realities that extend from colonization and the U.S. occupations, or the present day policies that produce social inequalities for many Cubans. The authors conclude with suggestions of ways that progressive delegations can break rather than re-inscribe patterns of domination.  Key words: racism, prostitution, progressive politics, Cuba, tourism, multiracial feminism, blockade against Cuba, socialism, colonization, imperialism, Cuban revolution.

Steven M. Samuels and Dena R. Samuels   Reconstructing Culture:  Privilege and Change at the United States Air Force Academy    (p120-144)

Abstract:  In the wake of the sexual assault scandal at the U.S. Air Force Academy, many changes are being implemented to create a safer environment for female cadets. These changes have been lauded by some and resisted by others, specifically those who feel threatened by a potential loss of power. Here, we explore and analyze the Academy environment and the implemented changes using the framework of privilege. Suggestions are offered as to how to attain a more thorough transformation with this framework. As the reconstruction of Academy culture progresses, incorporating the concept of privilege could help group members to more fully understand the necessity of the modifications and be more willing to become agents of change.  Keywords: integration of women in military academies, sexual assault, privilege, cultural change at USAFA

Paul Gorski    Privilege and Repression in the Digital Era:  Rethinking the Sociopolitics of the Digital divide   (p145-176)

Abstract:  The digital divide has been historically been understood too simplistically, as gaps in physical access to computers and the Internet among various identity groups. As a result, approaches for ending digital inequities, such as adding more computers to all schools and classrooms, have failed to take into account the historical and current social, cultural, political, and economic systems of power and privilege of which the digital divide is a symptom. This article examines this problem in the context of a greater picture of race, gender, class, language, and ability privilege, moving toward a more progressive approach for dismantling the digital divide.  Keywords: technology, equity, access, digital divide, Internet.

Interdisciplinary Topics in Race, Gender, and Class
Volume 10, Number 3, 2003, ISSN 1082-8354

Jean Ait Belkhir, Christiane Charlemaine, and Lenus Jack Jr. Introduction (p3-6)

Bernice McNair Barnett   Angela Davis and Women, Race, & Class:  A Pioneer in Integrative RGC Studies   (p9-22)

Black women in America, from slavery to emancipation, from Reconstruction to the Great Urban migration, and from civil rights to other movements for social justice, have a long history of survival-resistance through performing multiple leadership roles, especially educating, training, and imparting their knowledge to others (Barnett, 1993; 1995; Brewer 1993; Hine and Thompson 1998). Hence, it is a pleasure to introduce a Black American woman leader in civil rights struggles, activist-intellectual, knowledge constructor, professor, philosopher, and global citizen-scholar. Dr. Angela Yvonne Davis is being honored a pioneer in integrative race, gender, class studies reflected by the 1981 publication of her book Women, Race, & Class. This pioneer award is a long time coming; but, I am reminded of the words of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, who said: "We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope."

Teresa Scherzer   The Race and Class of Women's Work   (p23-41) 

Abstract: The labor process of hospital nursing is a key theoretical site to examine the intersectionality of race, gender, and class. This paper synthesizes historical and sociological accounts of nursing, in order to explicitly demonstrate how race, gender and class together created nursing as race- and class-stratified "women’s work." Drawing on theoretical frameworks that emphasize the intersectionality of oppression, I analyze how race, gender, and class 1) shaped different occupational structures and labor processes in hospital nursing, and 2) structured conflicts and inequalities between capital and labor, and between different groups of nursing workers. I argue that nursing is a key site for identifying and addressing the historical conflicts and inequalities among all working people.  Keywords: nurses, workers, intersectionality, labor process, racial division of reproductive labor.

Patricia K. Jennings and Clarence R. Talley   A Good Death?:  White Privilege and Public Opinion   (p42-63)

Abstract: Our overarching goal is to critique existing public opinion research on euthanasia from a race, class, and gender perspective. We believe that current public opinion research on this topic is grounded in a privileged standpoint that centers the concerns of white educated persons. This tendency perpetuates the exclusion of issues that may be relevant to subordinate groups and this generates two possible outcomes. First, the opinion of persons subordinated by race, class, and/or gender (and the experiences that contribute to the formation of opinions on euthanasia among subordinate groups) is rendered invisible in public discourse on this issue. Second, in those instances where the opinion of subordinate groups is made visible, these opinions are often treated as deviations from a white "normative" position.  Keywords: euthanasia, terminally ill

Marta I. Cruz-Janzen   Out of the Closet:  Racial Amnesia, Avoidance, and Denial-Racism among Puerto Ricans   (p64-81) 

Abstract: Although Puerto Rico is portrayed as a racial paradise, where race is subordinate to national and cultural identity, nothing could be further from the truth. Racism runs deep, with a long history fueling the racial rancor between White/light-skinned and Black/dark-skinned Puerto Ricans. People of apparent Black heritage flood the prisons and penal systems, live in the poorest and most oppressive conditions, and are known as less able to obtain upwardly mobile jobs, even when qualified. There is a strong association between Black and poor, slums, crime, unemployment, etc. Many Puerto Ricans, including dark-skinned ones, are quick to negate the existence of racism among them while regarding those of apparent African ancestry as inferior. They believe that a successful life means lighter-skinned generations of children. They are quick to negate an African root even though most have varying levels of African ancestry and the African presence permeates most aspects of their daily life.  Keywords:  Borikén, classism, colonialism, colorism, commonwealth, España/Spain, Hispania/Hispanic, Iberia, jíbaro, Latinegra/o, Latina/o, mestizo, negra/o, Puerto Rico, race, racism, self-condemnation, Taíno(s).

Juanita Johnson-Bailey   Every Perspectives on Feminism:  African American Women Speak Out   (p82-99)

Abstract: This study examines the attitude and beliefs of nine African American women regarding the relevance of feminism to their lives. The participants live and work in two Southeastern cities in the United States: a small city of approximately 200,000 and a major metropolitan area of approximately three million. The study sketches their experiences of feminism against the backdrop of their daily lives, reviewing the women’s perceptions as compared to the ideas presented in the literature by feminist scholars. The study revealed that African American women see themselves as different from White women and do not feel that the feminist movement in this country addresses the concerns of the average African American woman. In addition, while they feel that they are oppressed as women, they also felt that White women participate in this subordination as do African American men.  Keywords: Black feminism, divided sisterhood, insider/outsider status, exoticism.

Tom Meisenhelder   African Bodies:  "Othering" the African in Precolonial Europe   (p110-113)

Abstract: This paper attempts a "genealogical" analysis of European precolonial constructions of the African "other". My focus is on the early formation of the European discursive regime concerning the "African," a symbolic framework that still haunts what is said and thought about Africans by Europeans and North Americans. An cautionary introductory note may be necessary to avoid any possible confusion: my subject is not subSaharan or nonArabic Africans, but early European imaginings of them; not African reality, but the European imagination.  Keywords:  African, Africans, Europeans, North Americans, precolonial,

Xiongya Gao   Women Existing for Men:  Confucianism and Social Injustice against Women in China   (p114-125)

Abstract: Prejudice against women had existed in China long before Confucianism. However, it was Confucianism that turned the marriage system into bondage of women, treating them as possessions for their husbands. As the most influential school of thought in China, Confucianism was held as the dominant social ideology by almost every feudal dynasty from approximately 200 B.C.E. to 1911, when the Qing Dynasty was toppled, and by the nationalist government, which ruled the country from 1911 to 1949. As such, it has been the chief codifier of women's behavior in China. Confucius was not the first one to view women as, at best, subhuman beings. According to Yutang Lin (1935), a famous Chinese scholar, "The fundamental dualistic outlook, with the differentiation of the Yang (male) and the Yin (female) principles, went back to the Book of Changes, which was later formulated by Confucius" (137).  Keywords:  Confucianism, social injustice, Chinese women.

Zhidong Hao   What can we do with Individual and Institutional Racism and Sexism in the Tenure and Promotion Processes in American Colleges and Universities?   (p126-144)

Abstract: It should be no secret that discrimination of women, minority, and part-time faculty exists in the nation’s institutions of higher learning. This article explores three ways professors can improve in limiting if not eliminating individual and institutional discrimination in the tenure and promotion processes. They are 1) practicing individual awareness of white and male privileges; 2) practicing awareness of the general patterns of individual and institutional behavior, and of what people can do to change that behavior; and 3) creating a caring community of difference by emphasizing humanity, integrity, fairness and justice in the probationary period, evaluation of candidates, and tenure denial. This is a qualitative paper based on interpretive data derived from many individual cases in the literature.  Keywords:  tenure, promotion, discrimination, racism, university professors, professional autonomy, white privilege, male privilege, diversity, community of difference.

Jessica Trubek, Judith Y. Singer, Joya A. Carter, Kimberly A. Scott, Ron McLean, Alan Singer, Pedro Sierra, and Heidi Kling    Dialogue:  Does a Teacher (Educational Researcher, Counselor or Other Professional)'s Race, Gender, Class Ethnicity and Ideology Belong in the Classroom   (p145-172)

Abstract: This dialogue was inspired by an articled published in the Winter 2001/2002 issue of the newspaper Rethinking Schools. In the article "She’s For Real," Tracy Wagner explained her decision to discuss that she was a lesbian with students in an eighth grade class while she was a student teacher. As part of a lesson on stereotyping, Wagner said to students, "Really? This is what gay and lesbian people look like? Because I’m gay, and I don’t look like this." Later in the article, Wagner reflects that "(t)hinking back, I have to admit that I told the students about my sexual orientation for my own emotional well being, to live up to my beliefs of what it meant to be a teacher." She also argues "that this disclosure resonated profoundly in our classroom. I could feel it in small ways, each and every day—the way students more eagerly shared their poetry; the way they chose the more private of two journal entries to read." The full text of the article is available at www.rethinkingschools.org/Archives/16_02/real162.htm. Our dialogue uses Wagner’s decision to divulge her sexual orientation as a starting point to discuss whether teachers and other professionals should allow their personal lives, ideas and concerns to enter their classrooms, professional practice and research. In their book, We Make the Road by Walking (1990), Myles Horton and Paulo Freire discuss the question whether it is possible or desirable for teachers to be "neutral." Freire asks: "A biology teacher must know biology, but is it possible just to teach biology? What I want to know is whether it is possible to teach biology without discussing social conditions" (104). Horton believes: "There’s no right I could claim that anybody else in the world can’t claim, and I have to fight for their exercising that right just like I have to fight for my own. That doesn’t mean I have to impose my ideas on people, but it means I have a responsibility to provide whatever light I can on the subject and share my ideas with people" (105). In a similar vein, historian Howard Zinn argues "objectivity is neither possible nor desirable. It’s not possible because all history is subjective, all history represents a point of view. . . Objectivity is not desirable because if we want to have an effect on the world, we need to emphasize those things which will make students more active citizens and more moral people" (Miner, 1994:150). Perhaps professionals can never truly be neutral, but is it a goal we should aspire to achieve? Even if we can never divorce who we are from what we do, how much should we allow our selves to enter the lives of our students, our clients or our work?  Keywords:  gender, sexual identity, point of view, neutrality.

Lisa D. Brush   Impacts of Welfare Reform   (p137-192)   

Abstract:  This essay critically assesses the impacts of recent welfare reforms in the United States. I argue that this task requires more than data on individual outcomes. Welfare reforms change the rules of the game and the material bases of struggles over work, relationships, privilege, and equality. I assess the impacts of welfare reform on class, race, and gender. Dismantling welfare decisively shifts the balance of power between workers and employers. The rhetoric and implementation of welfare reform have racially disparate impacts, and systematically reproduce racist notions of worthiness, need, and job-readiness. Welfare reform has complex and contradictory effects on women, men, and gender power. Understanding these structural effects is central to discerning the impacts of welfare reform and envisioning alternatives.  Keywords:  welfare reform, structural change, decommodification, lenses of gender, welfare racism.

Race, Gender and Class in Social Work
Volume 10, Number 2, 2003, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor:  Beverly Favre

Beverly Favre   Introduction:  Race, Gender and Class in Social Work    (p3-7)

Jacquelyn Mitchell and Rufus Sylvester Lynch     Beyond the Rhetoric of Social and Economic Justice:  Redeeming the Social Work Advocacy Role   (p8-26)

Abstract: Social and economic justice are concepts that have historically served as vital anchors for the social work profession. However, contemporary social workers seem ill-equipped and disinclined to engage the vital social economic justice battle generated by the legal-political contexts of the 21st century. The authors explore the emblematic posture of social and economic justice that is reflected in social work practice, the literature and educational policies. A case is advanced for moving the profession beyond the rhetoric of social and economic justice and toward an earnest quest to make the profession’s historical mission manifest.  Keywords: paradigms of oppression social and economic justice social work advocacy social work mission.

Taryn Lindhorst and Ron Mancoske   Race, Gender and Class Inequities in Welfare Reform (p27-40)

Abstract: The public discourse on welfare reform has been covertly driven by issues related to race, gender and class. Enacted in 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act instituted a series of policy changes that have resulted in the end of welfare as a safety net program. The main goals of welfare reform are based on an individualistic view of poverty and do not take into account macro structural inequalities related to gender and race. While the policy has shown success in reducing caseloads, poverty itself has remained largely unchanged, and the well-being of the most economically disadvantaged continues to worsen.  Keywords:  Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA), TANF, welfare reform, racial inequities, gender inequities.

David N. Cramer and Joy Smith McElveen   Undoing Racism in Social Work Practice   (p41-57)

Abstract: This is a study of the meanings of race and racism in the social work profession as portrayed from 1980 through 2000. An exploratory research design using full text journals available on the Internet was used to identify the population and to select a purposive sample of articles written on race and racism. The results revealed that there was a paucity of articles written on this subject within the time frame indicated. The research also revealed that there were more articles written in the 1980s than in the last decade. Additionally, more articles in the 1980s offered developing definitions of race and racism than those in the 1990s.  Keywords:  race, racism, social work.

Makungu M. Akinyela and Delores P. Aldridge   Beyond Eurocentrism, Afrocentricity and Multiculturalism:  Toward Cultural Democracy in Social Work Education   (p58-70)

Abstract: This article begins with an observation that African American social workers, working in Black communities are confronted with the dilemma that much of the grounding of social work training in US schools is rooted in a framework that is both culture and class biased in favor of the European upper middle class majority. The authors contend that schools preparing social workers for the field have a responsibility to overcome the Eurocentric educational focus in core curriculum. We further argue that to do this, social work education faculty must be predisposed to value such a change in the pedagogy of schools of social work. While critiquing both multicultural and Afrocentric solutions to the dilemma, the authors pose the corrective paradigm of cultural democracy as a needed pedagogical framework in social work education that will encourage both accountability by the powerful and empowerment of the oppressed.  Key words:  Multiculturalism Afrocentricity, accountability, empowerment, social work.

Cheryl Mills   Reducing Overrepresentation of African American Males in Special Education:  The Role of School Social Workers   (p71-83)

Abstract: To date, absent from the ongoing debate surrounding overrepresentation of African American children in special education has been the role and responsibilities of school social workers. As leaders and coordinators of interdisciplinary teams that are responsible for identification, placement and assessment of children, social worker professionals occupy a strategic position in determining which children are placed in special education. This paper aims to contribute to the developing discourse on overrepresentation by examining the role of current practices and highlighting challenges within the education system that inhibit the ability of social workers to respond effectively to this issue. Establishing professional boundaries, avoiding professional drift, and operating within the profession’s code of ethics are discussed as factors critical to effective practice of school social work in the reduction of overrepresentation of African American males.  Keywords:  school social work, overrepresentation, special education, African American males, social work education.

Michèle Weber   An Exploratory Study on the Effects of Perceives Gender Inequities on Financial Stress in Black Marriages    (p84-95)

Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of perceived gender inequities on the financial stress in Black marriages. A mixture of the Adlerian marital theory and racial consciousness composes the theoretical framework used to advance a model to help counselors and therapists understand and assist Black couples faced with these inequities. Thirteen Black couples were obtained from a church in Atlanta, and a counseling agency in College Park, GA. The design is a Cross-Sectional Survey design O. The findings showed that the participants did not experience much financial stress but were aware of gender role inequities at home.Keywords: financial stress, African American / Black couples, gender role, marriage.

Michelle Emery Blake and Suzie T. Cashwell   Use of Poetry to Facilitate Communication about Diversity:  An Educational Model   (p96-108)

Abstract: The article addresses the use of poetry to enhance group communication about issues of gender and cultural diversity. The authors present a three-hour workshop module and discuss preliminary evidence of its effectiveness.Keywords: poetry therapy, gender, cultural diversity.

Michael Forster and Tim Rehner    Delinquency Prevention as Empowerment Practice:  A Community-Based Social Work Approach    (p109-120)

Abstract: "Neighborhood University" is the community building dimension of the Family Network Partnership, a delinquency-prevention program of the School of Social Work at the University of Southern Mississippi. Neighborhood University serves as a bridge between low-income, predominantly African-American neighborhood residents and the resource-rich university community. Distinct "centers" for recreation, the arts, academics, technology, health, nutrition, business and civic engagement unite youth, families, students and faculty for mutually transformative experiences. Despite serious challenges, results are encouraging, with delinquency rates down and community capacity significantly enhanced. Neighborhood University and the Family Network Partnership offer replicable models of cost-effective community based social work practice.  Keywords: delinquency prevention, youth development, community practice, university-community partnership

Ben Menes Robertson   Spirituality:  The Process of Awakening    (p121-130)

Abstract: There is an ancient African belief system, which says that humans are on a journey toward spiritual enlightenment. However, for the last eight hundred to a thousand years humans have apparently been thrown into a virtual time warp disconnected from any real sense of what is really important in life. This research focuses on some of the knowledge and wisdom once cherished by indigenous people because it kept them grounded in reality. For example, the reader will be exposed to the customs of Kenya, a country on the continent of Africa, relative to spirituality and rituals for maintaining contact with the creative force of the universe for the individual and the community. In all, the reader should emerge from this research with a clearer understanding of spirituality, the creative force of the universe and his/her role in maintaining the preceding relationships.  Keywords: spirituality, religion, seventh sense, awakening and consciousness.

BJ Bryson and Victoria A. Bennet-Anyikwa   The Teaching and Learning Experience:  Deconstructing and Creating Space Using a Feminist Pedagogy   (p131-146)

Abstract: The classroom is a dynamic location for knowledge construction through shared experiences. Feminist pedagogy is introduced as a teaching methodology responsive to classroom diversity by creating space for students’ experiences and promoting student voices. Deconstruction of teacher/learner dualism between primary instructor and doctoral student illustrates feminist pedagogy in action during a teaching practicum.  Keywords: doctoral student, feminist pedagogy, research, social work, teaching.

Caroline Tolbert, Trudy Steuernagel, and Ridge Bowman   Direct Democracy, Race/Ethnicity and Health Care Policy     (p147-170)

Abstract: Direct democracy is an increasingly important venue for state policymaking; and may provide a catalyst for health care reform, as it has in other policy. This essay examines the role of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors in shaping support for California's universal health care Proposition 186. The question becomes, does race/ethnicity matter in voter support for policies, such as health reform, that do not specifically target minority populations? The findings highlight a racial, economic class, and ideological divide in support for health care reform providing universal coverage. While only 30% of whites voted for Proposition 186, over 40% of all other minority groups (blacks, Latinos, and Asians) supported the initiative. This includes Asians who tend to have a higher socioeconomic status than other minority groups. Equally interesting is the breakdown of the vote by income. Of those respondents earning under $15,000 annually, almost a majority (45%) supported this policy, compared to only 24% of those earning $100,000 or above. Of those earning between $15-29,000, almost forty percent voted for Proposition 186. This reveals a stark socioeconomic class divide in support for universal health care. Table 4 reveals a clear pattern of support for universal health care relative to the race and economic status of the respondent, but gender appears to play only a minor role.  Keywords:  direct democracy, health care policy, race/ethnicity.

Book Review:  Ronda M. Bryant   (p171-175)

Race, Gender and Class in American Politics
Volume 10, Number 1, 2003, ISSN 1082-8354

Guest Editor:  John C. Berg

Jean Ait Belkhir, Christiane Charlemaine, and Lenus Jack, Jr.   Preface:  Race, Gender & Class in American Politics  (p3-8)

John C. Berg   Introduction :  Diverse Politics, Diverse Political Science   (p9-10)

Denise A. Pierson-Balik   Race, Class, and Gender in Punitive Welfare Reform:  Social Eugenics and Welfare Policy   (p11-30)

Abstract: In this paper I illustrate how the emphasis on the perils of teen motherhood and out-of-wedlock births in welfare reform has reintroduced a new theory of social eugenics that can be seen as akin to eugenics theories popular at the turn of the nineteenth century. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 revives eugenics language used by such groups as the American Eugenics Society in the early 1900s. By deeming the behavior of poor women as morally questionable, politicians and public opinion have legitimated the use of family caps, abstinence-only education, strict work requirements, punitive sanctions, and even proposals for voluntary temporary or permanent sterilization in return for life-sustaining benefits.  Keywords: welfare policy, welfare reform, Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, TANF, abstinence education, illegitimacy, eugenics, work requirements

Ange-Marie Hancock   Contemporary Welfare Reform and the Public Identity of the “Welfare Queen”     (p31-59)

Abstract: The term public identity represents an attempt to translate into political psychological terms more theoretical concepts such as "controlling images" (Collins, 1990) and "cultural narratives" (Lubiano, 1992) that have been used to denote the impact of public discourse on the lived experiences of citizens. I argue that the creation and dissemination of public identities are a critical part of political culture’s role in democratic deliberation and political outcomes. Substantively, in this paper I argue that political elites and dominant groups on opposite sides of the welfare reform issue draw on a common public identity of single poor African-American mothers, the "welfare queen" as a proxy for welfare recipients in general. Using floor debate transcripts from the Congressional Record, I conduct a content analysis of the 1996 debates concerning welfare reform, finding evidence to support the existence of a broad consensus concerning welfare reform in the form of the public identity of the "welfare queen," and a substantive link to political outcomes.  Keywords:  welfare reform, public identity, Black women, public policy

Richard A. Couto   It Takes a Pillage:  Women, Work, and Welfare   (p60-78)

Abstract: The experience of the Appalachian region over the past fifty years makes clear that poverty, low family income, single parenthood, and children in poverty—a pillage—may push women into a highly unfavorable labor market. The same experience makes equally clear that work force participation in areas with high unemployment, low income, high rates of poverty, and female-headed households is unlikely to end the poverty of working women and their families. These conditions and results are not only lamentable but also instructive about the current welfare reform effort. They suggest that welfare reform will mean that the majority of welfare-to-work transitions will move from one form of poverty to another even in good economic times; new and more severe forms of poverty will ensue when markets are left to distribute work, income, and wealth; and women and children will bear the brunt of the new poverty and unmitigated market capitalism. The article suggests public policies to make personal responsibility efficacious.  Keywords:  Appalachia, coal mining, global economy, poverty, welfare, welfare reform, women and work

Susan M. Behuniak   How Race, Gender, and Class Assumptions Enter The Supreme Court    (p79-96)

Abstract: A significant path by which race, gender, and class biases enter and influence the U.S. Supreme Court is through the construction of "social facts," a process by which the Justices draw assumptions about reality as they understand it. Using social facts theory, this article illustrates, by reference to the end-of-life cases, the practices that lead to the introduction of raced, gendered, and classed biases as facts in judicial decision making, and how their incorporation undermines the promise of equality.  Keywords:  Supreme Court and equality, Social Facts, Right to die, Euthanasia, Assisted suicide, End-of-life cases, Legal bias, Medical bias, Law and racism, Law and sexism, Law and classism

Carl Swidorski   The Supreme Court’s Legal (Mis)construction of Race, Gender and Class, 1865-2000    (p97-114)

Abstract: This article focuses on the key role of the Supreme Court in constructing the identity of African Americans, women, and working people through the exercise of its institutional power of judicial review. From the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, until the1950s, the Court interpreted the universal, egalitarian, constitutional categories of "citizen" and "person" to create unequal legal identities based on one's race, class, and gender. The "liberal" Supreme Court of the 1950 to 1975 period transformed the law of equal protection to grant formal equality to African Americans and women. However, this formal equality was premised on the denial of the historical and particular specificity of the lived experiences of African Americans and women. Consequently, the Court in the past twenty years has facilitated a conservative attack on even formal legal equality. Moreover, the legally irrelevant category of class has, and will continue to, structurally limit the legal gains which have been achieved.  Keywords:  race, gender, class, Supreme Court, Fourteenth Amendment, segregation, discrimination, civil rights, voting rights, African American

TeResa Green   A Gendered Spirit:  Race, Class, and Sex in the African American Church(p115-128)

Abstract: Although Black churches have throughout history been involved in seeking justice and equality for African Americans, the inequality of Black women within Black churches remains an unresolved issue. In focusing on Black male contributions, the role of Black women has often been marginalized. Even though the principal programs of the Black church rely disproportionately on women for their support and success, all of the traditional Black religious denominations tend to have basically female congregation and mostly male leadership. For the most part, Black male ministers have been silent on the role of women in the church. This article will assess the roles of Black women in Black churches and examine the historical evolution of that role.  Keywords:  African American churches, Black churches, African American Women, Black Women, gender and religion, sexism and religion, womanist theology, feminist theology

Laura Katz Olson   Whatever Happened to June Cleaver?  The Fifties Mom Turns Eighty    (p129-143)

Abstract: June Broson Cleaver represents the quintessential American woman of the 1950s. Because of social pressures, women were encouraged to stay at home and make marriage and motherhood their primary career. These were reinforced by institutional barriers, legal restrictions and business practices that limited women’s employment options considerably. Thus women were expected to be dependent on their husbands financially. Those who did work were relegated to low-paid jobs that offered few—or no—benefits. At the same time, the vast majority of African American females had to work to support themselves and their family; they were among the lowest paid employees, barely earning a subsistence wage. This article shows how women of the 1950s, who followed the "prescribed rules", fared during their retirement years. Because of their labor force situation as well as the structure of the Social Security System, based on female dependency and male workforce and retirement patterns, a significant percentage of single older women—especially minorities—end up living in poverty or near-poverty conditions.  Keywords:  nineteen fifties, domesticity, marriage and motherhood, female employment, African American women, Social Security, older women.

Craig Curtis   An Exploration of Critical Criminology and the Policy Making Process   (p144 -162)

Abstract: Crime is one of the most salient policy areas in American today. A great deal of public attention, media coverage and legislative energy is devoted to reduction of crime, but the problem is resistant to current solutions. Despite the well documented failure of our current crime policy in the scholarly literature, no significant changes in policy or approach are contemplated. The future likely holds more of the same, i.e., severe sentences, a continued disparate impact on minorities, and continued high crime rates. Politicians and appointed officials are unwilling to admit that our current set of solutions are flawed in a fundamental fashion. Radical perspectives, based on class conflict and feminism, offer much promise. It is the position of this essay that ignoring the contributions of radical perspectives on crime policy and deviance in the marketplace of ideas increases the likelihood that our society will fail to develop practical and effective solutions to the unreasonably high levels of crime which plague our society.  Keywords:  criminology, critical, radical, feminist, crime policy

José Marichal   Examining Race and Gender Based Representation Using Federal Awards Assistance Data   (p163-184)

Abstract: The preponderance of research on race and gender based representation in Congress has focused on the connections between a member’s voting record and constituent policy preferences. This approach ignores the variety of different behaviors engage in that are relevant to representation. In this paper, I examine the role that a member’s race and gender play in allocational representation (Eulau 1977), or the ability of a member to secure domestic awards for members of her district. Using an OLS regression analysis, I examine if and how race and gender matter in allocational representation. I find that member ideology and district characteristics play a larger role in determining acquisition of new awards than does race and/or gender.  Keywords:  Congress, African-Americans, women, representation

Last Updated: December 6, 2013

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